Advertisement

The Role of Nutrition and Diet in Prostate Cancer

  • Lorelei MucciEmail author
  • Edward Giovannucci
Chapter
Part of the Nutrition and Health book series (NH)

Abstract

Prostate cancer represents a considerable public health burden among men. It is a major cause of cancer incidence and mortality, particularly in westernized countries (1). Moreover, prostate cancer is associated with significant impairments in quality of life (2), both from the disease itself and as a consequence of treatment. Prostate cancer prevention would provide the greatest opportunity to reduce suffering from this disease. Tantalizing clues suggest that diet and lifestyle factors could play an important role in the prevention of prostate cancer incidence or progression. Data from experimental models demonstrate direct effects of diet on prostate-specific expression of genes involved in inflammation, angiogenesis, proliferation, and other key pathways involved in cancer progression (3,4). Epidemiological studies have examined an array of dietary and nutritional factors in relation to prostate cancer incidence. In particular, epidemiological studies indicate that higher intake of tomato products and lycopene, selenium, and omega-3 fatty acids are associated with lower prostate cancer risk (5,6). Lower levels of these nutrients tend be associated more strongly with advanced rather than localized disease (6), and emerging evidence shows that post-diagnostic diet may influence progression (7), although remarkably few studies have assessed the impact of dietary factors on cancer-specific survival. In this chapter, we summarize the evidence on diet and nutrition in the primary and secondary prevention of prostate cancer.

Key Words

Fatty acids migrant studies obesity PSA screening selenium tomatoes/lycopene 

References

  1. 1.
    Ferlay J, Bray F, Pisani P, Parkin MX. GLOBOCAN 2002: Cancer Incidence, Mortality and Prevalence Worldwide. Lyon: IARC Press; 2004.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Steineck G, Helgesen F, Adolfsson J, et al. Quality of life after radical prostatectomy or watchful waiting. N Engl J Med 2002;347:790–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    El-Bayoumy K, Sinha R. Molecular chemoprevention by selenium: a genomic approach. Mutat Res 2005;591: 224–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mukherjee P, Sotnikov AV, Mangian HJ, Zhou JR, Visek WJ, Clinton SK. Energy intake and prostate tumor growth, angiogenesis, and vascular endothelial growth factor expression. J Natl Cancer Inst 1999;91:512–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chan JM, Gann PH, Giovannucci EL. Role of diet in prostate cancer development and progression. J Clin Oncol 2005;23:8152–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Giovannucci E, Liu Y, Platz EA, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC. Risk factors for prostate cancer incidence and progression in the health professionals follow-up study. Int J Cancer 2007;121:1571–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chan JM, Holick CN, Leitzmann MF, et al. Diet after diagnosis and the risk of prostate cancer progression, recurrence, and death (United States). Cancer Causes Control 2006;17:199–208.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    ACS. Cancer Facts & Figures 2008. Atlanta: American Cancer Society; 2008.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ciatto S, Gervasi G, Bonardi R, et al. Determining overdiagnosis by screening with DRE/TRUS or PSA (Florence pilot studies, 1991–1994). Eur J Cancer 2005;41:411–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Etzioni R, Penson DF, Legler JM, et al. Overdiagnosis due to prostate-specific antigen screening: lessons from U.S. prostate cancer incidence trends. J Natl Cancer Inst 2002;94:981–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Etzioni R, Gulati R, Falcon S, Penson DF. Impact of PSA screening on the incidence of advanced stage prostate cancer in the United States: a surveillance modeling approach. Med Decis Making 2008;28:323–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Albertsen PC, Hanley JA, Fine J. 20-year outcomes following conservative management of clinically localized prostate cancer. JAMA 2005;293:2095–101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Johansson JE, Andren O, Andersson SO, et al. Natural history of early, localized prostate cancer. JAMA 2004;291:2713–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bill-Axelson A, Holmberg L, Ruutu M, et al. Radical prostatectomy versus watchful waiting in early prostate cancer. N Engl J Med 2005;352:1977–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Steineck G, Reuter V, Kelly WK, Frank R, Schwartz L, Scher HI. Cytotoxic treatment of aggressive prostate tumors with or without neuroendocrine elements. Acta Oncol 2002;41:668–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Chu KC, Tarone RE, Freeman HP. Trends in prostate cancer mortality among black men and white men in the United States. Cancer 2003;97:1507–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Shimizu H, Ross RK, Bernstein L, Yatani R, Henderson BE, Mack TM. Cancers of the prostate and breast among Japanese and white immigrants in Los Angeles County. Br J Cancer 1991;63:963–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Yu H, Harris RE, Gao YT, Gao R, Wynder EL. Comparative epidemiology of cancers of the colon, rectum, prostate and breast in Shanghai, China versus the United States. Int J Epidemiol 1991;20:76–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Satia JA, Galanko JA. Demographic, behavioral, psychosocial, and dietary correlates of cancer screening in African Americans. J Health Care Poor Underserved 2007;18:146–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Giovannucci E. Tomato products, lycopene, and prostate cancer: a review of the epidemiological literature. J Nutr 2005;135:2030S–1S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Heber D, Lu QY. Overview of mechanisms of action of lycopene. Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 2002;227:920–3.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Nelson WG, De Marzo AG, Isaacs WB. Prostate cancer. N Engl J Med 2003;349:366–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kumar B, Koul S, Khandrika L, Meacham RB, Koul HK. Oxidative stress is inherent in prostate cancer cells and is required for aggressive phenotype. Cancer Res 2008;68:1777–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Etminan M, Takkouche B, Caamano-Isorna F. The role of tomato products and lycopene in the prevention of prostate cancer: a meta-analysis of observational studies. