Orofacial Dystonia and Dyskinesia
Orofacial dystonia and dyskinesia are associated with various combinations of spasmodic contractions of muscles of the jaw, lower face, lips, and tongue. Dystonic movements are typically slower and more protracted while dyskinetic movements are more frequent and rapid. Oromandibular dystonia (OMD) is perhaps the most common of these and includes jaw opening, jaw closing, and jaw deviation dystonia. Facial dystonia usually involves the lower face and may produce puckering or pursing movements of the mouth and lips, retraction or downward deviation of the corners of the mouth, and puffing out of the cheeks. Embouchure dystonia is a task-specific dystonia in which involuntary movements of the lips occur in wind instrument musicians only while playing their instruments.
KeywordsLower Face Botulinum Toxin Injection Tongue Protrusion Dystonic Movement Tardive Dystonia
Orofacial dystonia & dyskinesia.mp4 (MP4 8,501KB)
The patient exhibits a pursing posture of his lips, small tongue protrusions, abnormal speech, mild right-side laterocollis with shoulder elevation, and increased frontalis creasing.