Comparative Cardiac Anatomy

  • Alexander J. HillEmail author
  • Paul A. Iaizzo


The need for appropriate animal models to conduct translational research is vital for advancements in the diagnosis and treatment of heart disease. The choice of animal model to be employed must be critically evaluated. In this chapter, we present the comparative cardiac anatomy of several of the commonly employed animal models (dog, pig, and sheep). A general comparison focuses on several specific anatomic features: the atria, the ventricles, the valves, the coronary system, lymphatics, and the conduction system. Finally, we present novel qualitative and quantitative data that we have obtained from perfusion fixed specimens of the most commonly used animal models.


Comparative anatomy Human Sheep Dog Pig Heart Cardiac 


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Copyright information

© Humana Press, a part of Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of SurgeryUniversity of Minnesota and Medtronic, IncMinneapolisUSA
  2. 2.Department of SurgeryUniversity of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA

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