Tourette’s Syndrome: Complex Tics
Tourette syndrome (TS) is a childhood-onset disorder characterized by chronic motor and vocal tics which persist for more than 1 year. It is estimated that TS affects about 1% of children. Risk factors include male gender, family history of tics, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Transient tic disorders in childhood are much more common than TS. Twenty percent of children, boys more commonly than girls, have motor tics which disappear as they get older. According to DSM-IV, the standard diagnostic criteria for TS consist of (1) presence of multiple motor tics and one or more vocal tics, (2) tics occurring many times daily for more than 3 consecutive months, (3) onset younger than 18 years of age, and (4) a tic disorder not due to substance abuse or another underlying diagnosis.
KeywordsBipolar Disorder Deep Brain Stimulation Tardive Dyskinesia Tourette Syndrome Standard Diagnostic Criterion
The patient exhibits a series of complex motor tics consisting of sequential head shaking and turning, arm shaking and leg kicking, together with grunting and humming noises and repeating over and over again the last syllable of a word (palilalia). Walking is associated with appearance of other complex tics in all four extremities.
TS - Complex tics.mp4 (MP4 13,058KB)