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2004;13:340–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Shi J, Le Maguer M. Lycopene in tomatoes: chemical and physical properties affected by food processing. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2000;40:1–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Schuurman AG, Goldbohm RA, Dorant E, van den Brandt PA. Vegetable and fruit consumption and prostate cancer risk: a cohort study in The Netherlands. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1998;7:673–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Giovannucci E, Rimm EB, Liu Y, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC. A prospective study of tomato products, lycopene, and prostate cancer risk. J Natl Cancer Inst 2002;94:391–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Nomura AM, Stemmermann GN, Lee J, Craft NE. Serum micronutrients and prostate cancer in Japanese Americans in Hawaii. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1997;6:487–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hsing AW, Comstock GW, Abbey H, Polk BF. Serologic precursors of cancer. Retinol, carotenoids, and tocopherol and risk of prostate cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 1990;82:941–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Wu K, Erdman JW, Jr., Schwartz SJ, et al. Plasma and dietary carotenoids, and the risk of prostate cancer: a nested case-control study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2004;13:260–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Gann PH, Ma J, Giovannucci E, et al. Lower prostate cancer risk in men with elevated plasma lycopene levels: results of a prospective analysis. Cancer Res 1999;59:1225–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Peters U, Leitzmann MF, Chatterjee N, et al. Serum lycopene, other carotenoids, and prostate cancer risk: a nested case-control study in the prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovarian cancer screening trial. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2007;16:962–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Key TJ, Appleby PN, Allen NE, et al. Plasma carotenoids, retinol, and tocopherols and the risk of prostate cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Am J Clin Nutr 2007;86:672–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Cohen JH, Kristal AR, Stanford JL. Fruit and vegetable intakes and prostate cancer risk. J Natl Cancer Inst 2000;92:61–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Combs GF, Jr., Combs SB. The nutritional biochemistry of selenium. Annu Rev Nutr 1984;4:257–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Menter DG, Sabichi AL, Lippman SM. Selenium effects on prostate cell growth. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2000;9:1171–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Redman C, Scott JA, Baines AT, et al. Inhibitory effect of selenomethionine on the growth of three selected human tumor cell lines. Cancer Lett 1998;125:103–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Rayman MP. The importance of selenium to human health. Lancet 2000;356:233–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Li H, Stampfer MJ, Giovannucci EL, et al. A prospective study of plasma selenium levels and prostate cancer risk. J Natl Cancer Inst 2004;96:696–703.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Yoshizawa K, Willett WC, Morris SJ, et al. Study of prediagnostic selenium level in toenails and the risk of advanced prostate cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 1998;90:1219–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Brooks JD, Metter EJ, Chan DW, et al. Plasma selenium level before diagnosis and the risk of prostate cancer development. J Urol 2001;166:2034–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Helzlsouer KJ, Huang HY, Alberg AJ, et al. Association between alpha-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol, selenium, and subsequent prostate cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 2000;92:2018–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Nomura AM, Lee J, Stemmermann GN, Combs GF, Jr. Serum selenium and subsequent risk of prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2000;9:883–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    van den Brandt PA, Zeegers MP, Bode P, Goldbohm RA. Toenail selenium levels and the subsequent risk of prostate cancer: a prospective cohort study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2003;12:866–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Goodman GE, Schaffer S, Bankson DD, Hughes MP, Omenn GS. Predictors of serum selenium in cigarette smokers and the lack of association with lung and prostate cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2001;10:1069–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Hartman TJ, Albanes D, Pietinen P, et al. The association between baseline vitamin E, selenium, and prostate cancer in the alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene cancer prevention study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1998;7:335–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Peters U, Takata Y. Selenium and the prevention of prostate and colorectal cancer. Mol Nutr Food Res 2008;52:1261–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Clark LC, Combs GF, Jr., Turnbull BW, et al. Effects of selenium supplementation for cancer prevention in patients with carcinoma of the skin. A randomized controlled trial. Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Study Group. JAMA 1996;276:1957–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Duffield-Lillico AJ, Dalkin BL, Reid ME, et al. Selenium supplementation, baseline plasma selenium status and incidence of prostate cancer: an analysis of the complete treatment period of the Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Trial. BJU Int 2003;91:608–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Neve J. Human selenium supplementation as assessed by changes in blood selenium concentration and glutathione peroxidase activity. J Trace Elem Med Biol 1995;9:65–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Klein EA, Thompson IM, Lippman SM, et al. SELECT: the next prostate cancer prevention trial. Selenum and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial. J Urol 2001;166:1311–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Meydani M. Vitamin E. Lancet 1995;345:170–5.