Parkinsonism is the most common movement disorder to affect HIV-infected patients and occurs in 5% of cases. Parkinsonism often occurs in the context of prior exposure to neuroleptic drugs, focal cerebral opportunistic infections, or HIV/AIDS-associated dementia. AIDS patients have a 2.4–3.4-fold greater risk of developing extrapyramidal side effects when they are exposed to neuroleptic drugs. The basal ganglia are a vulnerable target to HIV, and parkinsonism may develop in the absence of any other identifiable underlying cause. The clinical features of HIV parkinsonism are usually different than those of idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (PD) in that they include bilateral onset, rapid progression, abnormal eye movements, and no rest tremor.
KeywordsBasal Ganglion Prior Exposure Motor Complication Neuroleptic Drug Extrapyramidal Side Effect
22 HIV-induced parkinsonism.mp4 (MP4 24,924KB)
The patient displays generalized bradykinesia and facial masking with reduced blink frequency. Tongue movements are slow. Finger tapping is slow with reduced amplitude bilaterally. Gait is wide-based and arm swing is present.