Ruthenium Drugs for Cancer Chemotherapy: An Ongoing Challenge to Treat Solid Tumours
Ruthenium-based pharmaceuticals have brought some important insights in the chemotherapy of cancer. The knowledge acquired about the chemistry and biological interactions of these inorganic chemicals has allowed us to understand the limits of targeting DNA to achieve selective and innovative drugs. After a number of attempts to copy platinum drugs with a system claimed to be selective because of transferrin transportation and activation to cytotoxic species in tumour cells by a reduction mechanism, new innovative ideas are emerging such as those of using Ruthenium to structure organic ligands to enzyme or receptor targets responsible for tumour cell pathways associated to cell survival. Besides the staurosporine mimetics capable of inhibiting GSKbeta and inducing p53-mediated apoptosis, one example of this new wave is NAMI-A, a compound capable of controlling solid tumour metastases through the modulation of integrins and cell cytoskeleton. These data open up the interesting perspective of achieving potent agents to control tumour malignancy by selectively targeting tumour cells.
KeywordsRuthenium Chemotherapy Metastasis
Work done in the frame of COST D39 action. The financial support of MURST, Regione Autonoma Friuli Venezia Giulia and of Fondazione CRTrieste is gratefully appreciated.
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