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Meydani SN, Hayek MG. Vitamin E and aging immune response. Clin Geriatr Med 1995;11:567–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Gunawardena K, Murray DK, Meikle AW. Vitamin E and other antioxidants inhibit human prostate cancer cells through apoptosis. Prostate 2000;44:287–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Ripoll EA, Rama BN, Webber MM. Vitamin E enhances the chemotherapeutic effects of adriamycin on human prostatic carcinoma cells in vitro. J Urol 1986;136:529–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Mucci L, Signorello L, Adami HO. Prostate Cancer. New York: Oxford University Press; 2008.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Heinonen OP, Albanes D, Virtamo J, et al. Prostate cancer and supplementation with alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene: incidence and mortality in a controlled trial. J Natl Cancer Inst 1998;90:440–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Virtamo J, Pietinen P, Huttunen JK, et al. Incidence of cancer and mortality following alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene supplementation: a postintervention follow-up. JAMA 2003;290:476–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Eichholzer M, Stahelin HB, Gey KF, Ludin E, Bernasconi F. Prediction of male cancer mortality by plasma levels of interacting vitamins: 17-year follow-up of the prospective Basel study. Int J Cancer 1996;66:145–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Chan JM, Stampfer MJ, Ma J, Rimm EB, Willett WC, Giovannucci EL. Supplemental vitamin E intake and prostate cancer risk in a large cohort of men in the United States. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1999;8:893–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Huang HY, Alberg AJ, Norkus EP, Hoffman SC, Comstock GW, Helzlsouer KJ. Prospective study of antioxidant micronutrients in the blood and the risk of developing prostate cancer. Am J Epidemiol 2003;157:335–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Gaziano JM, Glynn RJ, Christen WG et al. Vitamin C and E in the prevention of prostate and total cancer in men: the Physicians’ Health Study II RCT. JAMA 2009;301(1):52–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Lippman SM, Klein EA, Goodman PJ, et al. Effect of selenium and vitamin E on risk of prostate cancer and other cancers: the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT). JAMA 2009;301:39–59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Woodson K, Triantos S, Hartman T, Taylor PR, Virtamo J, Albanes D. Long-term alpha-tocopherol supplementation is associated with lower serum vascular endothelial growth factor levels. Anticancer Res 2002;22:375–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Bosland MC, Oakley-Girvan I, Whittemore AS. Dietary fat, calories, and prostate cancer risk. J Natl Cancer Inst 1999;91:489–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Platz EA. Energy imbalance and prostate cancer. J Nutr 2002;132:3471S–81S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Andersson SO, Wolk A, Bergstrom R, et al. Energy, nutrient intake and prostate cancer risk: a population-based case-control study in Sweden. Int J Cancer 1996;68:716–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Rohan TE, Howe GR, Burch JD, Jain M. Dietary factors and risk of prostate cancer: a case-control study in Ontario, Canada. Cancer Causes Control 1995;6:145–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Hayes RB, Ziegler RG, Gridley G, et al. Dietary factors and risks for prostate cancer among blacks and whites in the United States. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1999;8:25–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Whittemore AS, Kolonel LN, Wu AH, et al. Prostate cancer in relation to diet, physical activity, and body size in blacks, whites, and Asians in the United States and Canada. J Natl Cancer Inst 1995;87:652–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Gapstur SM, Gann PH, Colangelo LA, et al. Postload plasma glucose concentration and 27-year prostate cancer mortality (United States). Cancer Causes Control 2001;12:763–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Giovannucci E, Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Willett WC. Height, body weight, and risk of prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1997;6:557–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Greenwald P, Damon A, Kirmss V, Polan AK. Physical and demographic features of men before developing cancer of the prostate. J Natl Cancer Inst 1974;53:341–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Habel LA, Van Den Eeden SK, Friedman GD. Body size, age at shaving initiation, and prostate cancer in a large, multiracial cohort. Prostate 2000;43:136–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Kolonel LN. Nutrition and prostate cancer. Cancer Causes Control 1996;7:83–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Le Marchand L, Kolonel LN, Wilkens LR, Myers BC, Hirohata T. Animal fat consumption and prostate cancer: a prospective study in Hawaii. Epidemiology 1994;5:276–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Lee MM, Wang RT, Hsing AW, Gu FL, Wang T, Spitz M. Case-control study of diet and prostate cancer in China. Cancer Causes Control 1998;9:545–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Lund Nilsen TI VL. Anthropometry and prostate cancer risk: a prospective study of 22, 248 Norwegian men. Cancer Causes Control 1999;10.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Mills PK, Beeson WL, Phillips RL, Fraser GE. Cohort study of diet, lifestyle, and prostate cancer in Adventist men. Cancer 1989;64:598–604.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Putnam SD, Cerhan JR, Parker AS, et al. Lifestyle and anthropometric risk factors for prostate cancer in a cohort of Iowa men. Ann Epidemiol 2000;10:361–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Schuurman AG, Goldbohm RA, Dorant E, van den Brandt PA. Anthropometry in relation to prostate cancer risk in the Netherlands Cohort Study. Am J Epidemiol 2000;151:541–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Whittemore AS, Paffenbarger RS, Jr., Anderson K, Lee JE. Early precursors of site-specific cancers in college men and women. J Natl Cancer Inst 1985;74:43–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Calle EE, Rodriguez C, Walker-Thurmond K, Thun MJ. Overweight, obesity, and mortality from cancer in a prospectively studied cohort of U.S. adults. N Engl J Med 2003;348:1625–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Cerhan JR, Torner JC, Lynch CF, et al. Association of smoking, body mass, and physical activity with risk of prostate cancer in the Iowa 65+ Rural Health Study (United States). Cancer Causes Control 1997;8:229–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Chyou PH, Nomura