Examination of a Patient with Parkinson’s Disease

  • Roongroj Bhidayasiri
  • Daniel Tarsy
Part of the Current Clinical Neurology book series (CCNEU)


Parkinson’s disease (PD) is associated with a combination of characteristic clinical signs which usually allow for prompt and accurate diagnosis. The three cardinal signs of parkinsonism are tremor, rigidity, and bradykinesia. The presence of at least two of these signs is required for the diagnosis of PD. Postural instability is a fourth clinical sign but less useful for early diagnosis as it typically appears later in the course of PD and is a common feature of other forms of parkinsonism. Although the diagnosis of parkinsonism can also be made by dopamine reuptake brain imaging, it is not necessary in the majority of cases as long as a careful and critical neurological examination is carried out by an experienced examiner.


Early Diagnosis Accurate Diagnosis Shoulder Pain Disease Rate Initial Examination 
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Supplementary material

Exam of Patient w. PD.mp4 (MP4 37,541KB)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roongroj Bhidayasiri
    • 1
    • 2
  • Daniel Tarsy
    • 3
  1. 1.Chulalongkorn Center of Excellence on Parkinson’s Disease and Related DisordersChulalongkorn University HospitalBangkokThailand
  2. 2.Department of NeurologyDavid Geffen School of Medicine at UCLALos AngelesUSA
  3. 3.Department of NeurologyHarvard Medical School Beth Israel Deaconess Medical CenterBostonUSA

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