Parkinson’s Disease: Hoehn and Yahr Scale

  • Roongroj Bhidayasiri
  • Daniel Tarsy
Part of the Current Clinical Neurology book series (CCNEU)


The Hoehn and Yahr scale (HY) is a widely used clinical rating scale, which defines broad categories of motor function in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Among its advantages are that it is simple and easily applied. It captures typical patterns of progressive motor impairment which can be applied whether or not patients are receiving dopaminergic therapy. Progression in HY stages has been found to correlate with motor decline, deterioration in quality of life, and neuroimaging studies of dopaminergic loss. However, because of its simplicity and lack of detail, the scale is not comprehensive. It is also limited by its focus on issues of unilateral versus bilateral disease and the presence or absence of postural reflex impairment, thereby leaving other specific aspects of motor deficit unassessed.

Supplementary material

PD Hoehn & Yahr Scale.mp4 (MP4 121,093KB)


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    Goetz CG, Poewe W, Rascol O, et al. Movement disorder society task force report on the Hoehn and Yahr staging scale: status and recommendations. Mov Disord. 2004;19:1020–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roongroj Bhidayasiri
    • 1
    • 2
  • Daniel Tarsy
    • 3
  1. 1.Chulalongkorn Center of Excellence on Parkinson’s Disease and Related DisordersChulalongkorn University HospitalBangkokThailand
  2. 2.Department of NeurologyDavid Geffen School of Medicine at UCLALos AngelesUSA
  3. 3.Department of NeurologyHarvard Medical School Beth Israel Deaconess Medical CenterBostonUSA

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