Examination of a Patient with Non-DYT1 Generalized Dystonia

  • Roongroj Bhidayasiri
  • Daniel Tarsy
Part of the Current Clinical Neurology book series (CCNEU)


The term “dystonia” was originally coined to name a disorder causing variable muscle tone and recurrent muscle spasm. What is now called primary dystonia was initially called dystonia musculorum deformans and later primary torsion dystonia. Dystonia causes sustained muscle contractions, repetitive twisting movements, and abnormal postures of the trunk, neck, face, or extremities. Dystonia results from involuntary co-contraction of agonist and antagonist muscles with overflow of muscle contractions into adjacent muscles. Dystonic movements can be either slow or rapid, change during different activities or postures, and may become fixed in advanced cases. Except for occasional tremor or myoclonus, the rest of the neurological examination is normal.


Deep Brain Stimulation Antagonist Muscle Sustained Muscle Contraction Intrathecal Baclofen Generalize Dystonia 
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Supplementary material

Exam of patient w. non-DYT1 dystonia.mp4 (MP4 14,131KB)

The patient is being examined. He displays dystonic posturing of both hands, adduction postures of the legs, action-induced inversion and plantarflexion of the right foot while walking on his knees, occasional myoclonic jerks of the right arm and leg, and dystonic speech.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roongroj Bhidayasiri
    • 1
    • 2
  • Daniel Tarsy
    • 3
  1. 1.Chulalongkorn Center of Excellence on Parkinson’s Disease and Related DisordersChulalongkorn University HospitalBangkokThailand
  2. 2.Department of NeurologyDavid Geffen School of Medicine at UCLALos AngelesUSA
  3. 3.Department of NeurologyHarvard Medical School Beth Israel Deaconess Medical CenterBostonUSA

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