AM, Stemmermann GN. A prospective study of weight, body mass index and other anthropometric measurements in relation to site-specific cancers. Int J Cancer 1994;57:313–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Lew EA, Garfinkel L. Variations in mortality by weight among 750, 000 men and women. J Chronic Dis 1979;32: 563–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Snowdon DA, Phillips RL, Choi W. Diet, obesity, and risk of fatal prostate cancer. Am J Epidemiol 1984;120: 244–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Thompson MM, Garland C, Barrett-Connor E, Khaw KT, Friedlander NJ, Wingard DL. Heart disease risk factors, diabetes, and prostatic cancer in an adult community. Am J Epidemiol 1989;129:511–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Thune I, Lund E. Physical activity and the risk of prostate and testicular cancer: a cohort study of 53, 000 Norwegian men. Cancer Causes Control 1994;5:549–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Veierod MB, Laake P, Thelle DS. Dietary fat intake and risk of prostate cancer: a prospective study of 25, 708 Norwegian men. Int J Cancer 1997;73:634–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Andersson SO, Wolk A, Bergstrom R, et al. Body size and prostate cancer: a 20-year follow-up study among 135006 Swedish construction workers. J Natl Cancer Inst 1997;89:385–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Efstathiou JA, Bae K, Shipley WU, et al. Obesity and mortality in men with locally advanced prostate cancer: analysis of RTOG 85–31. Cancer 2007;110:2691–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Gong Z, Agalliu I, Lin DW, Stanford JL, Kristal AR. Obesity is associated with increased risks of prostate cancer metastasis and death after initial cancer diagnosis in middle-aged men. Cancer 2007;109:1192–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Gong Z, Neuhouser ML, Goodman PJ, et al. Obesity, diabetes, and risk of prostate cancer: results from the prostate cancer prevention trial. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2006;15:1977–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    MacInnis RJ, English DR. Body size and composition and prostate cancer risk: systematic review and meta-regression analysis. Cancer Causes Control 2006;17:989–1003.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Nomura AM. Body size and prostate cancer. Epidemiol Rev 2001;23:126–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Rodriguez C, Freedland SJ, Deka A, et al. Body mass index, weight change, and risk of prostate cancer in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2007;16:63–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Wright ME, Chang SC, Schatzkin A, et al. Prospective study of adiposity and weight change in relation to prostate cancer incidence and mortality. Cancer 2007;109:675–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Pischon T, Boeing H, Weikert S, et al. Body size and risk of prostate cancer in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2008;17:3252–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Ma J, Li H, Giovannucci E, et al. Prediagnostic body-mass index, plasma C-peptide concentration, and prostate cancer-specific mortality in men with prostate cancer: a long-term survival analysis. Lancet Oncol 2008;9: s1039–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Rose DP, Boyar AP, Wynder EL. International comparisons of mortality rates for cancer of the breast, ovary, prostate, and colon, and per capita food consumption. Cancer 1986;58:2363–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Kushi L, Giovannucci E. Dietary fat and cancer. Am J Med 2002;113 (Suppl. 9B):63S–70S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Key TJ, Silcocks PB, Davey GK, Appleby PN, Bishop DT. A case-control study of diet and prostate cancer. Br J Cancer 1997;76:678–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Chan JM, Pietinen P, Virtanen M, et al. Diet and prostate cancer risk in a cohort of smokers, with a specific focus on calcium and phosphorus (Finland). Cancer Causes Control 2000;11:859–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Crowe FL, Allen NE, Appleby PN, et al. Fatty acid composition of plasma phospholipids and risk of prostate cancer in a case-control analysis nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Am J Clin Nutr 2008;88:1353–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Hsing AW, McLaughlin JK, Schuman LM, et al. Diet, tobacco use, and fatal prostate cancer: results from the Lutheran Brotherhood Cohort Study. Cancer Res 1990;50:6836–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Park SY, Murphy SP, Wilkens LR, Henderson BE, Kolonel LN. Fat and meat intake and prostate cancer risk: the multiethnic cohort study. Int J Cancer 2007;121:1339–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Severson RK, Nomura AM, Grove JS, Stemmermann GN. A prospective study of demographics, diet, and prostate cancer among men of Japanese ancestry in Hawaii. Cancer Res 1989;49:1857–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Wallstrom P, Bjartell A, Gullberg B, Olsson H, Wirfalt E. A prospective study on dietary fat and incidence of prostate cancer (Malmo, Sweden). Cancer Causes Control 2007;18:1107–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Giovannucci E, Rimm EB, Colditz GA, et al. A prospective study of dietary fat and risk of prostate cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 1993;85:1571–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    West DW, Slattery ML, Robison LM, French TK, Mahoney AW. Adult dietary intake and prostate cancer risk in Utah: a case-control study with special emphasis on aggressive tumors. Cancer Causes Control 1991;2:85–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Strom SS, Yamamura Y, Forman MR, Pettaway CA, Barrera SL, DiGiovanni J. Saturated fat intake predicts biochemical failure after prostatectomy. Int J Cancer 2008;122:2581–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Meyer F, Bairati I, Shadmani R, Fradet Y, Moore L. Dietary fat and prostate cancer survival. Cancer Causes Control 1999;10:245–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Allen NE, Key TJ, Appleby PN, et al. Animal foods, protein, calcium and prostate cancer risk: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Br J Cancer 2008;98:1574–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Crowe FL, Key TJ, Appleby PN, et al. Dietary fat intake and risk of prostate cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Am J Clin Nutr 2008;87:1405–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Kolonel LN. Fat, meat, and prostate cancer. Epidemiol Rev 2001;23:72–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Michaud DS, Augustsson K, Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ, Willet WC, Giovannucci E. A prospective study on intake of animal products and risk of prostate cancer. Cancer Causes Control 2001;12:557–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Rohrmann S, Platz EA, Kavanaugh CJ, Thuita L, Hoffman SC, Helzlsouer KJ. Meat and dairy consumption and subsequent risk of prostate cancer in a US cohort study. Cancer Causes Control 2007;18:41–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Rodriguez C, McCullough ML, Mondul AM, et al. Meat consumption among Black and White men and risk of prostate cancer in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2006;15: 211–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Schuurman AG, van den Brandt PA, Dorant E, Goldbohm RA. Animal products, calcium and protein and prostate cancer risk in The Netherlands Cohort Study. Br J Cancer 1999;80:1107–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Koutros S, Cross AJ, Sandler DP, et al. Meat and meat mutagens and risk of prostate cancer in the Agricultural Health Study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2008;17:80–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Dewailly E, Mulvad G, Sloth Pedersen H, Hansen JC, Behrendt N, Hart Hansen JP. Inuit are protected against prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2003;12:926–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Nutting PA, Freeman WL, Risser DR, et al. Cancer incidence among American Indians and Alaska Natives, 1980 through 1987. Am J Public Health 1993;83:1589–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Zhang J, Sasaki S, Amano K, Kesteloot H. Fish consumption and mortality from all causes, ischemic heart disease, and stroke: an ecological study. Prev Med 1999;28:520–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Hedelin M, Balter KA, Chang ET, et al. Dietary intake of phytoestrogens, estrogen receptor-beta polymorphisms and the risk of prostate cancer. Prostate 2006;66:1512–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Terry PD, Rohan TE, Wolk A. Intakes of fish and marine fatty acids and the risks of cancers of the breast and prostate and of other hormone-related cancers: a review of the epidemiologic evidence. Am J Clin Nutr 2003;77: 532–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Andersson SO, Baron J, Wolk A, Lindgren C, Bergstrom R, Adami HO. Early life risk factors for prostate cancer: a population-based case-control study in Sweden. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1995;4:187–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Augustsson K, Michaud DS, Rimm EB, et al. A prospective study of intake of fish and marine fatty acids and prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2003;12:64–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Terry P, Lichtenstein P, Feychting M, Ahlbom A, Wolk A. Fatty fish consumption and risk of prostate cancer. Lancet 2001;357:1764–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Chavarro JE, Stampfer MJ, Campos H, Kurth T, Willett WC, Ma J. A prospective study of trans-fatty acid levels in blood and risk of prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2008;17:95–101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Pham TM, Fujino Y, Kubo T, et al. Fish intake and the risk of fatal prostate cancer: findings from a cohort study in Japan. Public Health Nutr 2008: 1–5.Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Allen NE, Sauvaget C, Roddam AW, et al. A prospective study of diet and prostate cancer in Japanese men. Cancer Causes Control 2004;15:911–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Burdge GC, Finnegan YE, Minihane AM, Williams CM, Wootton SA. Effect of altered dietary n–3 fatty acid intake upon plasma lipid fatty acid composition, conversion of [13C]alpha-linolenic acid to longer-chain fatty acids and partitioning towards beta-oxidation in older men. Br J Nutr 2003;90:311–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Ghosh J, Myers CE. Inhibition of arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase triggers massive apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1998;95:13182–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Ghosh J. Rapid induction of apoptosis in prostate cancer cells by selenium: reversal by metabolites of arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2004;315:624–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Pidgeon GP, Kandouz M, Meram A, Honn KV. Mechanisms controlling cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis after 12-lipoxygenase inhibition in prostate cancer cells. Cancer Res 2002;62:2721–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Ghosh J, Myers CE. Arachidonic acid stimulates prostate cancer cell growth: critical role of 5-lipoxygenase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1997;235:418–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Nie D, Krishnamoorthy S, Jin R, et al. Mechanisms regulating tumor angiogenesis by 12-lipoxygenase in prostate cancer cells. J Biol Chem 2006;281:18601–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Lim K, Han C, Xu L, Isse K, Demetris AJ, Wu T. Cyclooxygenase-2-derived prostaglandin E2 activates beta-catenin in human cholangiocarcinoma cells: evidence for inhibition of these signaling pathways by omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Cancer Res 2008;68:553–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Terry PD, Terry JB, Rohan TE. Long-chain (n–3) fatty acid intake and risk of cancers of the breast and the prostate: recent epidemiological studies, biological mechanisms, and directions for future research. J Nutr 2004;134: 3412S–20S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Laaksonen DE, Laukkanen JA, Niskanen L, et al. Serum linoleic and total polyunsaturated fatty acids in relation to prostate and other cancers: a population-based cohort study. Int J Cancer 2004;111:444–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Mannisto S, Pietinen P, Virtanen MJ, et al. Fatty acids and risk of prostate cancer in a nested case-control study in male smokers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2003;12:1422–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Newcomer LM, King IB, Wicklund KG, Stanford JL. The association of fatty acids with prostate cancer risk. Prostate 2001;47:262–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Chavarro JE, Stampfer MJ, Li H, Campos H, Kurth T, Ma J. A prospective study of polyunsaturated fatty acid levels in blood and prostate cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2007;16:1364–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Gann PH, Hennekens CH, Sacks FM, Grodstein F, Giovannucci EL, Stampfer MJ. Prospective study of plasma fatty acids and risk of prostate cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 1994;86:281–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Harvei S, Bjerve KS, Tretli S, Jellum E, Robsahm TE, Vatten L. Prediagnostic level of fatty acids in serum phospholipids: omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids and the risk of prostate cancer. Int J Cancer 1997;71:545–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    MacLean CH, Newberry SJ, Mojica WA, et al. Effects of omega-3 fatty acids on cancer risk: a systematic review. JAMA 2006;295:403–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Leitzmann MF, Stampfer MJ, Michaud DS, et al. Dietary intake of n–3 and n–6 fatty acids and the risk of prostate cancer. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80:204–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Norrish AE, Skeaff CM, Arribas GL, Sharpe SJ, Jackson RT. Prostate cancer risk and consumption of fish oils: a dietary biomarker-based case-control study. Br J Cancer 1999;81:1238–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Godley PA, Campbell MK, Gallagher P, Martinson FE, Mohler JL, Sandler RS. Biomarkers of essential fatty acid consumption and risk of prostatic carcinoma. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1996;5:889–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Freeman VL, Meydani M, Hur K, Flanigan RC. Inverse association between prostatic polyunsaturated fatty acid and risk of locally advanced prostate carcinoma. Cancer 2004;101:2744–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Norrish AE, Jackson RT, Sharpe SJ, Skeaff CM. Men who consume vegetable oils rich in monounsaturated fat: their dietary patterns and risk of prostate cancer (New Zealand). Cancer Causes Control 2000;11:609–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Koralek DO, Peters U, Andriole G, et al. A prospective study of dietary alpha-linolenic acid and the risk of prostate cancer (United States). Cancer Causes Control 2006;17:783–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Messina MJ, Persky V, Setchell KD, Barnes S. Soy intake and cancer risk: a review of the in vitro and in vivo data. Nutr Cancer 1994;21:113–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Tham DM, Gardner CD, Haskell WL. Clinical review 97: potential health benefits of dietary phytoestrogens: a review of the clinical, epidemiological, and mechanistic evidence. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1998;83:2223–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Setlur SR, Mertz K, Hoshida Y, et al. Estrogen-dependent signaling in a molecularly distinct subclass of aggressive prostate cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 2008.Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Kolonel LN, Hankin JH, Whittemore AS, et al. Vegetables, fruits, legumes and prostate cancer: a multiethnic case-control study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2000;9:795–804.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Nomura AM, Hankin JH, Lee J, Stemmermann GN. Cohort study of tofu intake and prostate cancer: no apparent association. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2004;13:2277–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Jacobsen BK, Knutsen SF, Fraser GE. Does high soy milk intake reduce prostate cancer incidence? The Adventist Health Study (United States). Cancer Causes Control 1998;9:553–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Yan L, Spitznagel EL. Meta-analysis of soy food and risk of prostate cancer in men. Int J Cancer 2005;117:667–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Park SY, Murphy SP, Wilkens LR, Henderson BE, Kolonel LN. Legume and isoflavone intake and prostate cancer risk: the Multiethnic Cohort Study. Int J Cancer 2008;123:927–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Kurahashi N, Iwasaki M, Sasazuki S, Otani T, Inoue M, Tsugane S. Soy product and isoflavone consumption in relation to prostate cancer in Japanese men. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2007;16:538–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Jain MG, Hislop GT, Howe GR, Ghadirian P. Plant foods, antioxidants, and prostate cancer risk: findings from case-control studies in Canada. Nutr Cancer 1999;34:173–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Hodge AM, English DR, McCredie MR, et al. Foods, nutrients and prostate cancer. Cancer Causes Control 2004;15:11–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Hedelin M, Klint A, Chang ET, et al. Dietary phytoestrogen, serum enterolactone and risk of prostate cancer: the cancer prostate Sweden study (Sweden). Cancer Causes Control 2006;17:169–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Stattin P, Adlercreutz H, Tenkanen L, et al. Circulating enterolactone and prostate cancer risk: a Nordic nested case-control study. Int J Cancer 2002;99:124–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Stattin P, Bylund A, Biessy C, Kaaks R, Hallmans G, Adlercreutz H. Prospective study of plasma enterolactone and prostate cancer risk (Sweden). Cancer Causes Control 2004;15:1095–102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Kilkkinen A, Virtamo J, Virtanen MJ, Adlercreutz H, Albanes D, Pietinen P. Serum enterolactone concentration is not associated with prostate cancer risk in a nested case-control study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2003;12:1209–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Ward H, Chapelais G, Kuhnle GG, Luben R, Khaw KT, Binghamk Lack of prospective associations between plasma and urinary phytoestrogens and risk of prostate or colorectal cancer in the European Prospective into Cancer-Norfolk study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2008;17:2891–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Kurahashi N, Iwasaki M, Inoue M, Sasazuki S, Tsugane S. Plasma Isoflavones and Subsequent Risk of Prostate Cancer in a Nested Case-Control Study: the Japan Public Health Center. J Clin Oncol 2008.Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    Heald CL, Ritchie MR, Bolton-Smith C, Morton MS, Alexander FE. Phyto-oestrogens and risk of prostate cancer in Scottish men. Br J Nutr 2007;98:388–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Bylund A, Saarinen N, Zhang JX, et al. Anticancer effects of a plant lignan 7-hydroxymatairesinol on a prostate cancer model in vivo. Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 2005;230:217–23.Google Scholar
  173. 173.
    Bylund A, Zhang JX, Bergh A, et al. Rye bran and soy protein delay growth and increase apoptosis of human LNCaP prostate adenocarcinoma in nude mice. Prostate 2000;42:304–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Kristal AR, Cohen JH, Qu P, Stanford JL. Associations of energy, fat, calcium, and vitamin D with prostate cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2002;11:719–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Tseng M, Breslow RA, Graubard BI, Ziegler RG. Dairy, calcium, and vitamin D intakes and prostate cancer risk in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Epidemiologic Follow-up Study cohort. Am J Clin Nutr 2005;81: 1147–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Chan JM, Giovannucci E, Andersson SO, Yuen J, Adami HO, Wolk A. Dairy products, calcium, phosphorous, vitamin D, and risk of prostate cancer (Sweden). Cancer Causes Control 1998;9:559–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Rodriguez C, McCullough ML, Mondul AM, et al. Calcium, dairy products, and risk of prostate cancer in a prospective cohort of United States men. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2003;12:597–603.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Chan JM, Giovannucci EL. Dairy products, calcium, and vitamin D and risk of prostate cancer. Epidemiol Rev 2001;23:87–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Chan JM, Stampfer MJ, Ma J, Gann PH, Gaziano JM, Giovannucci EL. Dairy products, calcium, and prostate cancer risk in the Physicians’ Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr 2001;74:549–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Mitrou PN, Albanes D, Weinstein SJ, et al. A prospective study of dietary calcium, dairy products and prostate cancer risk (Finland). Int J Cancer 2007;120:2466–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Kurahashi N, Inoue M, Iwasaki M, Sasazuki S, Tsugane AS. Dairy product, saturated fatty acid, and calcium intake and prostate cancer in a prospective cohort of Japanese men. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2008;17:930–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Kesse E, Bertrais S, Astorg P, et al. Dairy products, calcium and phosphorus intake, and the risk of prostate cancer: results of the French prospective SU.VI.MAX (Supplementation en Vitamines et Mineraux Antioxydants) study. Br J Nutr 2006;95:539–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Huncharek M, Muscat J, Kupelnick B. Dairy products, dietary calcium and vitamin D intake as risk factors for prostate cancer: a meta-analysis of 26, 769 cases from 45 observational studies. Nutr Cancer 2008;60:421–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Park Y, Mitrou PN, Kipnis V, Hollenbeck A, Schatzkin A, Leitzmann MF. Calcium, dairy foods, and risk of incident and fatal prostate cancer: the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Am J Epidemiol 2007;166:1270–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Koh KA, Sesso HD, Paffenbarger RS, Jr., Lee IM. Dairy products, calcium and prostate cancer risk. Br J Cancer 2006;95:1582–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Giovannucci E, Liu Y, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC. A prospective study of calcium intake and incident and fatal prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2006;15:203–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Skinner HG, Schwartz GG. Serum calcium and incident and fatal prostate cancer in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2008;17:2302–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Berndt SI, Carter HB, Landis PK, et al. Calcium intake and prostate cancer risk in a long-term aging study: the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Urology 2002;60:1118–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Baron JA, Beach M, Wallace K, et al. Risk of prostate cancer in a randomized clinical trial of calcium supplementation. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2005;14:586–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Heaney RP, McCarron DA, Dawson-Hughes B, et al. Dietary changes favorably affect bone remodeling in older adults. J Am Diet Assoc 1999;99:1228–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Giovannucci E. Vitamin D and cancer incidence in the Harvard cohorts. Ann Epidemiol 2008;Epub ahead of print.Google Scholar
  192. 192.
    Jacobs ET, Giuliamo AR, Martinez ME, Hollis BW, Reid ME, Marshall JR. Plasma levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D and the risk of prostate cancer. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2004;89–90:533–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Corder EH, Guess HA, Hulka BS, et al. Vitamin D and prostate cancer: a prediagnostic study with stored sera. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1993;2:467–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Gann PH, Ma J, Hennekens CH, Hollis BW, Haddad JG, Stampfer MJ. Circulating vitamin D metabolites in relation to subsequent development of prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1996;5:121–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Platz EA, Leitzmann MF, Hollis BW, Willett WC, Giovannucci E. Plasma 1, 25-dihydroxy- and 25-hydroxyvitamin D and subsequent risk of prostate cancer. Cancer Causes Control 2004;15:255–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Li H, Stampfer MJ, Hollis BW, et al. A prospective study of plasma vitamin D metabolites, vitamin D receptor polymorphisms, and prostate cancer. PLOS Medicine 2007;4:e103.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Ahn J, Peters U, Albanes D, et al. Serum vitamin D concentrations and prostate cancer risk: a nested case control study. J Natl Cancer Inst 2008.Google Scholar
  198. 198.
    Ahonen MH, Tenkanen L, Teppo L, Hakama M, Tuohimaa P. Prostate cancer risk and prediagnostic serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (Finland). Cancer Causes Control 2000;11:847–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Tuohimaa P, Tenkanen L, Ahonen M, et al. Both high and low levels of blood vitamin D are associated with a higher prostate cancer risk: a longitudinal, nested case-control study in the Nordic countries. Int J Cancer 2004;108: 104–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Xu C, Shen G, Chen C, Gelinas C, Kong AN. Suppression of NF-kappaB and NF-kappaB-regulated gene expression by sulforaphane and PEITC through IkappaBalpha, IKK pathway in human prostate cancer PC-3 cells. Oncogene 2005;24:4486–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Verhoeven DT, Verhagen H, Goldbohm RA, van den Brandt PA, van Poppel G. A review of mechanisms underlying anticarcinogenicity by brassica vegetables. Chem Biol Interact 1997;103:79–129.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Herman-Antosiewicz A, Singh SV. Checkpoint kinase 1 regulates diallyl trisulfide-induced mitotic arrest in human prostate cancer cells. J Biol Chem 2005;280:28519–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Hsu JC, Zhang J, Dev A, Wing A, Bjeldanes LF, Firestone GL. Indole-3-carbinol inhibition of androgen receptor expression and downregulation of androgen responsiveness in human prostate cancer cells. Carcinogenesis 2005;26:1896–904.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Myzak MC, Hardin K, Wang R, Dashwood RH, Ho E. Sulforaphane inhibits histone deacetylase activity in BPH-1, LnCaP and PC-3 prostate epithelial cells. Carcinogenesis 2006;27:811–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Joseph MA, Moysich KB, Freudenheim JL, et al. Cruciferous vegetables, genetic polymorphisms in glutathione S-transferases M1 and T1, and prostate cancer risk. Nutr Cancer 2004;50:206–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Kirsh VA, Peters U, Mayne ST, et al. Prospective study of fruit and vegetable intake and risk of prostate cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 2007;99:1200–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Giovannucci E, Rimm EB, Liu Y, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC. A prospective study of cruciferous vegetables and prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2003;12:1403–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Key TJ, Allen N, Appleby P, et al. Fruits and vegetables and prostate cancer: no association among 1104 cases in a prospective study of 130544 men in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Int J Cancer 2004;109:119–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Stram DO, Hankin JH, Wilkens LR, et al. Prostate cancer incidence and intake of fruits, vegetables and related micronutrients: the multiethnic cohort study* (United States). Cancer Causes Control 2006;17:1193–207.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Traka M, Gasper AV, Melchini A, et al. Broccoli consumption interacts with GSTM1 to perturb oncogenic signalling pathways in the prostate. PLoS ONE 2008;3:e2568.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Untergasser G, Rumpold H, Plas E, Witkowski M, Pfister G, Berger P. High levels of zinc ions induce loss of mitochondrial potential and degradation of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein in in vitro cultivated human prostate epithelial cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2000;279:607–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Golovine K, Makhov P, Uzzo RG, Shaw T, Kunkle D, Kolenko VM. Overexpression of the zinc uptake transporter hZIP1 inhibits nuclear factor-kappaB and reduces the malignant potential of prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Clin Cancer Res 2008;14:5376–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Ishii K, Usui S, Sugimura Y, et al. Aminopeptidase N regulated by zinc in human prostate participates in tumor cell invasion. Int J Cancer 2001;92:49–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Holmes MD, Pollak MN, Willett WC, Hankinson SE. Dietary correlates of plasma insulin-like growth factor I and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 concentrations. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2002;11:852–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Chan JM, Stampfer MJ, Ma J, et al. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF binding protein-3 as predictors of advanced-stage prostate cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 2002;94:1099–106.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Chandra RK. Excessive intake of zinc impairs immune responses. JAMA 1984;252:1443–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Leitzmann MF, Stampfer MJ, Wu K, Colditz GA, Willett WC, Giovannucci EL. Zinc supplement use and risk of prostate cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 2003;95:1004–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Gallus S, Foschi R, Negri E, et al. Dietary zinc and prostate cancer risk: a case-control study from Italy. Eur Urol 2007;52:1052–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Kristal AR, Stanford JL, Cohen JH, Wicklund K, Patterson RE. Vitamin and mineral supplement use is associated with reduced risk of prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1999;8:887–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Meyer F, Galan P, Douville P, et al. Antioxidant vitamin and mineral supplementation and prostate cancer prevention in the SU.VI.MAX trial. Int J Cancer 2005;116:182–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Lawson KA, Wright ME, Subar A, et al. Multivitamin use and risk of prostate cancer in the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study. J Natl Cancer Inst 2007;99:754–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    He K, Rimm EB, Merchant A, et al. Fish consumption and risk of stroke in men. JAMA 2002;288:3130–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    Joshipura KJ, Ascherio A, Manson JE, et al. Fruit and vegetable intake in relation to risk of ischemic stroke. JAMA 1999;282:1233–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Michaud DS, Spiegelman D, Clinton SK, Rimm EB, Willett WC, Giovannucci EL. Fruit and vegetable intake and incidence of bladder cancer in a male prospective cohort. J Natl Cancer Inst 1999;91:605–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Owusu W, Willett WC, Feskanich D, Ascherio A, Spiegelman D, Colditz GA. Calcium intake and the incidence of forearm and hip fractures among men. J Nutr 1997;127:1782–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Smith MR, Boyce SP, Moyneur E, Duh MS, Raut MK, Brandman J. Risk of clinical fractures after gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist therapy for prostate cancer. J Urol 2006;175:136–9; Discussion 9.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Humana Press, a part of Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departments of EpidemiologyChanning Laboratory, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  2. 2.Departments of Epidemiology and NutritionHarvard School of Public Health, Boston, MABostonUSA
  3. 3.Channing Laboratory, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations