Advertisement

Defense Against Biological Weapons (Biodefense)

  • Vassil St. GeorgievEmail author
Chapter
  • 1.5k Downloads
Part of the Infectious Disease book series (ID)

Biological warfare (germ warfare) is defined as the use of any disease-causing organism or toxin(s) found in nature as weapons of war with the intent to destroy an adversary. Though rare, the use of biological weapons has occurred throughout the centuries.

References

  1. 1.
    Wheelis, M. (2003) A short history of biological warfare and weapons, In: The Implementation of Legally Binding Measures to Strenghten the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (Chevrier, M. I., Chomiczewski, K., Dando, M. R., Garrigue, H., Granaztoi, G., and Pearson, G. S., eds.), ISO Press, Amsterdam, pp. 15–31.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Fenn, E. A. (2000) Biological warfare in eighteen-century North America: beyond Jeffery Amherst, J. Am. History, 86(3), 1552–1580.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Wheelis, M. (1999) Biological sabotage in World War I. In: Biological and Toxin Weapons: Research, Development and Use from the Middle Ages to 1945 (Geissler, E. and Moon, J. E. V. C., eds.), Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 35–62.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Harris, S. H. (1994) Factories of Death: Japanese Biological Warfare 1932–45 and the American Cover-Up, Routledge, London.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Williams, P. and Wallace, D. (1989) Unit 731: The Japanese Army’s Secret of Secrets, Hodder & Stoughton, London.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Carus, W. S. (2000) The Rajneeshees (1984). In: Toxic Terror: Assessing Terrorist Use of Chemical and Biological Weapons, MIT Press, Cambridge, pp. 115–137.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    LeClaire, R. D. and Pitt, M. L. M. (2005) Biological weapons defense. In: Biological Weaponse Defense: Infectious Diseases and Counterterrorism (Lindler, L. E., Lebeda, F. J., and Korch, G. W., eds.), Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, pp. 41–61.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Burrows, W. D. and Renner, S. E. (1999) Biological warfare agents as threats to potable water, Environ. Health Perspect., 107, 975–984.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ferguson, J. R. (1997) Biological weapons and U.S. law, J. Am. Med. Assoc., 278, 357–360.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    FM 8–9, (1996) NATO Handbook on the Medical Aspects of NBC Defensive Operations AMedP-6(B), Part II Biological. Department of the Army, Washington, DC, 1996.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Missiakas, D. M. and Schneewind, O. (2005) Bacillus anthracis and the pathogenesis of anthrax. In: Biological Weaponse Defense: Infectious Diseases and Counterterrorism (Lindler, L. E., Lebeda, F. J., and Korch, G. W., eds.), Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, pp. 79–97.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Meselson, M. (1999) The challenge of biological and chemical weapons, Bull. World Health Organ., 77, 102–103.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Edsall, J. T. and Meselson, M. (1967) Proliferation of CB warfare, Science, 156, 1029–1030.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Enserink, M. (2001) This time it was real: knowledge of anthrax put to the test, Science, 294, 490–491.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Koch, R. (1876) Die aetiologie der milzbrand-krankheit, begruendet auf die entwicklungsgeschichte des Bacillus anthracis, Beitrã Biol Pflanzen, 2, 277–310.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Zwartouw, H. T. and Smith, H. (1956) Polyglutamic acid from Bacillus anthracis grown in vivo: structure and aggressin activity, Biochem. J., 63, 437–454.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Preisz, H. (1991) Experimentelle studien ueber virulenz, empfaenglichkeit und immunitaet beim milzbrand, Zeitschr. Immunitã.-Forsch., 5, 341–452.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Leppla, S. H. (1991) The anthrax toxin complex. In: Sourcebook of Bacterial Protein Toxins (Alouf, J. and Freer, J. H., eds.), Academic Press, London, pp. 277–302.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hanna, P. C., Acosta, D., and Collier, R. J. (1993) On the role of macrophages in anthrax, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 90, 10198–10201.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Duesbery, N. S., Webb, C. P., Leppla, S. H., Gordon, V. M., Klimpel, K. R., Copeland, T. D., Ahn, N. G., Oskarsson, M. K., Fukusawa, K., Pauli, K. D., and Vande Woude, G. F. (1998) Proteolytic inactivation of map-kinase-kinase by anthrax lethal factor, Science, 280, 734–737.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Vitale, G., Pellizzari, R., Recchi, C., Napolitani, G., Mock, M., and Montecucco, C. (1998) Anthrax lethal factor cleaves the N-terminus of MAPKKs and induces tyrosine/threonine phosphorylation of MAPKKs in cultured macrophages, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 248, 706–711.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Park, J. M., Greten, F. R., Li, Z. W., and Karin, M. (2002) Macrophage apoptosis by anthrax lethal factor through p38 MAP kinase inhibition, Science, 297, 2048–2051.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Leppla, S. H. (1984) Bacillus anthracis calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase: chemical and enzymatic properties and interactions with eukariotic cells, Adv. Cyc. Nuc. Prot. Phos. Res., 17, 189–198.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Leppla, S. H. (1982) Anthrax toxin edema factor: a bacterial adenylate cyclase that increases cyclin AMP concentrations in eukariotic cells, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 79, 3162–3166.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Green, B. D., Battisti, L., Koehler, T. M., Thorne, C. B., and Ivins, B. E. (1985) Demonstration of a capsule plasmid in Bacillus anthracis, Infect. Immun., 49, 291–297.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Mikesell, P., Ivins, B. E., Ristroph, J. D., and Dreier, T. M. (1983) Evidence for plasmid-mediated toxin production in Bacillus anthracis, Infect. Immun., 39, 371–376.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Smith, H., Keppie, H. S., and Stanley, J. I. (1953) The chemical basis of the virulence of Bacillus anthracis. I. Properties of bacteria grown in vivo and preparation of extracts, Br. J. Exp. Pathol., 34, 477–485.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Keppie, J., Smith, H., and Harris-Smith, P. W. (1963) The chemical basis of the virulence of Bacillus anthracis. II. Some biological properties of bacterial products, Br. J. Exp. Pathol., 34, 486–496.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Dixon, T. C., Meselson, M., Guillemin, J., and Hanna, P. C. (1999) Anthrax, N. Engl. J. Med., 341, 815–826.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Lightfood, N. F., Scott, R. J. D., and Turnbull, P. C. B. (1989) Antimicrobial susceptibility of Bacillus anthracis. In: Proc. Int. Workshop on Anthrax, Salisbury Medical Bulletin, Winchester, UK, pp. 95–98.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Centers for Disease Control (2001) Update: investigation of bioterrorism-related anthrax and interim guidelines for exposure management and antimicrobial therapy, October 2001, Morb. Mortal. Wkly Rep., 50, 909–919.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bradley, K. A., Modridge, J., Mourez, M., Collier, R. J., and Young, J. A. (2001) Identification of the cellular receptor for anthrax toxin, Nature, 414, 225–229.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Sellman, B. R., Mourez, M., and Collier, R. J. (2001) Dominant-negative mutants of a toxin subunit: an approach to therapy of anthrax, Science, 292, 695–697.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Schuch, R., Nelson, D., and Fischetti, V. A. (2002) A bacteriolytic agent that detects and kills Bacillus anthracis, Nature, 418, 884–889.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Pittman, P. R., Kim-Ahn, G., Pifat, D. Y., Coonan, K., Gibbs, P., Little, S., Pace-Templeton, J. G., Myers, R., Parker, G. W., and Friedlander, A. M. (2002) Anthrax vaccine: immunogenicity and safety of a dose-reduction, route-change comparison study in humans, Vaccine, 20, 1412–1420.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Friedlander, A. M. (2001) Tackling anthrax, Nature, 414, 160–161.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Fenner, F. (1993) Smallpox: emergence. Global spread, and eradication, Hist. Philos. Life Sci., 15, 397–420.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Darling, R. G., Burgess, T. H., Lawler, J. V., and Endy, T. P. (2005) Virologic and pathogenic aspects of the Variola virus (smallpox) as a bioweapon, In: Biological Weapons Defense: Infectious Diseases and Counterbioterrorism (Linder, L. E., Lebeda, F. J., and Korch, G. W., eds.), Humana Press, Inc., Totowa, NJ, pp. 99–120.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Tucker, J. B. (1999) Historical trends related to bioterorrism: an empirical analysis, Emerg. Infect. Dis., 5, 498–504.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Albert, M., Ostheimer, K., Liewehr, D., Steinberg, S., and Breman, J. (2002) Smallpox manifestations and survival during the Boston epidemic of 1901 to 1903, Ann. Intern. Med., 137, 993–1000.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Smallpox and its eradication (1988) In: The History of Smallpox and Its Spread Around the World, World Health Organization, Geneva.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Baxby, D. (1996) The Jenner bicentenary: the introduction and early distribution of smallpox vaccine, FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol., 16, 1–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Bucknell, W. J. (2002) The case of voluntary smallpox vaccination, N. Engl. J. Med., 346, 1323–1325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Human monkeypox in Kasai Oriental, Zaire (1996–1997) (1997) Wkly Epidemiol. Rec., 72, 101–104.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2003) Multistate outbreak of monkeypox – Illinois, Indiana, and Wisconsin, 2003, Morb. Mortal. Wkly Rep., 52, 537–540.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Moss, B. (2001) Poxviridae: the viruses and their replication. In: Fields Virology, 4th ed. (Knipe, D. M. and Howley, P. M., eds.), Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, pp. 2849–2883.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Hooper, J., Custer, D., and Thompson, E. (2003) Four-gene-combination DNA vaccine protects mice against a lethal vaccinia virus challenge and elicits appropriate antibody responses in nonhuman primates, Virology, 306, 181–195.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Esposito, J., Obijeski, J., and Nakano, J. (1978) Orthopoxvirus DNA: strain differentiation by electrophoresis of restriction endonuclease fragmented virion DNA, Virology, 89, 53–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Esposito, J. and Knight, J. (1985) Orthopoxvirus DNA: a comparison of restriction profiles and maps, Virology, 143, 230–251.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Dumbell, K., Harper, L., Buchan, A., Douglass, N., and Bedson, H. (1999) A variant of variola virus, characterized by changes in polypeptide and endonuclease profiles, Epidemiol. Infect., 122, 287–290.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Smith, V. and Alcami, A. (2000) Expression of secreted cytokine and chemokine inhibitors by ectromelia virus, J. Virol., 74, 8460–8471.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Buller, R. and Palumbo, G. (1991) Poxvirus pathogenesis, Microbiol. Rev., 55, 80–122.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Alcami, A. and Smith, G. (1995) Vaccinia, cowpox, and camelpox viruses encode soluble gamma interferon receptors with novel broad species specificity, J. Virol., 69, 4633–4639.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Ramshaw, I., Ramsay, A., Karupiah, G., Rolph, M., Mahalingam, S., and Ruby, J. (1997) Cytokines and immunity to infection, Immunol. Rev., 159, 119–135.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Jackson, R., Ramsay, A., Christensen, C., Beaton, S., Hall, D., and Ramshaw, I. (2001) Expression of mouse interleukin 4 by a recombinant ectromelia virus suppresses cytolytic lymphocyte responses and overcomes genetic resistance to mousepox, J. Virol., 75, 1205–1210.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Mack, T. M. (1972) Smallpox in Europe, 1950–1971, J. Infect. Dis., 125, 161–169.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Fenner, F., Henderson, D. A., Arita, I., Jezek, Z., and Ladnyi, I. D. (1988) Smallpox and Its Eradication, World Health Organization, Geneva.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Mazumder, D. N., Mitra, A. C., and Mukherjee, M. K. (1975) Clinical observations on smallpox: a study of 1233 patients admitted to the Infectious Disease Hospital, Calcutta during 1973, Bull. World Health Organ., 52, 301–306.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Sheth, S. C., Maruthi, V., Tibrewalla, N. S., and Pai, P. M. (1971) Smallpox in children. A clinical study of 100 cases, Indian J. Pediatr., 38, 128–131.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Henderson, D., Inglesby, T., Bartlett, J., Ascher, M. S., Eitzen, E., Jahrling, P. B., Hawer, J., Layton, M., McDade, J., Osterholm, M. T., O’Toole, T., Parker, G., Perl, T., Russell, P. K., Tonat, K., for the Working Group on Civilian Biodefense (1999) Smallpox as a biological weapon: medical and public health management, J. Am. Med. Assoc., 281, 2127–2137.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    De Clercq, E. (2002) Cidofovir in the treatment of poxvirus infections, Antiviral Res., 55(1), 1–13.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    De Clercq, E., Luczak, M., Shugar, D., Torrence, P. F., Waters, J. A., and Witkop, B. (1976) Effect of cytosine, arabinoside, iododeoxyuridine, ethyldeoxyuridine, thiocyanatodeoxyuridine, and ribavirine on tail lesion formation in mice infected with vaccinia virus, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 151, 487–490.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Rao, A. R., McFadzean, J. A., and Kamalakshi, K. (1966) An isothiazole thiosemicarbazone in the treatment of Variola major in man. A controlled clinical trial and laboratory investigations, Lancet, 1, 1068–1072.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Rao, A. R., Jacobs, E. S., Kamalakshi, S., Bradbuty, and Swamy, A. (1969) Chemoprophylaxis and chemotherapy in Variola major. II. Therapeutic assessment of CG662 and marboran in treatment of Variola major in man, Indian J. Med. Res., 57, 484–494.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Jahrling, P. B., Zaucha, G. M., and Huggins, J. W. (2000) Countermeasures to the reemergence of smallpox virus as an agent of bioterrorism. In: Emerging Infections 4 (Scheld, W. M., Craig, W. A., and Hughes, J. M., eds.), ASM, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Georgiev, V. St. Drugs for Treating Viral Infections, U.S. Patent 6,433,016 B1, 2002.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Georgiev, V. St. Drugs for Treating Viral Infections, U.S. Patent 6,596,771 B2, 2003.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Georgiev, V. St. Drugs for Treating Viral Infections, U.S. Patent 6,7,192,606 B1, 2007.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Meadows, K. P., Tyring, S. K., Pavia, A. T., and Rallis, T. M. (1997) Resolution of recalcitrant molluscum contagiosum virus lesions in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients treated with cidofovir, Arch. Dermatol., 133, 987–990.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Davies, E. G., Thrasher, A., Lacey, K., and Harper, J. (1999) Topical cidofovir for severe molluscum contagiosum, Lancet, 353, 2042.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Buller, M., Handley, L., Parker, S. (2008) Development of prophylactics and therapeutics against smallpox and monkeypox biothreat agents. In: National Institute of Allergy and Infections Diseases, NIH, vol. 1 Fiontiers Research (Georgiev, V. St., Western, K. A., and McGowan. J. J., eds.), Humana Press, Springer, New York, pp. 145–161.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Perry, R. D. and Fetherstone, J. D. (1997) Yersinia pestis – etiologic agent of plague, Clin. Microbiol. Rev., 10(1), 35–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Smith, P. N. (1959) Pneumonic plague in mice: gross and histopathology in untreated and passively immunized animals, J. Infect. Dis., 104, 78–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Chen, T. H. and Mayer, K. F. (1965) Susceptibility of the Langur monkey (Semnopithesus entellus) to experimental plague: pathology and immunity, J. Infect. Dis., 115, 456–464.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Smith, J. H. (1976) Plague. In: Pathology of Tropical and Extraordinary Diseases. An Atlas, vol. 1 (Binford, C. H. and Connor, D. H., eds.), Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC, pp. 130–134.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Davies, K. J., Fritz, D. L., Pitt, M. L., Welkos, S. L., Worsham, P. L., and Friedlander, A. M. (1996) Pathology of experimental pneumonic plague produced by fraction 1-positive and fraction 1-negative Yersinia pestis in African green monkeys (Cercopithecus aetiops), Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med., 120, 156–163.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Adamovitz, J. J. and Andrews, G. P. (2005) Plague vaccines. Retrospective analysis and future developments. In: Biological Weapons Defense: Infectious Diseases and Counterterrorism (Lindler, L. E., Lebeda, F. J., and Korch, G. W., eds.), Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, pp. 121–153.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Butler, T. (1989) The Black Death past and present. 1. Plague in the 1980s, Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med., 83, 458–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Crook, L. D. and Tempest, B. (1992) Plague: a clinical review of 27 cases, Arch. Intern. Med., 152, 1253–1256.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Butler, T. (1985) Plague and other Yersinia infections. In: Current Topics in Infectious Disease (Greenough, W. B. and Marigan, T. C., eds.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 73–108.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Doll, J. M., Zeitz, P. S., Ettestad, P., Bucholtz, A. L., Davis, T., and Gage, K. (1994) Cat-transmitted fatal pneumonic plague in a person who traveled from Colorado to Arizona, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 51, 109–114.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Ransom, J. P. and Krueger, A. P. (1954) Chronic pneumonic plague in Macacca mulatta, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 3, 1040–1054.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Marshall. J. D., Quy, D. V., and Gibson, F. L. (1967) Asymptomatic pharyngeal plague in Vietnamese, Am. J. Trop. Med., 16, 175–177.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Haffkine, W. M. (1897) Remarks on the plague prophylactic fluid, Br. Med. J., 1, 1461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Taylor, J. (1933) Haffkine’s plague vaccine, Indian Med. Res. Memoirs, 27, 3–125.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Grasset, E. (1942) Plague immunization with live vaccine in South Africa, Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 35, 203–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Grasset, E. (1946) Control of plague by means of live avirulent plague vaccine in Southern Africa (1941–44), Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 40, 275–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Meyer, K. F., Cavanaugh, D. C., Bartelloni, P. J., and Marshall, J. D., Jr., (1974) Plague immunization I. Past and present trends, J. Infect. Dis., 129(Suppl.), S13–S17.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Chen, T. H., Elberg, S. S., and Eisler, D. M. (1977) Immunity in plague: protection of the vervet (Cercopithecus aethiops) against pneumonic plague by the oral administration of live attenuated Yersinia pestis, J. Infect. Dis., 135, 289–293.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Alexandrov, N. L., Gefen, N. E., Gapochko, K. G., Grain, N. S., Sergeyev, V. M., and Lasareva, E. S. (1961) Aerosol immunization with dry living vaccines and toxoids. Report VI. A study of postvaccinal reaction and immunological efficacy of aerosol immunization with pulverized vaccines (brucellosis, tularemia, anthrax and plague) in man, J. Microbiol. Epidemiol. Immunobiol., 32, 1245–1252.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Anisimov, A. P., Nikiforov, A. K., Yeremin, S. A., and Drozdov, I. G. (1995) Design of the strain Yersinia pestis with improved level of protection, Bull. Exp. Biol. Med., 120, 532–534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Meyer, K. F., Hightower, J. A., and McCrumb, F. R. (1974) Plague immunization. VI. Vaccination with the fraction 1 antigen of Yersinia pestis, J. Infect. Dis., 129(Suppl.), S41–S45.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Du, Y., Rosqvist, R., and Forsberg, A. (2002) Role of fraction 1 antigen of Yersinia pestis in inhibition of phagocytosis, Infect. Immun., 70, 1453–1460.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Marshall, J. D., Jr., Bartelloni, P. J., Cavanaugh, D. C., Kadull, P. J., and Meyer, K. F. (1974) Plague immunization II. Relation of adverse clinical reactions to multiple immunizations with killed vaccine, J. Infect. Dis., 129(Suppl.), S19–S25.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Ben-Efraim, S., Aronson, M., and Bichowsky-Slomnicki, L. (1961) New antigenic component of Pasteurella pestis formed under specific conditions of pH and temperature, J. Bacteriol., 81, 704–714.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Lindler, L. E. and Tall, B. D. (1993) Yersinia pestis pH 6 antigen forms fimbriae and is induced by intracellular association with macrophages, Mol. Microbiol., 8, 311–324.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Lindner, L. E., Klempner, M. S., and Straley, S. C. (1990) Yersinia pestis pH 6 antigen: genetic, biochemical, and virulence characterization of a protein involved in the pathogenesis of bubonic plague, Infect. Immun., 58, 2569–2577.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Lahteenmaki, K., Kukkonen, M., and Korhonen, T. K. (2001) The Pla surface protease/adhesin of Yersinia pestis mediates bacterial invasion into human endothelial cells, FEBS Lett., 504, 69–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Lahteenmaki, K., Kuusela, P., and Kornhonen, T. K. (2001) Bacterial plasminogen activators and receptors, FEMS Microbiol. Rev., 25, 531–552.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Burrows, T. W. (1957) Virulence of Pasteurella pestis, Nature, 179, 1246–1247.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Price, S. B., Cowan, C., Perry, R. D., and Straley, S. C. (1991) The Yersinia pestis V antigen is a regulatory protein necessary for Ca2+-dependent growth and maximal expression of low-Ca2+ response virulence genes, J. Bacteriol., 173, 2649–2657.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Nakajima, R. and Brubacker, R. R. (1993) Association between virulence of Yersinia pestis and suppression of gamma interferon and tumor necrosis factor alpha, Infect. Immun., 61, 23–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Sing, A., Roggenkamp, A., Geiger, A. M., and Heeseman, J. (2002) Yersinia enterocolitica evasion of the host innate immune response by V antigen-induced IL-10 production of macrophages is abrogated in IL-10-deficient mice, J. Immunol., 168, 1315–1321.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Sing, A., Rost, D., Tvardovskaia, N., Roggenkamp, A., Wiedemann, A., Kirschning, C. J., Aepfelbacher, M., and Heeseman, J. (2002) Yersinia V antigen exploits Toll-like receptor 2 and CD14 for interleukin 10-mediated immunosuppression, J. Exp. Med., 196, 1017–1024.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Lawton, W. D., Fukui, G. M., and Surgalla, M. J. (1960) Studies on antigens of Pasteurella pestis and Pasteurella pseudotuberculosis, J. Immunol., 84, 475–479.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Orth, K. (2002) Functions of the Yersinia effector YopJ, Curr. Opin. Microbiol., 5(1), 38–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Mazza, G., Karu, A. E., and Kingsbury, D. T. (1985) Immune responses to plasmid- and chromosome-encoded Yersinia antigens, Infect. Immun., 48, 676–685.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Heath, D. G., Anderson, G. W., Jr., Welkos, S. L., Andrews, G. P., Friedlander, A. M., and Mauro, J. M. (1997) A recombinant capsular F1-V antigen fusion protein vaccine protects against experimental bubonic and pneumonic plague. In: Vaccines 97 (Brown, F., Burton, D., Doherty, P., Mekelanos, J., and Norrby, E., eds.), Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, NY, pp. 197–200.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Anderson, G. W., Jr., Heath, D. G., Bolt, C. R., Welkos, S. L., and Friedlander, A. M. (1998) Short- and long-term efficacy of single-dose subunit vaccines against Yersinia pestis in mice, Am. J. Trop. Med.. Hyg., 58, 793–799.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Persson, C., Nordfelth, R., Holmstrom, A., Hakansson, S., Rosqvist, R., and Wolf-Watz, H. (1995) Cell-surface bound Yersinia translocate the protein tyrosine phosphatase YopH by a polarized mechanism into the target cell, Mol. Microbiol., 18, 135–150.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Hoover, D. L. and Borschel, R. H. (2005) Medical protection against brucellosis. In: Biological Weapons Defense: Infectious Diseases and Counterterrorism (Lindner, L. E., Lebeda, F. J., and Korch, G. W., eds.), Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, pp. 155–184.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Pappas, G., Akritidis, N., Bosilkovski, M., and Tsianos, E. (2005) Brucellosis, N. Engl. J. Med., 352(22), 2325–2336.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Cloeckaert, A., Vizcaino, N., Paquet, J. Y., Bowden, R. A., and Elzer, P. H. (2002) Major outer membrane proteins of Brucella spp.: past, present and future, Vet. Microbiol., 90, 229–247.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    DelVecchio, V. G., Kapatral, V., Redkar, R. J., Patra, G., Mujer, C., Los, T., Ivanova, N., Anderson, I., Bhattacharyya, A., Lykidis, A., Reznik, G., Jablonski, L., Larsen, N., D’Souza, M., Bernal, A., Mazur, M., Goltsman, E., Selkov, E., Elzer, P. H., Hagius, S., O’Callaghan, D., Letesson, J.-J., Haselkorn, R., Kyprides, N., and Overbeek, R. (2002) The genome sequence of the facultative intracellular pathogen Bricella melitensis, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 99, 443–448.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Sanchez, D. O., Zandomeni, R. O., Cravero, S., Verdún, R. E., Pierrou, E., Faccio, P., Diaz, G., Lanzavecchia, S., Agüero, F., Frasch, A. C. C., Andersson, S. G. E., Rossetti, O. L., Grau, O., and Ugalde, R. A. (2001) Gene discovery through genomic sequencing of Brucella abortus, Infect. Immun., 69, 865–868.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Paulsen, I. T., Seshadri, R., Nelson, K. E., Eisen, J. A., Heidelberg, J. F., Read, T. D., Dodson, R. J., Umayam, L., Brinkac, L. M., Beanan, M. J., Daugherty, S. C., Deboy, R. T., Durkin, A. S., Kolonay, J. F., Madupu, R., Nelson, W. C., Ayodeji, B., Kraul, M., Shetty, J., Malek, J., Van Aken, S. E., Riedmuller, S., Tettelin, H., Gill, S. R., White, O., Salzberg, S. L., Hoover, D. L., Lindler, L. E., Halling, S. M., Boyle, S. M., and Fraser, C. M. (2002) The Brucella suis genome reveals fundamental similarities between animal and plant pathogens and symbionts, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 99, 13148–13153.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Fernandez-Prada, C. M., Nikolich, M., Vemulapalli, R., Sriranganathan, N., Boyle, S. M., Schurig, G. G., Hadfield, T. L., and Hoover, D. L. (2001) Deletion of wboA enhances activation of the lectin pathway of complement in Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis, Infect. Immun., 69(7), 4407–4416.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Salmeron, I., Rodriguez-Zapata, M., Salmeron, O., Manzano, L., Vaquer, S., and Alvarez-Mon, M. (1992) Impaired activity of natural killer cells in patients with active brucellosis, Clin. Infect. Dis., 15, 746–770.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Rodriguez-Zapata, M., Reyes, E., Sanchez, L., Espinosa, A., Solera, J., and Alvarez-Mon, M. (1997) Defective reactive oxygen metabolite generation by macrophages from acute brucellosis patients, Infection, 25, 187–188.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Ko, J., Gendron-Fitzpatrick, and A. Splitter, G. A. (2002) Susceptibility of IFN regulatory factor-1 and IFN consensus sequence binding protein-deficient mice to brucellosis, J. Immunol., 168, 2433–2440.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Yingst, S. and Hoover, D. L. (2003) T cell immunity to brucellosis, Crit. Rev. Microbiol., 29, 313–331.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Zhan, Y. and Cheers, C. (1993) Endogenous gamma interferon mediates resistance to Brucella abortus infection, Infect. Immun., 61, 4899–4901.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Anderson, T. D., Cheville, N. F., and Meador, V. P. (1986) Pathogenesis of placentitis in the goat inoculated with Brucella abortus. II. Ultrastructural studies, Vet. Pathol., 23(3), 227–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Spink, W. W. (1950) Clinical aspects of human brucellosis. In: Brucellosis (Larson, C. H. and Soule, M. H., eds.), Waverly, Baltimore, pp. 1–8.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Solera, J., Lozano, E., Martinez-Alfaro, E., Espinosa, A., Castillejos, M. L., and Abad, L. (1999) Brucellar spondylitis: review of 35 cases and literature survey, Clin. Infect. Dis., 29, 1440–1449.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Khan, M. Y., Mah, M. W., and Memish, Z. A. (2001) Brucellosis in pregnant women, Clin. Infect. Dis., 32, 1172–1177.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Shakir, R. A., Al-Din, A. S., Araj, G. F., Lulu, A. R., Mousa, A. R., and Saadah, M. A. (1987) Clinical categories of neurobrucellosis: a report on 19 cases, Brain, 110, 213–223.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Schurig, G. G., Sriranganathan, N., and Corbel, M. J. (2002) Brucellosis vaccines: past, present and future, Vet. Microbiol., 90, 479–496.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Ko, J. and Spliter, G. A. (2003) Molecular host-pathogen interaction in brucellosis: current understanding and future approaches to vaccine development for mice and humans, Clin. Microbiol. Rev., 16, 65–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Waag, D. M. and Thompson, H. A. (2005) Pathogenesis of and immunity to Coxiella burnetii. In: Bilogical Weapons Defense: Infectious Diseases and Counterterrorism (Lindner, L. E., Lebeda, F. J., and Korch, G. W., eds.), Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, pp. 185–207.Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Byrne, W. P. (1997) Q fever. In: Medical Aspects of Chemical and Biological Warfare (Zajtchuk, R. and Belamy, R. F., eds.), Office of the Surgeon General, U.S. Department of the Army, pp. 523–537.Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Weisburg, W. G., Dobson, M. E., Samuel, J. E., Dasch, G. A., Mallavia, L. P., Baca, O., Mandelco, L., Sechrest, J. E., Weiss, E., and Woese, C. R. (1989) Phylogenetic diversity of the Rickettsiae, J. Bacteriol., 171, 4202–4206.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Tzianabos, T., Moss, C. W., and McDade, J. E. (1981) Fatty acid composition of rickettsiae, J. Clin. Microbiol., 13, 603–605.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Samuel, J. E., Frazier, M. E., and Mallavia, L. P. (1985) Correlation of plasmid type and disease caused by Coxiella burnetii, Infect. Immun., 49, 775–777.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Waag, D. M. and Williams, J. C. (1988) Immune modulation by Coxiella burnetii: characterization of a Phase I immunosuppressive complex expressed among strains, Immunopharmacol. Immunotoxicol., 10, 231–260.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Tigertt, W. D. and Benenson, A. S. (1956) Studies on Q fever in man, Trans. Assoc. Am. Phys., 69, 98–104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Waag, D., Chulay, J., Marrie, T., England, M., and Williams, J. (1995) Validation of an enzyme immunoassay for serodiagnosis of acute Q fever, Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis., 14(5), 421–427.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Fournier, P.-E., Marrie, T. J., and Raoult, D. (1998) Minireview: diagnosis of Q fever, J. Clin. Microbiol., 36, 1823–1834.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Sobradillo, V., Zalacain, R., Capelastegui, A., Uresandi, F., and Corral, J. (1992) Antibiotic treatment in pneumonia due to Q fever, Thorax, 47, 276–278.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Smadel, J. E., Snyder, M. J., and Robbins, F. C. (1948) Vaccination against Q fever, Am. J. Hyg., 47, 71–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Johnson, J. W., McLeod, C. G., Stookey, J. L., Higbee, G. A., and Pedersen, C. E., Jr. (1977) Lesions in guinea pigs infected with Coxiella burnetii strain M-44, J. Infect. Dis., 135, 995–998.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Ackland, J. R., Worswick, D. A., and Marmion, B. P. (1994) Vaccine prophylaxis of Q fever. A follow-up study of the efficacy of Q-Vax (CSL) 1985–1990, Med. J. Aust., 160, 704–708.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Waag, D. M. and DeShazer, D. (2005) Glanders. In: Biological Weapons Defense: Infectious Diseases and Counterterrorism (Lindler, L. E., Lebeda, F. J., and Korch, G. W., eds.), Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, pp. 209–237.Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Miller, W. R., Pannell, L., Cravitz, L., Tanner, W. A., and Rosebury, T. (1948) Studies on certain biological characteristics of Malleomyces mallei and Malleomyces pseudomallei. II. Virulence and infectivity for animals, J. Bacteriol., 55, 127–135.Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    Centers for Disease Control (2000) Biological and chemical terrorism: strategic plan for preparedness and response, Morb. Mortal. Wkly Rep., 49(RR-4), 1–14.Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Yabuuchi, E., Kosako, Y., Oyaizy, H., Yano, I., Hotta, H., Hashimoto, Y., Ezaki, T., and Arakawa, M. (1992) Proposal of Burkholderia gen. nov. and transfer of seven species of the genus Pseudomonas homology group II to a new genus, with the type species Burkholderia cepacia (Palleroni and Holmes 1981) comb.nov., Microbiol. Immunol., 36, 1251–1275.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Nierman, W. C., DeShazer, D., Kim, H. S., Tettelin, H., Nelson, K. E., Feldblyum, T., Ulrich, R. L., Ronning, C. M., Brinkac, L. M., Daugherty, S. C., Davidsen, T. D., Deboy, R. T., Dimitrov, G., Dodson, R. J., Durkin, A. S., Gwinn, M. L., Haft, D. H., Khouri, H., Kolonay, J. F., Madupu, R., Mohammoud, Y., Nelson, W. C., Radune, D., Romero, C. M., Sarria, S., Selengut, J., Shamblin, C., Sullivan, S. A., White, O., Yu, Y., Zafar, N., Zhou, L., and Fraser, C. M. (2004) Structural flexibility in the Burkholderia mallei genome, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 101(39), 14246–14251.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    DeShazer, D., Waag, D. M., Fritz, D. L., and Woods, D. E. (2001) Identification of a Burkholderia mallei polysaccharide gene cluster by subtractive hybridization and demonstration that the encoded capsule is an essential virulence determinant, Microb. Pathogen., 30, 253–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Ulrich, R. L. and DeShazer, D. (2004) Type III secretion: a virulence factor delivery system essential for the pathogenicity of Burkholderia mallei, Infect. Immun., 72, 1150–1154.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Finley, B. B. and Falkow, S. (1997) Common themes in microbial pathogenesis revisited, Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev., 61, 136–169.Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Henderson, I. R. and Nataro, J. P. (2001) Virulence functions of autotransporter proteins, Infect. Immun., 69, 1231–1243.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Zhu, J., Miller, M. B., Vance, R. E., Dziejman, M., Bassler, B. l., and Mekelanos, J. J., Quorum-sensing regulators control virulence gene expression in Vibrio cholerae, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 99, 3129–3134.Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Reckseidler, S. L., DeShazer, D., Sokol, P. A., and Woods, D. E. (2001) Detection of bacterial virulence genes by subtractive hybridization: identification of capsular polysaccharide of Burkholderia pseudomallei as a major virulence determinant, Infect. Immun., 69, 34–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Khrapova, N. P., Tikhonov, N. G., and Prokhvatilova, Y. V. (1998) Detection of glycoprotein of Bukholderia pseudomallei, Emerg. Infect. Dis., 4, 336–337.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 154a.
    Samygin, V.M., Khrapova, N.P., Spiridonov, V.A., and Stepin, A. A. (2001) Antigen 8 biosynthesis during cultivation of Burkholderia pseudomallei and B. mallei, Zh. Mikrobiol. Epidemiol. Immunobiol., 4, 50–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 155.
    Piven, N. N., Smirnova, V. L., Viktorov, D. V., Kovalenko, A. A., Farber, S. M., Iarulin, R. G., and Podzolkova, G. G. (1996) Immunogenicity and heterogenicity of Pseudomona pseudomallei surface antigen 8, Zh. Mikrobiol. (Moscow), (4), 75–78.Google Scholar
  157. 156.
    DeShazer, D., Brett, P. J., and Woods, D. E. (1998) The type II O-antigenic polysaccharide moiety of Burkholderia pseudomallei lipopolysaccharide is required for serum resistance and virulence, Mol. Microbiol., 30, 1081–1100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 157.
    Burtnick, M. N., Brett, P. J., and Woods, D. E. (2002) Molecular and physical characterization of Burkholderia mallei O antigens, J. Bacteriol., 184, 849–852.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 158.
    Pitt, T. L., Aucken, H., and Dance, D. A. (1992) Homogeneity of lipopolysaccharide antigens of Pseudomonas pseudomallei, J. Infect., 25, 139–146.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 159.
    Knirel, Y. A., Paramonov, N. A., Shashkov, A. S., Kochetkov, N. K., Yarullin, R. G., Farber, S. M., and Efremenko, V. I. (1992) Structure of the polysaccharide chains of Pseudomonas pseudomallei lipopolysaccharides, Carbohydr. Res., 233, 185–193.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 160.
    Perry, M. B., MacLean, L. L., Schollaardt, T., Bryan, L. E., and Ho, M. (1995) Structural characterization of the polysaccharide O antigens of Burkholderia pseudomallei, Infect. Immun., 63, 3348–3352.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 161.
    Day, W. A. J., Fernandez, R. E., and Maurelli, A. T. (2001) Pathoadaptive mutations that enhance virulence: genetic organization of the cadA regions of Shigella spp., Infect. Immun., 69, 7471–7480.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 162.
    Holden, M. T. G., Titball, R. W., Peacock, S. J., Cerdeño-Tárraga, A. M., Atkins, T., Crossman, L. C., Pitt, T., Churcher, C., Mungall, K., Bentley, S. D., Sebaihia, M., Thomson, N. R., Bason, N., Beacham, I. R., Brooks, K., Brown, K. A., Brown, N. F., Challis, G. L., Cherevach, I., Chillingworth, T., Cronin, A., Crossett, B., Davis, P., DeShazar, D., Feltwell, T., Fraser, A., Hance, Z., Hauser, H., Holroyd, S., Jagels, K., Keith, K. E., Maddison, M., Moule, S., Price, C., Quail, M. A., Rabbinowitsch, E., Rutherford, K., Sanders, M., Simmonds, M., Songsivilai, S., Stevens, K., Tumapa, S., Vesaratchavest, M., Whitehead, S., Yeats, C., Barrell, B. G., Oyston, P. C. F., and Parkhill, J. (2004) Genomic plasticity of the causative agent of melioidosis, Burkholderia pseudomallei, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 101(39), 14240–14245.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 163.
    Ochman, H., Lawrence, J. G., and Groisman, E. A. (2000) Lateral gene transfer and the nature of bacterial innovation, Nature, 405, 299–304.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 164.
    Mira, A., Ochman, H., and Moran, N. A. (2001) Deletional bias and the evolution of bacterial genomes, Trends Genet., 17, 589–596.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 165.
    Steinmetz, I., Rohde, M., and Brenneke, B. (1995) Purification and characterization of an exopolysaccharide of Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) pseudomallei, Infect. Immun., 63, 3959–3965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 166.
    Nimtz, M., Wray, V., Domke, T., Brenneke, B., Haussler, S., and Steinmetz, I. (1997) Structure of an acidic exopolysaccharide of Burkholderia pseudomallei, Eur. J. Biochem., 250, 608–616.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 167.
    Srinivasan, A., Kraus, C. N., DeShazer, D., Becker, P. M., Dick, J. D., Soacek, L., Bartlett, J. G., Byrne, W. R., and Thomas, D. L. (2001) Glanders in a military research microbiologist, N. Engl. J. Med., 345(4), 256–258.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 168.
    Neubauer, H., Meyer, H., and Finke, E. J. (1997) Human glanders, Int. Rev. Armed Forces Med. Serv., 70, 258–265.Google Scholar
  170. 169.
    Thibault, F. M., Hernandez, E., Vidal, D. R., Girardet, M., and Cavallo, J.-D. (2004) Antibiotic susceptibility of 65 isolates of Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei to 35 antimicrobial agents, J. Antimicrob. Chemother., 54, 1134–1138.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 170.
    Heine, H. S., England, M. J., Waag, D. M., and Byrne, R. (2001) In vitro antibiotic susceptibilities of Burkholderia mallei (causative agent of glanders) determined by broth microdilution and E-test, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 45(7), 2119–2121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 171.
    Dance, D., Wuthiekanun, V., Chaowagul, W., and White, N. J. (1989) The antimicrobial susceptibility of Pseudomonas pseudomallei. Emergence of resistance in vitro and during treatment, J. Antimicrob. Chemother., 24, 295–309.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 172.
    Centers for Disease Control (2000) Laboratory-acquired human glanders – Maryland, Morb. Mortal. Wkly Rep., 49(RR-24), 532–535.Google Scholar
  174. 173.
    Chetchotisakd, P., Porramatikul, S., Mootsikapun, P., Anunnatsiri, S., and Thinkhamrop, E. (2001) Randomized, double-blind, controlled study of cefoperazone-sulbactam plus cotrimazole for the treatment of severe melioidosis, Clin. Infect. Dis., 33, 29–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 174.
    The European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products (2002) EMEA/CPMP Guidance document on use of medicinal products for treatment and prophylaxis of biological agents that might be used as weapons of bioterrorism. 10. Glanders and melioidosis, European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products, London.Google Scholar
  176. 175.
    Mohler, J. R. and Eichhorn, A. (1914) Immunization test with glanders vaccine, J. Comp. Pathol., 27, 183–185.Google Scholar
  177. 176.
    White, N. J. (2003) Melioidosis, Lancet, 361(9370), 1715–1722.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 177.
    Dance, D. A. B. and White, N. J. (1996) Melioidosis. In: The Wellcome Trust Illustrated History of Tropical Diseases (Cox, F. E. G., ed.), The Wellcome Trust, London, pp. 72–81.Google Scholar
  179. 178.
    Visca, P., Cazzola, G., Petrucca, A., and Braggion, C. (2001) Travel-associated Burkholderia pseudomallei infection (melioidosis) in a patient with cystic fibrosis: a case report, Clin. Infect. Dis., 32, E15–E16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 179.
    Holland, D. J., Wesley, A., Drinkovic, D., and Currie, B. J. (2002) Cystic fibrosis and Burkholderia pseudomallei infection: an emerging problem, Clin. Infect. Dis., 35, 138–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 180.
    Woods, D. E., DeShazer, D., Moore, R. A., Brett, P. J., Burtnick, M. N., Reckseidler, S. L., and Senkiw, M. D. (1999) Current studies on the pathogenesis of melioidosis, Microbes Infect., 1(2), 157–162.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 181.
    Sexton, M. M., Jones, A. L., Chaowagul, W., and Woods, D. E. (1994) Purification and characterization of protease from Pseudomonas pseudomallei, Can. J. Microbiol., 40, 903–910.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 182.
    Haussler, S., Nimtz, M., Domke, T., Wray, V., and Steinmetz, I. (1996) Purification and characterization of a cytotoxic exolipid of Burkholderia pseudomallei, Infect. Immun., 66, 1588–1593.Google Scholar
  184. 183.
    Egan, A. M. and Gordon, D. L. (1996) Burkholderia pseudomallei activates complement and is ingested but not killed by polymorphonuclear leukocytes, Infect. Immun., 64, 4952–4959.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 184.
    Wong, K. T., Puthucheary, S. D., and Vadivelu, J. (1995) The histopathology of human melioidosis, Histopathology, 26, 51–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. 185.
    Kespichayawattana, W., Rattanachetkul, S., Wanun, T., Utaisincharoen, P., and Sirisinha, S. (2000) Burkholderia pseudomallei induces cell fusion and actin-associated membrane protrusion: a possible mechanism for cell-to-cell spreading, Infect. Immun., 68, 5377–5384.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. 186.
    Stevens, M. P., Wood, M. W., Taylor, L. A., Monaghan, P., Hawes, P., Jones, P. W., Wallis, T. S., and Galyov, E. E. (2002) An Inv/Mxi-Spa-like type III protein secretion system in Burkholderia pseudomallei modulates intracellular behaviour of the pathogen, Mol. Microbiol., 46, 649–659.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 187.
    Walsh, A. L., Smith, M. D., Wuthiekanun, V., Suputtamongkol, S., Chaowagul, W., Dance, D. A., Angus, B., and White, N. J. (1995) Prognostic significance of quantitative bacteremia in septicemic melioidosis, Clin. Infect. Dis., 21(6), 1498–1500.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. 188.
    Steinmetz, I., Rohde, M., and Brenneke, B. (1995) Purification and characterization of an exopolysaccharide of Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) pseudomallei, Infect. Immun., 63, 3959–3965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. 189.
    Reckseidler, S. L., DeShazer, D., Sokol, P. A., and Woods, D. E. (2001) Detection of bacterial virulence genes by subtractive hybridization: identification of capsular polysaccharide of Burkholderia pseudomallei as a major virulence determinant, Infect. Immun., 69, 34–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 190.
    Haussler, S., Rohde, M., and Steinmetz, I. (1999) Highly resistant Burkholderia pseudomallei small colony variants isolated in vitro and in experimental melioidosis, Med. Microbiol. Immunol. (Berl), 188, 91–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 191.
    Jones, S. M., Ellis, J. F., Russell, P., Griffin, K. F., and Oyston, P. C. (2002) Passive protection against Burkholderia pseudomallei infection in mice by monoclonal antibodies against capsular polysaccharide, lipopolysaccharide or proteins, J. Med. Microbiol., 51, 1055–1062.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. 192.
    Nuntayanuwat, S., Dharakul, T., Chaowagul, W., and Songsivilai, S. (1999) Polymorphism in the promoter region of tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene is associated with severe melioidosis, Hum. Immunol., 60, 979–983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 193.
    Dharakul, T., Vejbaesya, S., Chaowagul, W., Luangtrakool, P., Stephens, H. A., and Songsivilai, S. (1998) HLA-DR and -DQ associations with melioidosis, Hum. Immunol., 59, 580–586.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. 193a.
    Viriyasithavat, P., Chaowagul, W., Dance, D. A., and White, N. J. (1991) Corneal ulcer caused by Pseudomonas pseudomallei: report of three cases, Rev. Infect. Dis., 13(3), 335–337.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. 194.
    White, N. J., Dance, D. A., Chaowagul, W., Wattanagoon, Y., Wuthiekanun, V., and Pitakwatchara, N. (1989) Halving of mortality of severe melioidosis by ceftazidime, Lancet, 2, 697–701.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. 195.
    Sookpranee, M., Boonma, P., Susaengrat, W., Bhuripanyo, K., and Punyagupta, S. (1992) Multicenter prospective randomized trial comparing ceftazidime plus co-trimozaxole with chloramphenicol plus doxycycline and co-trimoxazole for treatment of severe melioidosis, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 36, 158–162.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. 196.
    Smith, M. D., Wuthiekanun, V., Walsh, A. L., and White, N. J. (1994) Susceptibility of Pseudomonas pseudomallei to some newer β-lactam antibiotics and antibiotic combination using time-kill studies, J. Antimicrob. Chemother., 33, 145–149.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. 197.
    Simpson, A. J. H., Suputtamongkol, Y., Smith, M. D., Angus, B. J., Rajanuwong, A., Wuthiekanun, V., Howe, P. A., Walsh, A. L., Chaowagul, W., and White, N. J. (1999) Comparison of imipenem and ceftazidime as therapy for severe melioidosis, Clin. Infect. Dis., 29(2), 381–387.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. 198.
    Dance, D. A. B., Davis, T. M. E., Wattanagoon, Y., Chaowagul, W., Saiphan, P., Looareesuwan, S., Wuthiekanun, V., and White, N. J. (1989) Acute suppurative parotitis caused by Pseudomonas pseudomallei in children, J. Infect. Dis., 159(4), 654–660.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. 199.
    Currie, B. J., Fisher, D. A., Howard, D. M., Burrow, J. N. C., Lo, D., Selva-nayagam, S., Anstey, N. M., Huffman, S. E., Snelling, P. L., Marks, P. J., Stephens, D. P., Lum, G. D., Jacups, S. P., and Krause, V. L. (2000) Endemic melioidosis in tropical northern Australia: a 10-year prospective study and review of the literature, Clin. Infect. Dis., 31, 981–986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. 200.
    Woods, M. L. 2nd, Currie, B. J., Howard, D. M., Tierney, A., Watson, A., Anstey, N. M., Philpott, J., Asche, V., and Withnall, K. (1992) Neurological melioidosis: seven cases from the Northern territory of Australia, Clin. Infect. Dis., 15(1), 163–169.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. 201.
    Currie, B., Fisher, D. A., Howard, D. M., and Burrow, J. N. (2000) Neurological melioidosis, Acta Trop., 74(2–3), 145–151.Google Scholar
  204. 202.
    World Health Organization (1976) Ebola haemorrhagic fever in Zaire, Bull. World Health Organization, 56, 271–293.Google Scholar
  205. 203.
    Bowen, E. T. W., Platt, G. S., Lloyd, G., Baskerville, A., Harris, W. J., and Vella, E. C. (1977) Viral haemorrhagic fever in southern Sudan and northern Zaire: preliminary studies on the aetiologic agent, Lancet, 1, 571–573.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. 204.
    Baron, R. C., McCormick, J. B., and Zubeir, O. A. (1983) Ebola virus disease in southern Sudan: hospital dissemination and intrafamilial spread, Bull. World Health Organization, 62, 997–1003.Google Scholar
  207. 205.
    Sanchez, A., Ksiazek, T. G., Rollin, P. E., Peters, C. J., Nichol, S. T., Khan, A. S., and Mahy, B. W. J. (1995) Reemergence of Ebola virus in Africa, Emerg. Infect. Dis., 1(3), 96–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. 206.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (1995) Outbreak of Ebola viral hemorrhagic fever – Zaire, Morb. Mortal. Wkly Rep., 44, 381–382.Google Scholar
  209. 207.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (1995) Update: outbreak of ebola viral hemorrhagic fever – Zaire, Morb. Mortal. Wkly Rep., 44, 399.Google Scholar
  210. 208.
    Formenty, P., Boesch, C., Wyers, M., Steiner, C., Donati, F., Dind, F., Walker, F., and Le Guenno, B. (1999) Ebola virus outbreak among wild chimpanzees living in a rain forest of Côte d’Ivoire, J. Infect. Dis., 179(Suppl. 1), S120–S126.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. 209.
    Le Guenno, B., Formenty, P., Wyers, M., Gounon, P., Walker, F., and Boesch, C. (1995) Isolation and partial characterization of a new strain of Ebola virus, Lancet, 345(8960), 1271–1274.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. 210.
    Jahrling, R. B., Geisbert, T. W., Jaax, N. K., Hanes, M. A., Ksiazek, T. G., and Peters, C. J. (1996) Experimental infection of cynomolgus macaques with Ebola-Reston filoviruses from the 1989–1990 U.S. epizootic, Arch. Virol. Suppl., 11, 115–134.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. 211.
    World Health Organization (1992) Viral haemorrhagic fever in imported monkeys, Wkly Epidemiol. Rec., 67, 142–143.Google Scholar
  214. 212.
    Francesconi, P., Yoti, Z., Declich, S., Onek, P. A., Fabiani, M., Olango, J., Andreghetti, R., Rollin, P. E., Opira, C., Greco, D., and Salmaso, S. (2003) Ebola hemorrhagic fever transmission and risk factors of contact, Uganda, Emerg. Infect. Dis., 9(11), 1430–1437.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. 213.
    Sanchez, A., Kiley, M. P., Holloway, B. P., and Auperin, D. D. (1993) Sequence analysis of the Ebola genome: organization, genetic elements, and comparison with the genome of Marburg virus, Virus Res., 29, 215–240.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. 214.
    Yaddanapudi, K., Palacios, G., Towner, J. S., Chen, I., Sariol, C. A., Nichol, S. T., and Lipkin, W. I. (2006) Implication of a retrovirus-like glycoprotein peptide in the immunopathogenesis of Ebola and Marburg viruses, FASEB J., 20, 2519–2530.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. 215.
    Baize, S., Leroy, E. M., Georges-Courbot, M. C., Capron, M., Lansoud-Soukate, J., Debre, P., Fisher-Hoch, S. P., McCormick, J. B., and Georges, A. J. (1999) Defective humoral responses and extensive intravascular apoptosis are associated with fatal outcome in Ebola virus-infected patients, Nat. Med., 5, 423–426.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. 216.
    Leroy, E. M., Baize, S., Volchkov, V. E., Fisher-Hoch, S. P., Georges-Courbot, M. C., Lansoud-Soukate, J., Capron, M., Debre, P., McCormick, J. B., and Georges, A. J. (2000) Human asymptomatic Ebola infection and strong inflammatory response, Lancet, 355, 2210–2215.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. 217.
    Villinger, F., Rollin, P. E., Brar, S. S., Chikkala, N. F., Winter, J., Sundstrom, J. B., Zaki, S. R., Swanepoel, R., Ansari, A. A., and Peters, C. J. (1999) Markedly elevated levels of interferon (IFN)-gamma, INF-alpha, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha associated with fatal Ebola virus infection, J. Infect. Dis., 179(Suppl.), S188–S191.Google Scholar
  220. 218.
    Yang, Z. Y., Duckers, H. J., Sullivan, N. J., Sanchez, A., Nabel, E. G., and Nabel, G. J. (2000) Identification of the Ebola virus glycoprotein as the main determinant of vascular cell cytotoxicity and injury, Nat. Med., 6, 886–889.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. 219.
    Volchkov, V. E., Volchkova, V. A., Muhlberger, E., Kolesnikova, L. V., Weik, M., Dolnik, O., and Klenk, H. D. (2001) Recovery of infectious Ebola virus from complementary DNA: RNA editing of the GP gene and viral cytotoxicity, Science, 291, 1965–1969.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. 220.
    Feldman, H., Volchkov, V. E., Volchkova, V. A., Stroher, U., and Klenk, H. D. (2001) Biosynthesis and role of filoviral glucoproteins, J. Gen. Virol. 82, 2839–2848.Google Scholar
  223. 221.
    Yaddanapudi, K., Palacios, G., Towner, J. S., Chen, I., Sariol, C. A., Nichol, S. T., and Lipkin, W. I. (2006) Implication of a retrovirus-like glycoprotein peptide in the immunopathogenesis of Ebola and Marburg viruses, FASEB J., 20, 2519–2530.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. 222.
    Denner, J., Norley, S., and Kurth, R. (1994) The immunosuppressive peptide of HIV-1: functional domains and immune response in AIDS patients, AIDS, 8, 1063–1072.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. 223.
    Haraguchi, S., Good, R. A., and Day, N. K. (1995) Immunosuppressive retroviral peptides: cAMP and cytokine patterns, Immunol. Today, 16, 595–603.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. 224.
    Cianciolo, G. J., Copeland, T. D., Oroszlan, S., and Snyderman, R. (1985) Inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation by a synthetic peptide homologous to retroviral envelope proteins, Science, 230, 453–455.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. 225.
    Haraguchi, S., Good, R. A., James-Yarish, M., Cianciolo, G. J., and Day, N. K. (1995) Induction of intracellular cAMP by a synthetic retroviral envelope peptide: a possible mechanism of immunopathogenesis in retroviral infections, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 92, 5568–5571.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. 226.
    Haraguchi, S., Good, R. A., James-Yarish, M., Cianciolo, G. J., and Day, N. K. (1995) Differential modulation of Th1- and Th2-related cytokine mRNA expression by a synthetic peptide homologous to a conserved domain within retroviral envelope protein, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 92, 3611–3615.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. 227.
    Gottlieb, R. A., Kleinerman, A. S., O’Brien, C. A., Tsujimoto, S., Cianciolo, G. J., and Lennarz, W. J. (1990) Inhibition of protein kinase G by a peptide conjugate homologous to a domain of the retroviral protein p15E, J. Immunol., 145, 2566–2570.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. 228.
    Kadota, J., Cianciolo, G. J., and Snyderman, R. (1991) A synthetic peptide homologous to retroviral transmembrane envelope proteins depresses protein kinase C mediated lymphocytic prolifereation and directly inactivated protein kinase C: a potential mechanism for immunosuppression, Microbiol. Immunol., 35, 443–459.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. 229.
    Feldman, H. and Klenk, H.-D. Filoviruses. In: Medmicro Chapter 72 (http://www.gsbs.utmb.edu/microbook/ch072.htm).
  232. 230.
    Sullivan, N. J., Sanchez, A., Rollin, P. E., Yang, Z. Y, and Nabel, G. J. (2000) Development of preventive vaccine for Ebola virus infection in primates, Nature, 408(6812), 605–609.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. 231.
    Kudoyarova-Zubavichene, N. M., Sergeyev, N. N., Chepurnov, A. A., and Netesov, S. V. (1999) Preparation and use of hyperimmune serum for prophylaxis and therapy of Ebola virus infection, J. Infect. Dis., 179(Suppl.), S218–S223.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. 232.
    Jahrling, P. B., Geisbert, T. W., Geisbert, J. B., Swearengen, J. R., Bray, M., Jaax, N. K., Huggins, J. W., LeDuc, J. W., and Peters, C. J. (1999) Evaluation of immune globulin and recombinant interferon- for treatment of experimental Ebola virus infections, J. Infect. Dis., 179(Suppl.), S224–S234.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. 233.
    Burton, D. R. and Parren, P. W. H. I. (2000) Fighting the Ebola virus, Nature, 408. 527–528.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. 234.
    Hevey, M., Negley, D., Pushko, P., Smith, J., and Schmaljohn, A. (1998) Marburg virus vaccines based upon alphavirus replicons protect guinea pigs and nonhuman primates, Virology, 251(1), 28–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. 235.
    Elliott, R. M., Bouloy, M., Calisher, C. H., Goldbach, R., Moyer, J. T., Nichol, S. T., Pettersson, R., Plyusnin, A., and Schmaljohn, C. S. (2000) Family Bunyaviridae. In: Virus Taxonomy. Seventh Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (van Regenmortel, M. H. V., Fauquet, C. M., Bishop, D. H. L., Carstens, E. B., Estes, M. K., Lemon, S. M., Maniloff, J., Mayo, M. A., McGeoch, D. J., Pringle, C. R., and Wickner, R. B., eds.), Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 599–621.Google Scholar
  238. 236.
    Elliott, R. M. (1990) Molecular biology of Bunyaviridae, J. Gen. Virol., 71, 501–522.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. 237.
    Bowen, M. D., Trappier, S. G., Sanchez, A. J., Meyer, R. F., Goldsmith, C. S., Zaki, S. R., Dunster, L. M., Peters, C. J., Ksiazek, T. G., and Nichol, S. T. (2001) A reassortant Bunyavirus isolated from hemorrhagic fever cases in Kenya and Somalia, Virology, 291, 185–190.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. 238.
    Gerrard, S. R., Li, L., Barrett, A. D., and Nichol, S. T. (2004) Ngari virus is a Bunyamwera virus reassortant that can be associated with large outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever in Africa, Virology, 78, 8922–8926.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. 239.
    Flick, R. and Whitehouse, C. A. (2005) Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Curr. Mol. Med., 5, 753–760.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. 240.
    Clerx-van Haaster, C. M., Clerx, J. P. M., Ushijima, H., Akashi, H., Fuller, F., and Bishop, D. H. L. (1982) The 3 ′ terminal RNA sequences of Bunyaviruses and Nairoviruses (Bunyaviridae): evidence of end sequence generic differences within the virus family, J. Gen. Virol., 61, 289–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. 241.
    Flick, R., Elgh, F., and Pettersson, R. F. (2002) Mutational analysis of the Uukuniemi virus (Bunyaviridae family) promoter reveals two elements of functional importance, J. Virol., 76(21), 10849–10860.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. 242.
    Bishop, D. H. L., Calisher, C., Casals, J., Chumakov, M. P., Gaidamovich, S. Y., Hannoun, C., Lvov, D. K., Marshall, I. D., Oker-Blom, N. M., Peterrsson, R. F., Porterfield, J. S., Russell, P. K., Shope, R. E., and Westaway, E. G. (1980), Bunyaviridae, Intervirology, 14, 125–143.Google Scholar
  245. 243.
    Kinsella, E., Martin, S. G., Grolla, A., Czub, M., Feldmann, H., and Flick, R. (2002) Sequence determination of the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus L segment, Virology, 321(1), 23–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. 244.
    Honig, J. E., Osborne, J. C., and Nichol, S. T. (2004) Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus genome L RNA segment and encoded protein, Virology, 321, 29–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. 245.
    Sanchez, A. J., Vincent, M. J., and Nichol, S. T. (2002) Characterization of the glycoproteins of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, J. Virol., 76, 7263–7275.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. 246.
    Baskerville, A., Fisher-Hoch, S. P., Neild, G. H., and Dowsett, A. B. (1985) Ultrastructural pathology of experimental Ebola haemorrhagic fever virus infection, J. Pathol., 147(3), 199–209.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. 247.
    Vincent, M. J., Sanchez, A. J., Erickson, B. R., Basak, A., Chretien, M., Seidah, N. G., and Nichol, S. T. (2003) Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus glycoprotein proteolytic processing by subtilase SKI-1, J. Virol., 77(16), 8640–8649.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. 248.
    Haferkamp, S., Fernando, L., Schwartz, T. F., Feldmann, H., and Flick, R. (2005) Intracellular localization of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus glycoproteins, Virol. J., 2, 42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. 249.
    Walpita, P. and Flick, R. (2005) Reverse genetics of negative-stranded RNA viruses: a global perspective, FEMS Microbiol. Lett., 266(1), 9–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. 250.
    Lawson, N. D., Stillman, E. A., Whitt, M. A., and Rose, J. K. (1995) Recombinant vesicular stomatitis viruses from DNA, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 92, 4477–4481.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. 251.
    Whelan, S. P. J., Ball, L. A., Barr, J. N., and Wertz, G. T. W. (1995) Efficient recovery of infectious vesicular stomatitis virus entirely from cDNA clones, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 92, 8388–8392.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. 252.
    He, B., Paterson, R. G., Ward, C. D., and Lamb, R. A. (1997) Recovery of infectious SV5 from cloned DNA and expression of a foreign gene, Virology, 237(2), 249–260.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. 253.
    Barron, M. D. and Barrett, T. (1997) Rescue of rinderpest virus from cloned cDNA, J. Virol., 71(2), 1265–1271.Google Scholar
  256. 254.
    Neumann, G., Feldmann, H., Watanabe, S., Lukashevich, I., and Kawaoka, Y. (2002) Reverse genetics demonstrates that proteolytic processing of the Ebola virus glycoprotein is not essential for replication in cell culture, J. Virol., 76(1), 406–410.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. 255.
    Neumann, G., Watanabe, T., Ito, H., Watanabe, S., Goto, H., Gao, P., Hughes, M., Perez, D. R., Donis, R., Hoffmann, E., Hobom, G., and Kawaoka, Y. (1999) Generation of influenza A viruses entirely from cloned cDNAs, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 96(16), 9345–9350.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. 256.
    Flick, R., Flick, K., Feldmann, H., and Elgh, F. (2003) Reverse genetics for Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, J. Virol., 77(10), 5997–6006.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. 257.
    Zobel, A., Neumann, G., and Hobom, G. (1993) RNA polymerase I catalyzed transcription of insert viral cDNA, Nucleic Acids Res., 21(16), 3607–3614.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. 258.
    Neumann, G., Zobel, A., and Hobom, G. (1994) RNA polymerase I-mediated expression of influenza viral RNA molecules, Virology, 202(1), 477–479.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. 259.
    Talmon, Y., Prasad, B. V. V., Clerx, J. P. M., Wang, G.-J., Chiu, W., and Hewlett, M. J. (1987) Electron microscopy of vitrified-hydrated La Cross virus, J. Virol., 61, 2319–2321.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  262. 260.
    Eliott, L. H., Kiley, M. P., and McCormick, J. B. (1984) Hantaan virus: identification of virion proteins, J. Gen. Virol., 65, 1285–1293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. 261.
    Beaty, B. J., Rozhon, E. J., Gensemer, P., and Bishop, D. H. L. (1981) Formation of reassortant bunyaviruses in dually infected mosquitoes, Virology, 111, 662–665.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. 262.
    Beaty, B. J., Miller, B. R., Shope, R. E., Rozhon, E. J., and Bishop, D. H. L. (1982) Molecular basis of bunyavirus per os infection of mosquitoes: role of middle-sized RNA segment, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 79, 1295–1297.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. 263.
    Beaty, B. J., Sundin, D. R., Chandler, L. J., and Bishop, D. H. L. (1985) Evolution of bunyaviruses by genome reassortment in dually infected mosquitoes (Aedes triseriatus), Science, 230, 548–550.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  266. 264.
    Klimas, R. A., Thompson, W. A., Calisher, C. H., Clark, G. G., Grimstad, P. R., and Bishop, D. H. L. (1981) Genotypic varieties of La Cross virus isolated from different geographic regions of the continental United States and evidence of naturally occurring intertypic recombinant La Cross virus, Am. J. Epidemiol., 114, 112–131.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  267. 264a.
    Ushijima, H., Clerx-van Haaster, C. M., and Bishop, D. H. L. (1981) Analyses of Patois group bunyaviruses: evidence for naturally occurring recombinant bunyaviruses and existence of immune precipitable and nonprecipitable nonvirion proteins induced in bunyavirus-infected cells, Virology, 110, 318–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  268. 264b.
    Sall, A. A., de Zanotto, P. M., Sene, O. K., Zeller, H. G., Digoutte, J. P., Thiongane, Y., and Bouloy, M. (1999) Genetic reassortment of Rift Valley fever virus in nature, J. Virol., 73(10), 8196–8200.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. 264c.
    Hoogstraal, H. (1979) The epidemiology of tick-borne Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Asia, Europe, and Africa, J. Med. Entomol., 15(4), 307–417.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  270. 264d.
    Leshchinskaya, E. V. (1965) Clinical picture of Crimean haemorrhagic fever in Russia, Trudy Inst. Polio Virusn. Entsefalitov Akad. Med. Nauk SSSR, 7, 226–236. (in English: NAMRU3-1856).Google Scholar
  271. 265.
    Woodall, J. P., Williams, M. C., and Simpson, D. I. (1967) Congo virus: a hitherto underdescribed virus occurring in Africa. II. Identification studies, East Afr. Med. J., 44(2), 93–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  272. 266.
    Casals, J. (1969) Antigenic similarity between the virus causing Crimean hemorrhagic fever and Congo virus, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 131(1), 233–236.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  273. 267.
    Begum, F., Wisseman, C. L., Jr., and Casals, J. (1970) Tick-borne viruses of West Pakistan. IV. Viruses similar to, or identical with, Crimean Hemorrhagic fever (Congo-Semunya), Wad medani, and Pak Argas 461 isolated from ticks of the Changa Manga Forest, Lahore District, and Hunza, Gilgit Agency, W. Pakistan, Am. J. Epidemiol., 92(3), 197–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  274. 268.
    Schwartz, T. F., Nitschko, H., Jager, G., Nsanze, H., Longson, M., Pugh, R. N., and Abraham, A. K. (1995) Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in Oman, Lancet, 4(8984), 1230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. 269.
    Whitehouse, C. A. (2004) Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Antiviral Res., 64, 145–160.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  276. 270.
    Swanepoel, R., Gill, D. E., Shepherd, A. J., Leman, P. A., Mynhardt, J. H., and Harvey, S. (1989) The clinical pathology of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Rev. Infect. Dis., 11(Suppl. 4), S794–S800.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  277. 271.
    Saijo, M., Tang, Q., Shimayi, B., Han, L., Zhang, Y., Asiguma, M., Tianshu, D., Maeda, A., Kurane, I., and Morikawa, S. (2005) Recombinant nucleoprotein-based serological diagnosis of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus infections, J. Med. Virol., 75(2), 295–299.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  278. 272.
    Saijo, M., Tang, Q., Shimayi, B., Han, L., Zhang, Y., Asiguma, M., Tianshu, D., Maeda, A., Kurane, I., and Morikawa, S. (2005) Antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the diagnosis of Crimean-Cong hemorrhagic fever using a novel monoclonal antibody, J. Med. Virol., 77(1), 83–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  279. 273.
    Paragas, J., Whitehouse, C. A., Endy, T. P., and Bray, M. (2004) A simple assay for determining antiviral activity against Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Antiviral Res., 62(1), 21–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  280. 274.
    Tignor, G. H. and Hanham, C. A. (1993) Ribavirin efficacy in an in vivo model of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHF) infection, Antiviral Res., 22(4), 309–325.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  281. 275.
    Mardani, M., Keshtkar, M., Holakouie Naieni, K., and Zeinali, M. (2003) The efficacy of oral ribavirin in the treatment of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Iran, Clin. Infect. Dis., 36, 1613–1618.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  282. 276.
    Papa, A., Bozovi, B., Pavlidou, V., Papadimitriou, E., Pelemis, M., and Antoniadis, A. (2002) Genetic detection and isolation of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Kosovo, Yugoslavia, Emerg. Infect. Dis., 8(8), 852–854.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  283. 277.
    Tang, Q., Saijo, M., Zhang, Y., Asiguma, M., Tianshu, D., Han, L., Shimayi, B., Maeda, A., Kurane, I., and Morikawa, S. (2003) A patient with Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever serologically diagnosed by recombinant nucleoprotein-based antibody detection systems, Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol., 10(3), 489–491.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  284. 278.
    Fisher-Hoch, S. P., Khan, J. A., Rehman, S., Mirza, S., Khurshid, M., and McCormick, J. B. (1995) Crimean-Congo-haemorrhagic fever treated with oral ribavirin, Lancet, 346(8973), 472–475.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  285. 279.
    Centers for Disease Control (1988) Management of patients with suspected viral hemorrhagic fever, Morb. Mortal. Wkly Rep., 37(Suppl. 3) 1–16.Google Scholar
  286. 280.
    Vassilenko, S. M., Vassilev, T. L., Bozadjiev, L. G., Bineva, I. L., and Kazarov, G. Z. (1990) Specific intravenous immunoglobulin for Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever, Lancet, 335(8692), 791–792.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  287. 281.
    Vassilev, T., Valchev, V., Kazarov, G., Razsukanova, L., and Vitanov, T. (1991) A reference preparation for human immunoglobulin against Crimean/Congo hemorrhagic fever, Biologicals, 19(1), 57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  288. 282.
    Papa, A., Christova, I., Papadimitriou, E., and Antoniadis, A. (2004) Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Bulgaria, Emerg. Infect. Dis., 10(8), 1465–1467.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  289. 283.
    Kovacheva, T., Velcheva, D., and Katzarov, G. (1997) Studies on the morbidity of Congo-Crimean hemorrhagic fever before and after specific immunoprophylaxis [in Bulgarian], Infectology, 34, 34–35.Google Scholar
  290. 284.
    Flick, R. and Bouloy, M. (2005) Rift Valley virus, Curr. Mol. Med., 5, 827–834.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  291. 285.
    Gerdes, G. H. (2004) Rift Valley fever, Rev. Sci. Tech. Off. Int. Epiz., 23, 613–623.Google Scholar
  292. 286.
    Bird, B. H., Albariñ, C. G., and Nichol, S. T. (2007) Rift Valley fever virus lacking NSm proteins retains high virulence in vivo and may provide a model of human delayed onset neurologic disease, Virology, 362(1), 10–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  293. 287.
    Ikegami, T., Peters, C. J., and Makino, S. (2005) Rift Valley fever virus nonstructural protein NSs promotes viral RNA replication and transcription in a minigenome system, J. Virol., 79(9), 5606–5615.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  294. 288.
    Neumann, G., Zobel, A., and Hobom, G. (1994) RNA polymerase I-mediated expression of influenza viral RNA molecules, Virology, 202, 477–479.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  295. 289.
    Zobel, A., Neumann, G., and Hobom, G. (1993) RNA polymerase I catalyzed transcription of insert viral cDNA, Nucleic Acids Res., 21(16), 3607–3614.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  296. 290.
    Gauliard, N., Billecocq, A., Flick, R., and Bouloy, M. (2006) Rift Valley fever virus noncoding regions of L, M and S segments regulate RNA synthesis, Virology, 351(1), 170–179.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  297. 291.
    Billecock, A., Spiegel, M., Vialat, P., Kohl, A., Weber, F., Bouloy, M., and Haller, O. (2004) NSs protein of Rift Valley fever virus blocks interferon production by inhibiting host gene transcription, J. Virol., 78(18), 9798–9806.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  298. 292.
    Haller, O., Kochs, G., and Weber, F. (2006) The interferon response circuit: induction and suppression by pathogenic viruses, Virology, 344, 119–130.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  299. 293.
    Marie, I., Durbin, J. E., and Levy, D. E. (1998) Differential viral induction of distinct interferon-alpha genes by positive feedback through interferon regulatory factor-7, EMBO J., 17(22), 6660–6669.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  300. 294.
    Samuel, C. E. (2001) Antiviral actions of interferons, Clin. Microbiol. Rev., 14(4), 778–809.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  301. 295.
    de Veer, M. J., Holko, M., Frevel, M., Walker, E., Der, S., Paranjape, J. M., Silverman, R. H., and Williams, B. R. (2001) Functional classification of interferon-stimulated genes identified using microarray, J. Leukocyte Biol., 69(6), 912–920.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  302. 296.
    Geisbert, T. W. and Jahrling, P. B. (2004) Exotic emerging viral disease: progress and challenges, Nat. Med., 10(12 Suppl.), S110–S121.Google Scholar
  303. 297.
    Collett, M. S. (1986) Messenger RNA of the M segment of RNA of Rift Valley fever virus, Virology, 151(1), 151–156.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  304. 298.
    Bridgen, A. and Elliott, R. M. (1996) Rescue by a segmented negative-strand virus entirely from cloned complentary DNAs, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 93, 15400–15404.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  305. 299.
    Le May, N., Dubaele, S., Proietti De Santis, L., Billecock, A., Bouloy, M., and Egly, J.-M. (2004) TFIIF transcription factor, a target for the Rift Valley hemorrhagic fever virus, Cell, 116, 541–550.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  306. 300.
    Peters, C. J., Reynolds, J. A., Slone, T. W., Jones, D. E., and Stephen, E. L. (2001) Prophylaxis of Rift Valley fever with antiviral drugs, immune serum, an interferon inducer, and a macrophage activator, Antiviral Res., 6(5), 285–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  307. 301.
    Khaiboullina, S. F., Morzunov, S. P., and St. Jeor, S. C. (2005) Hantaviruses: molecular biology, evolution and pathogenesis, Curr. Mol. Med., 5, 773–790.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  308. 302.
    Schmaljohn, C. S. (1996) Bunyaviridae: the viruses and their replication. In: Fields Virology (Fields, B. N., Knipe, D. M., and Howley, P. M., eds.), Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia, pp. 1447–1471.Google Scholar
  309. 303.
    LeDuc, J. W., Childs, J. E., and Glass, G. E. (1992) The hantaviruses, etiologic agents of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome: a possible cause of hypertension and chronic renal disease in the United States, Annu. Rev. Publ. Health, 13, 79–98.Google Scholar
  310. 304.
    Peters, C. J., Simpson, G. L., and Levy, H. (1999) Spectrum of hantavirus infection: hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and hantavirus pulmonaty syndrome, Annu. Rev. Med., 50, 531–545.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  311. 305.
    Plyusnin, A., Vapalahti, O., and Vaheri, A. (1996) Hantaviruses: genome structure, expression and evolution, J. Gen. Virol., 77, 2677–2687.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  312. 306.
    Alfadhli, A., Steel, E., Finlay, L., Bächinger, H. P., and Barklis, E. (2002) Hantavirus nucleocapsid protein coiled-coil domains, J. Biol. Chem., 277(30), 27103–27108.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  313. 307.
    Pensiero, M. N. and Hay, J. (1992) The Hantaan virus M-segment glycoproteins G1 and G2 can be expressed independently, J. Virol., 66, 1907–1914.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  314. 308.
    Deyde, V. M., Rizvanov, A. A., Chase, J., Otteson, E. W., and St. Jeor, S. C. (2005) Hantaan virus replication: effects of monensin, tunicamycin and endoglycosidases on the structural glycoproteins, Virology, 331, 307–315.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  315. 309.
    Schmaljohn, C. S., Hasty, S. E., Rasmussen, L., and Dalrymple, J. M. (1986) Interaction and trafficking of Andes and Sin Nombre hantavirus glycoproteins G1 and G2, J. Gen. Virol., 67(Pt. 4), 707–717.Google Scholar
  316. 310.
    Tsai, T. F., Tang, Y. W., Hu, S. L., Ye, K. L., Chen, G. L., and Xu, Z. Y. (1984) Hemagglutination-inhibiting antibody in hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, J. Infect. Dis., 150, 895–898.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  317. 311.
    Arikawa, J., Takashima, I., and Hashimoto, N. (1985) Cell fusion by hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) viruses and its application for titration of virus infectivity and neutralizing antibody, Arch. Virol., 86, 303–313.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  318. 312.
    Okuno, Y., Yamanishi, K., Takahashi, Y., Tanishita, O., Nagai, T., Dantas, J. R., Jr., Okamoto, Y., Tadano, M., and Takahashi, M. (1986) Haemagglutination-inhibition test for hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome using virus antibody prepared from infected tissue culture fluid, J. Gen. Virol., 67(Pt. 1), 149–156.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  319. 313.
    Gavrilovskaya, I. N., Brown, E. J., Ginsberg, M. H., and Mackow, E. R. (1999) Cellular entry of hantaviruses which cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome is mediated by β3 integrins, J. Virol., 73(5), 3951–3959.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  320. 314.
    Kolakofsky, D. and Hacker, D. (1991) Bunyavirus RNA synthesis: transcription and replication, Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol., 169, 143–159.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  321. 315.
    Peng, G., Hongo, S., Kimura, H., Muraki, Y., Sugawara, K., Kitame, F., Numazaki, Y., Suzuki, H., and Nakamura, K. (1996) Frequent occurence of genetic reassortment between influenza C virus strains in nature, J. Gen. Virol., 77(Pt. 7), 1489–1492.Google Scholar
  322. 316.
    Li, D., Schmaljohn, A. L., Anderson, K., and Schmaljohn, C. S. (1995) Complete nucleotide sequence of the M and S segments of two hantavirus isolates from California: evidence for reassortment in nature among viruses related to hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, Virology, 206, 973–983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  323. 317.
    Webster, R. G. and Laver, W. G. (1971) Antigenic variation in influenza virus. Biology and chemistry, Prog. Med. Virol., 13, 271–338.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  324. 318.
    Beaty, B. J., Sundin, D. R., Chandler, L. J., and Bishop, D. H. (1985) Evolution of bunyaviruses by genome reassortment in dually infected mosquitoes (Aedes triseriatus), Science, 230, 548–550.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  325. 319.
    Urquidi, V. and Bishop, D. H. (1992) Non-random reassortment between the tripartite RNA genomes of La Crosse and snowshoe hare viruses, J. Gen. Virol., 73(Pt. 9), 2255–2265.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  326. 320.
    Sall, A. A., Zanotto, P. M., Sene, O. K., Zeller, H. G., Digoutte, J. P., Thiongane, Y., and Bouloy, M. (1999) Genetic reassortment of Rift Valley fever virus in nature, J. Virol., 73, 8196–8200.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  327. 321.
    Khaiboullina, S. F., Rizvanov, A. A., Otteson, E., Miyazato, A., Maciejewski, J., and St. Jeor, J. S. (2004) Regulation of cellular gene expression in endothelial cells by Sin Nombre and prospect hill viruses, Viral Immunol., 17, 234–251.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  328. 322.
    Geimonen, E., Neff, S., Raymond, T., Kocer, S. S., Gavrilovskaya, I. N., and Mackow, E. R. (2002) Pathogenic and nonpathogenic hantaviruses differentially regulate endothelial cell responses, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 99, 13837–13842.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  329. 323.
    Gavrilovskaia, I. N., Podgorodnichenko, V. K., Apekina, N. S., Gorbachkova, E. A., and Bogdanova, S. B. (1987) Determination of specific immune complexes and dynamics of their circulation in patients with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, Mikrobiol. Zh., 49, 71–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  330. 324.
    Penttinen, K., Lahdevirta, J., Kekomaki, R., Ziola, B., Salmi, A., Hautanen, A., Lindstrom, P., Vaheri, A., Brummer-Korvenkontio, M., and Wager, O. (1981) Circulating immune complexes, immunoconglutinins, and rheumatoid factors in nephropathia epidemica, J. Infect. Dis., 143(1), 15–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  331. 325.
    Jokinen, E. J., Lahdevirta, J., and Collan, Y. (1978) Nephropathia epidemica: immunohistochemical study of pathogenesis, Clin. Nephrol., 9, 1–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  332. 326.
    Lahdevirta, J. (1971) Nephropathia epidemica in Finland. A clinical histological and epidemiological study, Ann. Clin. Res., 3, 1–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  333. 327.
    Ferrer, J. F., Jonsson, C. B., Esteban, E., Galligan, D., Basombrio, M. A., Peralta-Ramos, M., Bharadwaj, M., Torrez-Martinez, N., Callahan, J., Segovia, A., and Hjelle, B. (1998) High prevalence of hantavirus infection in Indian communities of Paraguyan and Argentinean Gran Chaco, Am. J. Trop. Med.. Hyg.., 59, 438–444.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  334. 328.
    Lundkvist, A., Horling, J., and Niklasson, B. (1993) The humoral response to Puumala virus infection (nephropathia epidemica) investigated by viral protein specific immunoassays, Arch. Virol., 130, 121–130.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  335. 329.
    Ulrich, R., Lundkvist, A., Meisel, H., Koletzki, D., Sjolander, K. B., Gelderblom, H. R., Borisova, G., Schnitzler, P., Darai, G., and Kruger, D. H. (1998) Chimaeric HBV core particles carrying a defined segment of Puumala hantavirus nucleocapsid protein evoke protective immunity in an animal model, Vaccine, 16, 272–280.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  336. 330.
    Alexeyev, O. A., Ahlm, C., Billheden, J., Settergren, B., Wadell, G., and Juto, P. (1994) Elevated levels of total and Puumala virus-specific immunoglobulin E in the Scandinavian type of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol., 1, 269–272.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  337. 331.
    Araki, K., Yoshimatsu, K., Lee, B. H., Kariwa, H., Takashima, I., and Arikawa, J. (2003) Hantavirus-specific CD8(+)-T-cell responses in newborn mice persistently infected with Hantaan virus, J. Virol., 77, 8408–8417.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  338. 332.
    Ennis, F. A., Cruz, J., Spiropoulou, C. F., Waite, D., Peters, C. J., Nichol, S. T., Kariwa, H., and Koster, F. T. (1997) Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome: CD8+ and CD4+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes to epitopes on Sin Nombre virus nucleocapsid protein isolated during acute illness, Virology, 238, 380–390.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  339. 333.
    Kagi, D., Vignaux, F., Ledermann, B., Burki, K., Depraetere, V., Nagata, S., Hengartner, H., and Golstein, P. (1994) Fas and perforin pathways as major mechanisms of T cell-mediated cytotoxicity, Science, 265, 528–530.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  340. 334.
    Ishak, K. G. (1976) Light microscopic morphology of viral hepatitis, Am. J. Clin. Pathol., 65, 787–827.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  341. 335.
    Lowin, B., Hahne, M., Mattmann, C., and Tschopp, J. (1994) Cytolytic T-cell cytotoxicity is mediated through perforin and Fas lytic pathways, Nature, 370, 650–652.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  342. 336.
    Belz, G. T., Xie, W., and Doherty, P. C. (2001) Diversity of epitope and cytokine profiles for primary and secondary influenza a virus-specific CD8+ T cell responses, J. Immunol., 166, 4627–4633.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  343. 337.
    Kakimi, K., Lane, T. E., Wieland, S., Asensio, V. C., Campbell, I. L., Chisari, F. V., and Guidotti, L. G. (2001) Blocking CRG2/IP10 and Mig activity in vivo reduces the pathogenetic but not the antiviral potential of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-specific CTLs, J. Exp. Med., 194, 1755–1766.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  344. 338.
    Zaki, S. R., Greer, P. W., Coffield, L. M., Goldsmith, C. S., Nolte, K. B., Foucar, K., Feddersen, R. M., Zumwalt, R. E., Miller, G. L., Khan, A. S., et al. (1995) Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. Pathogenesis of an emerging infectious disease, Am. J. Pathol., 146, 552–579.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  345. 339.
    Lee, H. W. and Lee, P. W. (1976) Korean hemorrhagic fever. Demonstration of causative antigen and antibodies, Kor. J. Med., 19, 371–383.Google Scholar
  346. 340.
    Lee, H. W. and Lee, P. W. (1977) Korean hemorrhagic fever. Isolation of the etiologic agent, J. Kor. Soc. Virol., 7, 1–9.Google Scholar
  347. 341.
    Glass, G. E., Watson, A. J., LeDuc, J. W., and Childs, J. E. (1994) Domestic cases of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in the United States, Nephron, 68, 48–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  348. 341a.
    Bugert, J. J., Welzel, T. M., Zeiler, M., and Darai, G. (1999) Hantavirus infection-haemorrhagic fever in the Baikans-potential nephrological hazards in the Kosovo war, Nephrol. Dial. Transplant., 14, 1843–1844.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  349. 341b.
    Sibold, C., Ulrich, R., Labuda, M., et al. (2001) Dobrava hantavirus causes hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in central Europe and carried by two different Apodemus mice species, J. Med. Virol., 63 (2), 158–167.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  350. 342.
    Huggins, J. W., Hsiang, C. M., Cosgriff, T. M., et al. (1991) Prospective, double-blind, concurrent, placebo-controlled clinical trial of intravenous ribavirin therapy of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, J. Infect. Dis., 164, 1119–1127.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  351. 343.
    Lee, H. W. and van der Groen, G. (1989) Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, Prog. Med. Virol., 36, 62–102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  352. 344.
    Vaheri, A. (2002) The Fifth International Conference on hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, and hantaviruses, Emerg. Infect. Dis., 8(1), 109.Google Scholar
  353. 344a.
    Hooper, J. W., Custer, D. M., Thompson, E., and Schmaljohn, C. S (2001) DNA vaccination with the Hantaan virus M gene protects hamsters against three of four HFRS hantaviruses and elicits a high-titer neutralizing antibody response in rhesus monkeys, J. Virol., 75 (18), 8469–8477.Google Scholar
  354. 345.
    Lee, H. W., Ahn, C. N., Song, J. W., Baek, L. J., Seo, T. J., and Park, S. C. (1990) Field trial of an inactivated vaccine against hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, Arch. Virol., 1 (Suppl. 1), 35–47.Google Scholar
  355. 346.
    Yamanishi, K., Tanishita, O., Tamura, M., Asada, H., Kondo, K., et al. (1988) Development of inactivated vaccine against virus causing haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, Vaccine, 6, 278–282.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  356. 347.
    Khan, A. S., Spiropoulou, C. S., Morzunov, S., et al. (1995) A fatal illness associated with a new hantavirus in Louisiana, J. Med. Virol., 46, 281–286.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  357. 348.
    Khan, A. S., Gaviria, M., Rollin, P. E., et al. (1966) Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Florida: association with the newly identified Black Creek Canal virus, Am. J. Med., 100, 46–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  358. 349.
    Hjelle, B., Goade, D., Torrez-Martinez, N., et al. (1996) Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, renal insufficiency, and myositis associated with infection by bayou hantavirus, Clin. Infect. Dis., 23(3), 495–500.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  359. 350.
    Torrez-Martinez, N., Bharadwaj, M., Goade, D., et al. (1998) Virus-associated hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in eastern Texas: identification of the rice rat, Orysomys palustris, as reservoir host, Emerg. Infect. Dis., 4(1) 105–111.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  360. 351.
    Peters, C. J. and Khan, A. S. (2002) Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome: the new American hemorrhagic fever, Clin. Infect. Dis., 34, 1224–1231.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  361. 352.
    Wells, R. M., Sosa, E. S., Yadon, Z. E., et al. (1997) An unusual hantavirus outbreak in southern Argentina: person-to-person transmission? Emerg. Infect. Dis., 3, 171–174.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  362. 353.
    Padula, P. J., Edelstein, A., Miguel, S. D., et al. (1998) Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome outbreak in Argentina: molecular evidence for person-to-person transmission of Andes virus, Virology, 241(2), 323–330.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  363. 354.
    Charrel, R. N. and de Lamballerie, X. (2003) Arenaviruses other than Lassa virus, Antiviral Res., 57, 89–100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  364. 355.
    Peters, C. J., Kuehne, R. W., Mercado, R. R., Le Bow, R. H., Spertzel, R. O., and Webb, P. A. (1974) Hemorrhagic fever in Cochabamba, Bolivia, 1971, Am. J. Epidemiol., 99, 425–433.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  365. 356.
    de Manzione, N., Salas, R. A., Paredes, H., Godoy, O., Rojas, L., Araoz, F., Fulhorst, C. F., Ksiazek, T. G., Mills, J. N., Ellis, B. A., Peters, C. J., and Tesh, R. B. (1998) Venezuelan hemorrhagic fever: clinical and epidemiological studies of 165 cases, Clin. Infect. Dis., 26, 308–313.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  366. 357.
    Buchmeier, M., Adam, E., and Rawls, W. E. (1974) Serological evidence of infection by Pichinde virus among laboratory workers, Infect. Immun., 9, 821–823.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  367. 358.
    Peters, C. J., Buchmeier, M., Rollin, P. E., and Ksiazek, T. G. (1996) Arenaviruses. In: Fields Virology, 3rd ed. (Fields, B. N., Knipe, D. M., Howley, P. M., Chanock, R. M., Melnick, J. L., Monath, T. P., Roizman, R., and Straus, S. E., eds.), Lippincott-Raven Publishers, Philadelphia, pp. 1521–1551.Google Scholar
  368. 359.
    Peters, C. J., Jahrling, P. B., and Khan, A. S. (1996) Patients infected with high-hazard viruses: scientific basis for infection control, Arch. Virol., 11, 141–168.Google Scholar
  369. 360.
    Centers for Disease Control (1990) Fatal illnesses associated with a New World arenavirus – California, 1999–2000, Morb. Mortal. Wkly Rep., 49, 709–711.Google Scholar
  370. 361.
    Cao, W., Henry, M. D., Borrow, P., Yamada, H., Elder, J. H., Ravkov, E. V., Nichol, S. T., Compans, R. W., Campbell, K. P., and Oldstone, M. B. A. (1998) Identification of \upalpha-dystroglycan as a receptor for lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus and Lassa virus, Science, 282, 2079–2081.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  371. 362.
    Radoshitzky, S. R., Abraham, J., Spiropoulou, C. F., Kuhn, J. H., Nguyen, D., Li, W., Nagel, J., Schmidt, P. J., Nunberg, J. H., Andrews, N. C., Farzan, M., and Choe, H. (2007) Transferrin receptor 1 is the cellular receptor for New World haemorrhagic fever arenaviruses, Nature, 446, 92–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  372. 363.
    Castilla, V. and Mersich, S. E. (1996) Low-pH-induced fusion of Vero cells infected with Junin virus, Arch. Virol., 141, 1307–1317.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  373. 364.
    Oldstone, M. B. (2002) Arenaviruses. II. The molecular pathogenesis of arenavirus infections. Introduction, Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol., 263, V–XII.Google Scholar
  374. 365.
    Daniels, T. T., Delgado, T., Rodriguez, J. A., Helguera, G., and Penichet, M. L., (2006) The transferring receptor, part I: biology and targeting with cytotoxic antibodies for the treatment of cancer, Clin. Immunol., 121, 144–158.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  375. 366.
    Soda, R. and Tavassoli, M. (1984) Liver endothelium and not hepatocytes or Kupfer cells have transferring receptors, Blood, 63, 270–276.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  376. 367.
    Jefferies, W. A., Brandon, M. R., Hunt, S. V., Williams, A. F., Gatter, K. G., and Mason, D. Y. (1984) Transferrin receptor on endothelium of brain capillaries, Nature, 312, 162–163.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  377. 368.
    Peters, C. J. and Zaki, S. R. (2002) Role of the endothelium in viral hemorrhagic fever, Crit. Care Med., 30, 5268–5273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  378. 369.
    Lawrence, C. M., Ray, S., Babyonyshev, M., Galluser, R., Borhani, D. W., and Harrison, S. C. (1999) Crystal structure of the ectodomain of human transferring factor, Science, 286, 779–782.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  379. 370.
    Cheng, Y., Zak, O., Aisen, P., Harrison, S. C., and Walz, T. (2004) Structure of the human transferring receptor-transferrin complex, Cell, 116, 565–576.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  380. 371.
    Harrison, L. H., Halsey, N. A., McKee, K. T., Jr., Peters, C. J., Barrera Oro, J. G., Briggiler, A. M., Feuillade, M. R., and Maiztegui, J. I. (1999) Clinical case definition for Argentine hemorrhagic fever, Clin. Infect. Dis., 28, 1091–1094.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  381. 372.
    Vainrub, B. and Salas, R. (1994) Latin American hemorrhagic fever, Infect. Dis. Clin. North Am., 8, 47–59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  382. 373.
    Johnson, K. M., Halstead, S. B., and Cohen, S. N. (1967) Hemorrhagic fevers of Southeast Asia and South America: a comparative appraisal, Prog. Med. Virol., 9, 105–158.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  383. 374.
    Enria, D. A., Brigiller, A. M., Fernandez, N. J., Levis, S. C., and Maiztegui, J. I. (1984) Importance of dose of neutralizing antibodies in treatment of Argentine hemorrhagic fever with immune plasma, Lancet, 2, 255–256.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  384. 375.
    Maizfegui, J. I., Fernandez, N. J., and de Damilano, A. J. (1979) Efficacy of immune plasma in treatment of Argentine haemorrhagic fever and association between treatment and a late neurological syndrome, Lancet, 2, 1216–1217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  385. 376.
    Streeter, D. G., Witkowski, J. T., Khare, G. P., Sidwell, R. W., Bauer, R. J., Robins, R. K., and Simon, L. N. (1973) Mechanism of action of 1-β-D-ribofuranosyl-1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxamide (Virazole), a new broad spectrum antiviral agent, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 70, 1174–1178.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  386. 377.
    Ericksson, B., Helgestrand, E., Johansson, N. G., Larsson, A., Misiorny, A., Noren, J. O., Philipson, L., Stenberg, G., Stridt, S., and Oberg, B. (1977) Inhibition of influenza virus ribonucleic acid polymerase by ribavirin triphosphate, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 11, 946–951.Google Scholar
  387. 378.
    Johnson, K. M., Ksiazek, T. G., Rollin, P. E., Mills, J. N., Villagra, M. R., Montenegro, M. J., Costales, M. A., Peredes, L. C., and Peters, C. J. (1997) Treatment of Bolivian hemorrhagic fever with intravenous ribavirin, Clin. Infect. Dis., 24, 718–722.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  388. 379.
    Barry, M., Russi, M., Armstrong, L., Geller, D., Tesh, R., Dembry, L., Gonzalez, J. P., Khan, A. S., and Peters, C. J. (1995) Brief report: treatment of a laboratory-acquired Sabia virus infection, N. Engl. J. Med., 333, 294–296.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  389. 380.
    Carballal, G., Calello, M. A., Laguens, R. P., and Weissenbacher, M. C. (1987) Tacaribe virus: a new alternative for Argentine hemorrhagic fever vaccine, J. Med. Virol., 23, 257–263.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  390. 381.
    Carballal, G., Oubina, J. R., Molinas, F. C., Nagle, C., de la Vega, M. T., Videla, C., and Elsner, B. (1987) Intracerebral infection of Cebus paella with the XJ-Clone 3 strain of Junin virus, J. Med. Virol., 21, 257–268.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  391. 382.
    Barrera Oro, J. G. and McKee, K. T., Jr. (1991) Toward a vaccine against Argentine hemorrhagic fever, Bull. Pan Am. Health Organ., 25, 118–126.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  392. 383.
    McKee, K. T., Jr., Huggins, J. W., Trahan, C. J., and Mahlandt, B. G. (1988) Ribavirin prophylaxis and therapy for experimental Argentine hemorrhagic fever, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 32, 1304–1309.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  393. 384.
    Peters, C. J., Jahrling, P. B., Liu, C. T., Kenyon, R. H., McKee, K. T., Jr., and Barrera Oro, J. G. (1987) Experimental studies of arenaviral hemorrhagic fevers, Curr. Top. Microbiol Immunol., 134, 5–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  394. 385.
    Maiztegui, J. I., McKee, K. T., Jr., Barrera Oro, J. G., Harrison, L. H., Gibbs, P. H., Feuillade, M. R., Enria, D. A., Briggiler, A. M., Levis, S. C., Ambrosio, A. M., Halsey, N. A., and Peters, C. J. (1998) Protective efficacy of a live attenuated vaccine against Argentine hemorrhagic fever. AHF Study Group, J. Infect. Dis., 177, 277–283.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  395. 386.
    Ambrosio, A. M., Riere, L. M., del Carmen Saavedras, M., and Sabattini, M. S. (2006) Immune response to vaccination against Argentine hemorrhagic fever an area where different arenaviruses coexist, Viral Immunol., 19(2), 196–201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  396. 387.
    Sanchez, A., Pifat, D. Y., Kenyon, R. H., Peters, C. J., McCormick, J. B., and Kiley, M. P. (1989) Junin virus monoclonal antibodies: characterization and cross-reactivity with other arenaviruses, J. Gen. Virol., 70, 1125–1132.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  397. 388.
    Kunz, S., Rojek, J. M., Perez, M., Spiropoulou, C. F., and Oldstone, M. B. (2005) Characterization of the interaction of Lassa fever virus with its cellular receptor alpha-dystroglycan, J. Virol., 79(10), 5979–5987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  398. 389.
    Fisher, S. A., Graham, M. B., Kuehnert, M. J., Kotton, C. N., Srinivasan, A., Marty, F. M., Comer, J. A., Guarner, J., Paddock, C. D., Demeo, D. L., Shieh, W.-J., Erickson, B. R., Bandy, U., Demaria, A., Davis, J. P., Delmonico, F. L., Pavlin, B., Likos, A., Vincent, M. J., Sealy, T. K., Goldsmith, C. S., Jernigan, D. B., Rollin, P. E., Packard, M. M., Patel, M., Rowland, C., Helfand, R. F., Nichol, S. T., Fishman, J. A., Ksizek, T., Zaki, S. R., and the LCMV in Transplant Recipients Investigation Team (2006) Transmission of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus by organ transplantation, N. Engl. J. Med., 354(21), 2235–2249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  399. 390.
    Barton, L. L. and Hyndman, N. J. (2000) Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus: reemerging central nervous system pathogen, Pediatrics, 105(3), E35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  400. 391.
    Childs, J. E., Glass, G. E., Ksiazek, T. G., Rossi, C. A., Barrera Oro, J. G., and LeDuc, J. W. (1991) Human-rodent contact and infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis and Seoul viruses in an inner-city population, Am. J. Trop. Med.. Hyg.., 44, 117–121.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  401. 392.
    Stephensen, C. B., Blount, S. R., Lanford, R. E., Holmes, K. V., Montali, R. J., Fleenor, M. E., and Shaw, J. F. (1992) Prevalence of serum antibodies against lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus in selected populations from two US cities, J. Med. Virol., 38, 27–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  402. 392a.
    Casals, J. (1977) Serologic reactions with arenaviruses, Medicina (Buenos Aires), 37 (suppl. 3), 59–68.Google Scholar
  403. 393.
    Filomatori, C. V., Lodeiro, M. F., Alvarez, D. E., Samsa, M. M., Pietrasanta, L., and Gamarnik, A. V. (2006) A 5 ′ RNA element promotes dengue virus RNA synthesis on a circular genome, Genes Dev., 20, 2238–2249.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  404. 394.
    Theiler, M. and Smith, H. H. (1937) Use of yellow fever virus modified by in vitro cultivation for human immunization, J. Exp. Med., 65, 787–800.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  405. 395.
    World Health Organization (1945) Standards for the manufacture and control of yellow fever vaccine. United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration, WHO Epidemiological Information Bulletin, 1, 365.Google Scholar
  406. 396.
    Monath, T. P., Kinney, R. M., Schlesinger, J. J., Brandriss, M. W., and Brès, P. (1983) Ontogeny of yellow fever 17D vaccine: RNA oligonucleotide fingerprint and monoclonal antibody analyses of vaccines produced worldwide, J. Gen. Virol., 64, 627–637.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  407. 397.
    Martin, M., Tsai, T. F., Cropp, B., Chang, G. J., Holmes, D. A., Tseng, J., Shieh, W., Zaki, S. R., Al-Sanouri, I., Cutrona, A. F., Ray, G., Weld, L. H., and Cetron, M. S. (2001) Fever and multisystem organ failure associated with 17D-204 yellow fever: a report of four cases, Lancet, 358, 98–104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  408. 398.
    Chan, R. C., Penney, D. J., Little, D., Carter, I. W., Roberts, J. A., and Rowlinson, W. D. (2001) Hepatitis and death following vaccination with 17D-204 yellow fever vaccine, Lancet, 358, 121–123.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  409. 399.
    Vasconcelos, P. F., Luna, E. J., Galler, R., Silva, L., Coimbra, T., Barros, V., Monath, T., Rodigues, S., Laval, C., and Costa, Z. (2001) Serious adverse events associated with yellow fever 17D vaccine in Brazil: a report of two cases, Lancet, 358, 91–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  410. 400.
    Centers for Disease Control (2002) Adverse events associated with 17-derived yellow fever vaccination – United States, 2001–2002, Morb. Mortal. Wkly Rep., 51(44), 989–993.Google Scholar
  411. 401.
    Centers for Disease Control (2002) Yellow fever vaccine: recommendation of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), Morb. Mortal. Wkly Rep., 51(RR-17), 51.Google Scholar
  412. 402.
    Sabin, A. B. and Schlesinger, R. W. (1945) Production of immunity to dengue with virus modified by propagation in mice, Science, 101, 640–642.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  413. 403.
    Gubler, D. J. (1998) Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever, Clin. Microbiol. Rev., 11(3), 480–496.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  414. 404.
    Halstead, S. B. (1980) Dengue hemorrhagic fever – public health problem and a field of research, Bull. World Health Organization., 58, 1–21.Google Scholar
  415. 405.
    Gubler, D. J. (1988) Dengue. In: Epidemiology of Arthropod-Borne Viral Disease (Monath, T. P., ed.), CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 223–260.Google Scholar
  416. 406.
    Gubler, D. J. (1998) The global pandemic of dengue/dengue hemorrhagic fever: current status and prospect for the future, Ann. Acad. Med. Singapore, 27(2), 227–234.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  417. 407.
    Gubler, D. J. (1997) Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever: its history and resurgence as a global public health problem. In: Dengue and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (Gubler, D. J. and Kuno, G., eds.), CAB International, London, pp. 1–22.Google Scholar
  418. 408.
    Pinheiro, F. P. and Corber, S. J. (1997) Global situation of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever, and its emergence in the Americas, World Health Stat. Q., 50, 161–169.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  419. 409.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (1995) Imported dengue – United States, 1993 and 1994, Morb. Mortal. Wkly Rep., 44, 353–356.Google Scholar
  420. 410.
    Gubler, D. J. (1996) Arboviruses as imported disease agents: the need for increased awareness, Arch. Virol., 11, 21–32.Google Scholar
  421. 411.
    Westaway, E. G. and Blok, J. (1997) Taxonomy and evolutionary relationships of flaviruses. In: Dengue and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (Gubler, D. J. and Kuno, G., eds.), CAB International, London, pp. 147–173.Google Scholar
  422. 412.
    Rico-Hesse, R. (1990) Molecular evolution and distribution of dengue viruses type 1 and 2 in nature, Virology, 174, 479–493.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  423. 413.
    Gubler, D. J. and Rosen, L. (1976) A simple technique for demonstrating transmission of dengue viruses by mosquitoes without the use of vertebrate hosts, Am. J. Trop. Med.. Hyg.., 25, 146–150.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  424. 414.
    Barnes, W. J. S. and Rosen, L. (1974) Fatal hemorrhagic disease and shock associated with primary dengue infection on a Pacific island, Am. J. Trop. Med.. Hyg.., 23, 495–506.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  425. 415.
    Halstead, S. B. (1970) Observations related to pathogenesis of dengue hemorrhagic fever. VI. Hypotheses and discussion, Yale J. Biol. Med., 42, 350–362.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  426. 416.
    Halstead, S. B. (1988) Pathogenesis of dengue: challenged to molecular biology, Science, 239, 476–481.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  427. 417.
    Mongkolsapaya, J., Dejnirattsai, W., Xu, X., Vasanawathana, S., Tangthawornchaikul, N., Chairunsri, A., Sawasdivorn, S., Duangchinda, T., Dong, T., Rowland-Jones, S., Yenchitsomanus, P., McMichael, A., Malasit, P., and Screaton, G. (2003) Original antigenic sin and apoptosis in the pathogenesis of dengue hemorrhagic fever, Nat. Med., 9, 921–927.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  428. 418.
    Waterman, S. H. and Gubler, D. J. (1989) Dengue fever, Clin. Dermatol., 7, 117–122.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  429. 419.
    Dietz, V., Gubler, D. J., Ortiz, S., Kuno, G., Casta-Velez, A., Sather, G. E., Gomez, I., and Vergne, E. (1996) The 1986 dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever epidemic in Puerto Rico: epidemiologic and clinical observation, P. R. Health Sci. J., 15, 201–210.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  430. 420.
    Innis, B. L. (1995) Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever. In: Exotic Viral Infections – 1995 (Porterfield, J. S., ed.), Chapman & Hall, London, pp. 103–146.Google Scholar
  431. 421.
    Halstead, S. B. and O’Rourke, E. J. (1977) Antibody-enhanced dengue virus infection in primate leukocytes, Nature, 265, 739–741.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  432. 422.
    Halstead, S. B. and O’Rourke, E. J. (1977) Dengue viruses and mononuclear phagocytes. I. Infection enhancement by non-neutralizing antibody, J. Exp. Med., 146, 210–217.Google Scholar
  433. 423.
    Morens, D. M., Venkateshan, C. N., and Halstead, S. B. (1987) Dengue 4 virus monoclonal antibodies identify epitopes that mediate immune enhancement of dengue 2 viruses, J. Gen. Virol., 68, 91–98.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  434. 424.
    Gubler, D. J., Reed, D., Rosen, L., and Hitchcock, J. C. J. (1978) Epidemiologic, clinical and virulogic observations on dengue in the Kingdom of Tonga, Am. J. Trop. Med.. Hyg.., 27, 581–589.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  435. 425.
    Rosen, L. (1977) The Emperor’s new clothes revisited, or reflections on the pathogenesis of dengue hemorrhagic fever, Am. J. Trop. Med.. Hyg.., 26, 337–343.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  436. 426.
    Pang, T., Cardosa, M. J., and Guzman, M. G. (2007) Of cascade and perfect storms: the immunopathogenesis of dengue haemorrhagic fever-dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS), Immunol. Cell Biol., 85, 43–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  437. 427.
    Busygin, F. F. (2000) Omsk hemorrhagic fever – current status of the problem, (in Russian), Vopr. Virusol., 45(3), 4–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  438. 428.
    Gritsun, T. S., Lashkevich, V. A., and Gould, E. A. (1993) Nucleotide and amino acid sequence of the envelope glycoprotein of Omsk haemorrhagic fever virus: comparison with other flaviviruses, J. Gen. Virol., 74, 287–291.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  439. 429.
    Holzmann, H., Heinz, F. X., Mandl, C. W., Guirakhoo, F., and Kunz, C. (1990) A single amino acid substitution in envelope protein E of tick-borne encephalitis virus leads to attenuation in the mouse model, J. Virol., 64, 5156–5159.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  440. 430.
    Cecilia, D. and Gould, E. A. (1991) Nucleotide changes responsible for loss of neuroinvasiveness in Japanese encephalitis virus neutralization-resistant mutants, Virology, 181, 70–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  441. 431.
    Rice, C. M., Lenches, E. M., Eddy, S. R., Shin, S. J., Sheets, R. L., and Strauss, J. H. (1985) Nucleotide sequence of yellow fever virus: implications for flavivirus gene expression and evolution, Science, 229, 726–733.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  442. 432.
    Work, T. H. and Trapido, H. (1957) Kyasanur Forest disease, a new virus disease in India, Ind. J. Med. Sci., 11, 341–345.Google Scholar
  443. 433.
    Work, T. H. and Trepido, H. (1957) Kyasanur Forest disease: a new infection of man and monkeys in tropical India by a virus of the Russian spring-summer complex, Proceedings IXth Pacific Science Congress, Bangkok, vol. 17, 80–84 (Public Health and Medical Sciences).Google Scholar
  444. 434.
    D’Lima, L. V. and Pavri, K. M. (1969) Studies on antigenicity of six Kyasanur Forest disease virus strains isolated from various sources, Ind. J. Med. Res., 57, 1832–1839.Google Scholar
  445. 435.
    Danes, L. (1962) Contribution to the antigenic relationship between tick-borne encephalitis and Kyasanur Forest disease viruses. In: CSAV Symposium on the Biology of Viruses of the Tick-borne Encephalitis Complex (Libikova, H., ed.), Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, Prague, p. 81.Google Scholar
  446. 436.
    Shah, K. V. and Buescher, E. (1962) Discussion. In: CSAV Symposium on the Biology of Viruses of the Tick-Borne Encephalitis Complex (Libikova, H., ed.), Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, Prague, p. 85.Google Scholar
  447. 437.
    Venugopal, K., Gritsun, T., Lashkevich, V. A., and Gould, E. A. (1994) Analysis of the structural protein gene sequence shows Kyasanur Forest disease virus as a distinct member in the tick-borne encephalitis virus serocomplex, J. Gen. Virol., 75, 227–232.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  448. 438.
    Adhikari Prabha, M. R., Prabhu, M. G., Raghuveer, C. V., Bai, M., and Mala, M. A. (1993) Clinical study of 100 cases of Kyasanur Forest disease with clinico-pathological correlation, Ind. J. Med. Sci., 47(5), 124–130.Google Scholar
  449. 439.
    Millard, C. B. (2004) Medical defense against protein toxin weapons. In: Biological Weapons Defense: Infectious Diseases and Counterterrorism (Lindler, L. E., Lebeda, F. J., and Korch, G. W., eds.), Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, pp. 255–283.Google Scholar
  450. 440.
    Franz, D. R. (1997) Defense against toxin weapons. In: Medical Aspects of Chemical and Biological Warfare (Sidell, F. R., Takafuji, E. T., and Franz, D. R., eds.), Office of the Surgeon General, Department of the Army, Washington, DC, pp. 603–620.Google Scholar
  451. 441.
    Simpson, L. L. (1981) The origin, structure, and pharmacological activity of botulinum toxin, Pharmacol. Rev., 33(3), 155–188.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  452. 442.
    Hathaway, C. L. (1990) Toxigenic clostridia, Clin. Microbiol. Rev., 3(1), 66–98.Google Scholar
  453. 443.
    Umland, T. C., Wingert, L. M., Swaminathan, S., Furey, W. F., Schmidt, J. J., and Sax, M. (1997) Structure of receptor binding fragment HC of tetanus neurotoxin, Nat. Struct. Biol., 4(10), 788–792.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  454. 444.
    Lacy, D. B., Tepp, W., Cohen, A. C., DasGupta, B. R., and Stevens, R. C. (1988) Crystal structure of botulinum neurotoxin type A and implications for toxicity, Nat. Struct. Biol., 5(10), 898–902.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  455. 445.
    Lacy, D. B. and Stevens, R. C. (1999) Sequence homology and structural analysis of the clostridial neurotoxins, J. Mol. Biol., 291(5), 1091–1104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  456. 446.
    Eswaramoorthy, S., Kumaran, D., and Swaminathan, S. (2001) Crystallographic evidence for doxorubicin binding to the receptor-binding site of Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin B, Acta Crystallogr. D Biol. Crystallogr., 57(Part 11), 1743–1746.Google Scholar
  457. 447.
    Hanson, P. I., Heuser, J. E., and Jahn, R. (1997) Neurotransmitter release – four years of SNARE complexes, Curr. Opin. Neurobiol., 7(3), 310–315.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  458. 448.
    Rizo, J. (2003) SNARE function revisited, Nat. Struct. Biol., 10(6), 417–419.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  459. 449.
    Shapiro, R. L., Hathway, C., and Swerdlow, D. L. (1998) Botulism in the United States: a clinical and epidemiological review, Ann. Intern. Med., 129(3), 221–228.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  460. 450.
    Arnon, S. S., Schechter, R., Inglesby, T. V., Henderson, D. A., Bartlett, J. G., Ascher, M. S., Aitzen, E., Fine, A. D., Hauer, J., Layton, M., Lillybridge, S., Osterholm, M., T., O’Toole, T., Parker, G., Perl, T. M., Russell, P. K., Swerdlow, D. L., Tonat, K., for the Working Group on Civilian Biodefense (2001) Botulinum toxin as a biological weapon. Medical and public health management, J. Am. Med. Assoc., 8(8), 1059–1070.Google Scholar
  461. 451.
    Simpson, L. L. (1984) Fragment C of tetanus toxin antagonizes the neuromuscular blocking properties of native tetanus toxin, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 228(3), 600–604.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  462. 452.
    Simpson, L. L. (1984) Botulinum toxin and tetanus toxin recognize similar membrane determinants, Brain Res., 305(1), 177–180.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  463. 453.
    Dertzbaugh, M. T. and West, M. W. (1996) Mapping of protective and cross-reactive domains of the type A neurotoxin of Clostridium botulinum, Vaccine, 14(16), 1538–1544.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  464. 454.
    Middlebrook, J. L. (1995) Protection strategies against botulinum toxin, Adv. Exp. Med. Biol., 383, 93–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  465. 455.
    Potter, K. L., Bevins, M. A., Vassilieva, E. V., Chiruvolu, V. R., Smith, T., Smith, L. A., and Meagher, M. M. (1998) Production and purification of the heavy-chain fragment C of the botulinum neurotoxin, serotype B, expressed in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris, Protein Expr. Purif., 13(3), 357–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  466. 456.
    Byrne, M. P., Smith, T. J., Montgomery, V. A., and Smith, L. A. (1998) Purification, potency, and efficacy of the botulinum neurotoxin type A binding domain from Pichia pastoris as a recombinant vaccine candidate, Infect. Immun., 66(10), 4817–4822.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  467. 457.
    Byrne, M. P., Titball, R. W., Holey, J., and Smith, L. A. (2000) Fermentation, purification, and efficacy of a recombinant vaccine candidate against botulinum neurotoxin type B from Pichia pastoris, Protein Expr. Purif., 18(3), 327–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  468. 458.
    Potter, K. J., Zhang, W., Smith, L. A., and Meagher, M. M. (2000) Production and purification of the heavy chain fragment C of botulinum neurotoxin, serotype A, expressed in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris, Protein Expr. Purif., 19(3), 393–402.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  469. 459.
    Woodward, L. A., Arimitsu, H., Hirst, R., and Oguma, K. (2003) Expression of HC subunits from Clostridium botulinum types C and D and their evaluation as candidate vaccine antigens in mice, Infect. Immun., 71(5), 2941–2944.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  470. 460.
    Lee, J. S., Pushko, P., Parker, M. D., Dertzbaugh, M. T., Smith, L. A., and Smith, J. F. (2001) Candidate vaccine against botulinum neurotoxin serotype A derived from a Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus vector system, Infect. Immun., 69(9), 5709–5715.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  471. 461.
    Park, J. B. and Simpson, L. L. (2003) Inhalational poisoning by botulinum toxin and inhalation vaccination with its heavy-chain component, Infect. Immun., 71(3), 1147–1154.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  472. 462.
    Bennett, A. M., Perkins, S. D., and Holley, J. L. (2003) DNA vaccination protects against botulinum neurotoxin type F, Vaccine, 21(23), 3110–3117.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  473. 463.
    Foynes, S., Holley, J. L., Garmory, H. S., Titball, R. W., and Fairweather, N. F. (2003) Vaccination against type F botulinum toxin using attenuated Salmonella enterica var Typhimurium strains expressing the BoTN/F H(c) fragment, Vaccine, 21(11–12), 1052–1059.Google Scholar
  474. 464.
    Kiyatkin, N., Maksymowych, A. B., and Simpson, L. L. (1997) Induction of an immune response by oral administration of recombinant botulinum toxin, Infect. Immun., 65(11), 4586–4591.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  475. 465.
    Simpson, L. L., Maksymowych, A. B., and Kiyatkin, N. (1999) Botulinum toxin as a carrier for oral vaccine, Cell Mol. Life Sci., 56(1–2), 47–61.Google Scholar
  476. 466.
    Arnon, S. S., Schechter, R., Inglesby, T. V., Henderson, D. A., Bartlett, J. G., Ascher, M. S., Aitzen, E., Fine, A. D., Hauer, J., Layton, M., Lillybridge, S., Osterholm, M. T., O’Toole, T., Parker, G., Perl, T. M., Russell, P. K., Swerdlow, D. L., Tonat, K., for the Working Group on Civilian Biodefense (2001) Botulinum toxin as a biological weapon. Medical and public health management, J. Am. Med. Assoc., 8(8), 1059–1070.Google Scholar
  477. 467.
    Ulrich, R. G., Bavari, S., and Olson, M. A. (1995) Bacterial superantigens in human disease: structure, function and diversity, Trends Microbiol., 3(12), 463–468.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  478. 468.
    Swaminathan, S., Yang, D. S., Furey, W., Abrams, L., Pletcher, J., and Sax, M. (1988) Crystallization and preliminary X-ray study of staphylococcal enterotoxin B, J. Mol. Biol., 199(2), 397.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  479. 469.
    Swaminathan, S., Furey, W., Pletcher, J., and Sax, M. (1992) Crystal structure of staphylococcal enterotoxin B, a superantigen, Nature, 359(6398), 801–806.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  480. 470.
    Swaminathan, S., Furey, W., Pletcher, J., and Sax, M. (1995) Residues defining the V beta specificity in staphylococcal enterotoxins, Nat. Struct. Biol., 2(8), 680–686.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  481. 471.
    Schantz, E. J., Roessler, W. G., Wagman, J., Spero, L., Dunnery, D. A., and Bergdoll, M. S. (1965) Purification of staphylococcal enterotoxin B, Biochemistry, 4, 1011–1016.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  482. 472.
    Ulrich, R. G., Olson, M. A., and Bavari, S. (1998) Development of engineered vaccines effective against structurally related bacterial superantigens, Vaccine, 16(19), 1857–1864.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  483. 473.
    Ulrich, R. G., Bavari, S., and Olson, M. A. (1995) Staphylococcal enterotoxins A and B share a common structural motif for binding class II major histocompatibility complex molecules, Nat. Struct. Biol., 2(7), 554–560.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  484. 474.
    Leder, L., Llera, A., Lavoie, P. M., Lebedeva, M. I., Li, H., Sékaly, R.-P., Bohach, G. A., Gahr, P. J., Schlievert, P. M., Kajalainen, K., and Mariuzza, R. A. (1998) A mutational analysis of the binding of staphylococcal enterotoxins B and C3 to the T cell receptor beta chain and major histocompatibility complex class II, J. Exp. Med., 187(6) 823–833.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  485. 475.
    LeClaire, R. D. and Pitt, M. L. M. (2004) Biological weapons defense. In: Biological Weapons Defense: Infectious Diseases and Counterterrorism (Lindler, L. E., Lebeda, F. J., and Korch, G. W., eds.), Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, pp. 41–61.Google Scholar
  486. 476.
    Rood, J. I., McClane, B. A., Songer, J. G., and Titball, R. W. (1997) The Clostridia Molecular Biology and Pathogenesis of the Clostridia, Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  487. 477.
    Baldwin, L., Henderson, A., Wright, M., and Whitby, M. (1993) Spontaneous Clostridium perfringens lung abscess unresponsive to penicillin, Anaesth. Intensive Care, 21, 117–119.Google Scholar
  488. 478.
    Kwan, W. C., Lam, S. C., Chow, A. W., Lepawski, M., and Glanzberg, M. M. (1983) Empiema caused by Clostridium perfringens, Can. Med. Assoc. J., 128, 1420–1422.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  489. 479.
    Crompton, R. and Gall, D. (1980) Georgi Markov – death in a pellet, Med. Leg., 48(2), 51–62.Google Scholar
  490. 480.
    Franz, D. R. and Jaax, N. K. (1997) Ricin toxin. In: Medical Aspects of Chemical and Biological Warfare (Sidell, F. R., Takafuji, E. T., and Franz, D. R., eds.), Office of the Surgeon General, Department of the Army, Washington, DC, pp. 631–642.Google Scholar
  491. 481.
    Stillmark, R.: Ueber Ricen. Arbeiten des Pharmakologischen Institutes zu Dorpat, iii, 1889. Cited in: Flexner, J. (1897) The histological changes produced by ricin and abrin intoxications, J. Exp. Med., 2, 197–316.Google Scholar
  492. 482.
    Ucken, F. and Frankel, A. (1993) The current status of immunotoxins: an overview of experimental and clinical studies as presented at the 3rd International Symposium on Immunotoxins, Leukemia, 7, 341–348.Google Scholar
  493. 483.
    Vitetta, E., Thorpe, P., and Uhr, J. (1993) Immunotoxins: magic bullets or misguided missiles? Trends Pharmacol Sci., 14(5), 148–154.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  494. 484.
    Vitetta, E., Krolick, K., Muneo, M., Cushley, W., and Uhr, J. (1983) Immunotoxins: a new approach to cancer therapy, Science, 219, 644–649.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  495. 485.
    Thorpe, P. E., Mason, D. W., and Brown, A. N. (1982) Selective killing of malignant cells in leukemic rat bone marrow using an antibody-ricin conjugate, Nature, 297, 594–596.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  496. 486.
    Knight, B. (1979) Ricin – a potent homicidal poison, Br. Med. J., 278, 350–351.Google Scholar
  497. 487.
    Rutenber, E., Katzin, B. J., Ernest, S., Collins, E. J., Mlsna, D., Ready, M. P., and Robertus, J. D. (1991) The crystallographic refinement of ricin at 2.5Å resolution, Proteins, 10, 240–250.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  498. 488.
    Audi, J., Belson, M., Patel, M., Schier, J., and Osterloh, J. (2005) Ricin poisoning. A comprehensive review, J. Am. Med. Assoc., 294, 2342–2351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  499. 489.
    Cope, A. C. (1946) Chapter 12: Ricin in Summary Technical Report of Division 9 on chemical warfare and related problems. Parts I–II. National Defense Research Committee, Office of Scientific Research and Development, Washington, DC, pp. 179–203.Google Scholar
  500. 490.
    Griffiths, G. D., Rice, P., Allenby, A. C., and Upshall, D. G. (1996) The inhalation toxicology of the castor bean toxin, ricin, and protection by vaccination, J. Defense Sci., 1(2), 227–235.Google Scholar
  501. 491.
    Griffiths, G. D., Phillips, G. J., and Bailey, S. C. (1999) Comparison of the quality of protection elicited by toxoid and peptide liposomal vaccine formulations against ricin as assessed by markers of inflammation, Vaccine, 17(20–21), 2562–2568.Google Scholar
  502. 492.
    Smallshaw, J. E., Firan, A., Fulmer, J. R., Ruback, S. L., Ghettie, V., and Vitetta, E. S. (2002) A novel recombinant vaccine which protects mice against ricin intoxication, Vaccine, 20, 3422–3427.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  503. 493.
    Soler-Rodriguez, A. M., Uhr, J. W., Richardson, J., and Vitetta, E. S. (1992) The toxicity of chemically deglycosylated ricin A-chain in mice, Int. J. Immunopharmacol., 14(2), 281–291.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  504. 494.
    Lord, J. M., Gould, J., Griffiths, D., O’Hare, M., Prior, B., Richardson, P. T., and Robertson, L. M. (1987) Ricin: cytotoxicity, biosynthesis and use in immunoconjugates, Prog. Med. Chem., 24, 1–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  505. 495.
    Lemley, P. V. and Creasia, D. A. (1995) Vaccine against ricin toxin, U.S. Patent 5453271.Google Scholar
  506. 496.
    Aboud-Pirak, E., et al. (1993) Identification of a neutralizing epitope on ricin A chain and application of its 3D structure to design peptide vaccines that protect against ricin intoxication. In: 1993 Medical Defense Bioscience Review, U.S. Army Medical Research & Materiel Command, Baltimore, Maryland. Cited in: Olson, M. A., Carra, J. H., Roxas-Duncan, V., Wannemacher, R. W., Smith, L. A., and Millard, C. B. (2004) Finding a new vaccine in the ricin protein fold, Protein Eng. Des. Sel., 17(4), 391–397.Google Scholar
  507. 497.
    Griffiths, G. D., Bailey, S. C., Hambrook, J. L., and Keyte, M. P. (1998) Local and systemic responses against ricin toxin promoted by toxoid or peptide vaccines alone or in liposomal formulations, Vaccine, 16(5), 530–535.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  508. 498.
    Olson, M. A. (1997) Ricin A-chain structural determinant for binding substrate analogues: a molecular dynamics simulation analysis, Proteins, 27(1), 80–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  509. 499.
    Olson, M. A. and Cuff, L. (1999) Free energy determinants of binding the rRNA substrate and small ligands to ricin A-chain, Byophys. J., 76(1 Part 1), 28–39.Google Scholar
  510. 500.
    Olson, M. A. (2001) Electrostatic effects on the free-energy balance in folding a ribosome-inactivating protein, Biophys. Chem., 91(3), 219–229.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  511. 501.
    Sharon, N. and Lis, H. Z(1972) Cell-agglutinating and sugar-specific proteins, Science, 177, 949–959.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  512. 502.
    Olsnes, S. and Pihl, A. (1976) Kinetics of binding of the toxic lectins abrin and ricin to surface receptors of human cells, J. Biol. Chem., 251, 3977–3984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  513. 503.
    Chen, Y. L., Chow, L. P., Tsugita, A., and Lin, J. Y. (1992) The complete primary structure of abrin-a B chain, FEBS J., 309, 115–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  514. 504.
    Kimura, M., Sumizawa, T., and Funatsu, G. (1993) The complete amino acid sequences of the B-chains of abrin-a and abrin-b, toxic proteins from the seeds of Abrus precatorius, Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., 57, 166–169.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  515. 505.
    LeClaire, R. D. and Pitt, M. L. M. (2004) Biological weapons defense. In: Biological Weapons Defense: Infectious Diseases and Counterterrorism (Lindler, L. E., Lebeda, F. J., and Korch, G. W., eds.), Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, pp. 41–61.Google Scholar
  516. 506.
    Wannamacher, R. W. and Wiener, S. L. (1997) Trichothecene mycotoxins. In: Textbook of Military Medicine: Medical Aspects of Chemical and Biological Warfare (Zatjchuk, R., ed.), Borden Institute, Washington, DC, p. 658.Google Scholar
  517. 507.
    Rood, J. I., McClane, B. A., Songer, J. G., and Titball, R. W. (1997) The Clostridia. Molecular Biology and Pathogenesis of the Clostridia, Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  518. 508.
    Peters, C. J. and Dalrymple, J. M. (1990) Alphaviruses. In: Fields Virology, 2nd ed. (Fields, B. N., Knipe, D. M., Chanock, R. M., Hirsch, M. S., Melnick, J. L., Monath, T. P., and Roizman, B., eds.), Raven Press, New York, pp. 713–761.Google Scholar
  519. 509.
    Pialoux, G., Gaüzère, B. A., Jauréguiberry, S., and Strobel, M. (2007) Chikungunya, an epidemic arvovirosis, Lancet Infect. Dis., 7(5), 319–327.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  520. 510.
    Khan, A. H., Morita, K., del Carmen Parquet, M., Hasabe, F., Mathenge, E. G. M., and Igarashi, A. (2002) Complete nucleotide sequence of chikungunya virus and evidence for an internal polyadenylation site, J. Gen. Virol., 83, 3075–3084.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  521. 511.
    Schuffenecker, I., Iteman, I., Michault, A., Murri, S., Vaney, M.-C., Lavenir, R., Pardigon, N., Reynes, J.-M., Pettinelli, F., Biscornet, L., Diancourt, L., Michel, S., Duquerroy, S., Guidon, G., Frenkiel, M.-P., Bréhin, A.-C., Cubito, N., Desprès, Kunst, F., Rey, F. A., Zeller, H., and Brisse, S. (2006) Genome microevolution of chikungunya viruses causing the Indian Ocean outbreak, PLoS Med., 3(7), e263.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  522. 512.
    Charrel, R. N., de Lamballerie, X., and Raoult, D. (2007) Chikungunya outbreaks – the globalization of vector-borne diseases, N. Engl. J. Med., 356, 769–771.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  523. 513.
    Brisse, S., Iteman, I., and Schuffenecker, I. (2007) Chikungunya outbreaks, N. Engl. J. Med., 356(25), 2650–2652.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  524. 514.
    Simon, F., Parola, P., Grandadam, M., Fourcade, S., Oliver, M., Brouqui, P., Hance, P., Kraemer, P., Mohamed, A. A., de Lamballerie, X., Charrel, R., and Tolou, H. (2007) Chikungunya infection: an emerging rheumatism among travelers returned from Indian Ocean islands. Report of 47 cases, Medicine (Baltimore), 86(3), 123–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  525. 515.
    Mavalankar, D., Shastri, P., and Raman, P. (2007) Chikungunya epidemic in India: a major public-health disaster, Lancet Infect. Dis., 7(5), 306–307.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  526. 516.
    Saxena, S. K., Singh, M., Mishra, N., and Lakshmi, V. (2006) Resurgence of chikungunya virus in India: an emerging threat, Euro Surveill., 11(8), E060810.2.Google Scholar
  527. 517.
    Higgs, S. (2006) The 2005–2006 chikungunya epidemic in the Indian ocean, Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis., 6, 115–116.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  528. 518.
    Josseran, L., Paquet, C., Zehgnoun, A., Caillere, N., Le Tertre, A., Solet, J.-L., and Ledrance, M. (2006) Chikungunya disease outbreak, Reunion Island, Emerg. Infect. Dis., 12, 1994–1995.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  529. 519.
    Yergolkar, P. N., Tandale, B. V., Arankalle, V. A., Sathe, P. S., Sudeep, A. B., Gandhe, S. S., Gokhle, M. D., Jacob, G. P., Hundekar, S. L., and Mishra, A. C. (2006) Chikungunya outbreaks caused by African genotype, India, Emerg. Infect. Dis., 12, 1580–1583.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  530. 520.
    Powers, A. M., Brault, A. C., Tesh, R. B., and Weaver, S. C. (2000) Re-emergence of chikungunya and o’nyong-nyong viruses: evidence for distinct geographical lineages and distinct evolutionary relationships, J. Gen. Virol., 81, 177–191.Google Scholar
  531. 521.
    Haddow, A. J., Davies, C. W., and Walker, A. J. (1960) O’nyong-nyong fever: an epidemic virus disease in East Africa, Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 54, 517–522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  532. 522.
    Shore, H. (1961) O’nyong-nyong fever: an epidemic virus disease in East Africa. III. Some clinical and epidemiological observations in the northern province of Uganda, Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 55, 361–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  533. 523.
    Johnson, B. K., Gichogo, A., Gitau, G., Patel, N., Ademba, G., and Kurui, R. (1981) Recovery of O’nyong-nyong virus from Anopheles funestis in western Kenya, Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med., 75, 239–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  534. 524.
    Yang, G., Pevear, D. C., Davies, M. H., Collett, M. S., Bailey, T., Rippen, S., Barone, L., Burns, C., Rhodes, G., Tohan, S., Huggins, J. W., Baker, R. O., Buller, R. L., Touchette, E., Waller, K., Schriewer, J., Neyts, J., DeClercq, E., Jones, K., Hruby, D., and Jordan, R. (2005) An orally bioavailable antipoxvirus compound (ST-246) inhibits extracellular virus formation and protects mice from lethal orthopoxvirus challenge, J. Virol., 79(20), 13139–13149.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  535. 525.
    Prichard, M. N., Keith, K. A., Quenelle, D. C., and Kern, E. R. (2006) Activity and mechanism of action of N-methanocarbathymidine agains herpesvirus and orthopoxvirus infection, Antimicrob Agents Chemother., 50(4), 1336–1341.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  536. 526.
    Kuhn, J. H., Radoshitzky, S. R., Guth, A. C., Warfield, K. L., Li, W., Vincent, M. J., Towner, J. S., Nichol, S. T., Bavari, S., Choe, H., Aman, M. J., and Farzan, M. (2006) Conserved receptor-binding domains of Lake Victoria Margburg virus and Zaire Ebola virus bind a common receptor, J. Biol. Chem., 281(23), 15951–15958.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  537. 527.
    Dong, M., Yeh, F., Tepp, W. T., Dean, C., Johnson, E. A., Janz, R., and Chapman E. R. (2006) SV2 is the protein receptor for botulinum neurotoxin A, Science, 312(5773), 595–596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  538. 528.
    Bolken, T. C., Laquerre, S., Zhang, Y., Bailey, T. R., Pevear, D. C., Kickner, S. S., Sperzel, L. E., Jones, K. F., Warren, T. K., Lund, S. A., Kirkwood-Watts, D. L., King, D. S., Shurtleff, A. C., Guttiere, M. C., Deng, Y., Bleam, M., and Hruby, D. E. (2006) Identification and characterization of potent small molecule inhibitor of hemorrhagic fever, New World arenaviruses, Antiviral Res., 69(2), 86–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  539. 529.
    Puig-Basagoiti, F., Deas, T. S., Ren, P., Tilgner, M., Ferguson, D. M., and Shi, P.-Y. (2005) High-throughput assays using a luciferase-expressing replicon, virus-like particles, and full-length virus for West Nile discovery, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 49, 4980–4988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  540. 530.
    Puig-Basagoiti, F., Tilgner, M., Forshey, B. M., Philpott, S. M., Espina, N. G., Wentworth, D. E., Goebel, S. J., Masters, P. S., Falgout, B., Ren, P., Ferguson, D. M., and Shi, P.-Y. (2006) Triaryl pyrazoline compound inhibits flavivirus RNA replication, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 50, 1320–1329.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  541. 531.
    Goodell, J. R., Puig-Basagoiti, F., Forshey, B. M., Shi, P.-Y., and Ferguson, D. M. (2006) Identification of compounds with anti-West Nile virus activity, J. Med. Chem., 49, 2127–2137.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  542. 532.
    Gu, B., Ouzunov, S., Wang, L., Mason, P., Bourne, N., Cuconati, A., and Block, T. M. (2006) Discovery of small molecule inhibitors of West Nile virus using a high-throughput sub-genomic replicon screen, Antiviral Res., 70(2), 39–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  543. 533.
    Li, G., Chen, N., Feng, Z., Buller, R. M. L., Osborn, J., Harms, T., Damon, I., Upton, C., and Esteban, D. J. (2006) Genomic sequence and analysis of a vaccinia virus isolate from a patient with a smallpox vaccine-related complication, Virol. J., 3, 88–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  544. 534.
    Artenstein, A. W., Johnson, C., Marbury, T. C., Morrison, D., Blum, P. S., Kemp, T., Nichols, R., Balser, J. P., Currie, M., and Monath, T. P. (2005) A novel, cell culture-derived smallpox vaccine in vaccinia-naïve adults, Vaccine, 23(25), 3301–3309.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  545. 535.
    Vollmar, J., Arndtz, N., Eckl, K. M., Thomsen, T., Petzold, B., Mateo, L., Schlereth, B., Handley, A., King, L., Hulsemann, V., Tzatzaris, M., Merkl, K., Wulff, N., and Chaplin, P. (2006) Safety and immugenicity of IMVAMUNE, a promising candidate as a third generation smallpox vaccine, Vaccine, 24(12), 2065–2070.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  546. 536.
    Stittelaar, K. J., van Amerongen, G., Kondova, I., Kuiken, T., van Lavieren, R. F., Pistoor, F. H. M., Niesters, H. G. M., van Doornum, G., van der Zeijst, B. A. M., Mateo, L., Chaplin, P. J., and Osterhaus, A. D. M. E. (2005) Modified vaccinia virus Ankara protects macaques against respiratory challenge with monkeypox virus, J. Virol., 79(12), 7845–7851.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  547. 537.
    Deziel, M. R., Heine, H., Louie, A., Kao, M., Byrne, W. R., Basset, J., Miller, L., Bush, K., Kelly, M., and Drusano, G. L., (2005) Effective antimicrobial regimens for use in humans for therapy of Bacillus anthracis infections and postexposure prophylaxis, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 49(12), 5099–5106.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  548. 538.
    Crane, J. K., Choudhari, S. S., Naeher, T. M., and Duffey, M. E. (2006) Mutual enhancement of virulence by enterotoxigenic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, Infect. Immun., 74(3), 1505–1515.Google Scholar
  549. 539.
    Lu, X., Wang, M., Qi, J., Wang, H., Li, X., Gupta, D., and Dziarski, D. (2006) Peptidoglycan recognition proteins are a new class of human bactericidal proteins, J. Biol. Chem., 281(9), 5895–5907.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  550. 540.
    Tabeta, K., Hoebe, K., Janssen, E. M., Du, X., Georgel, P., Crozat, K., Mudd, S., Mann, N., Sovath, S., Goode, J., Shamel, L., Herskovits, A. A., Portnoy, D. A., Cooke, M., Tarantino, L. M., Wiltshire, T., Steinberg, B. E., Grinstein, S., and Beutler, B. (2006) The Unc93b1 mutation 3d disrupts exogenous antigen presentation and signaling via Toll-like receptors 3, 7, and 9, Nat. Immunol., 7, 156–164.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  551. 541.
    Gilchrist, M., Thorsson, V., Li, B., Rust, A. G., Korb, M., Kennedy, K., Hai, T., Bolouri, H., and Aderem, A. (2006) Systems biology approaches identify ATF3 as a negative regulator of Toll-like receptor 4, Nature, 441,173–178.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  552. 542.
    Howell, M. D., Gallo, R. L., Boguniewicz, M., Jones, J. F., Wong, C., Streib, J. E., and Leung, D. Y. (2006) Cytokine milieu of atopic dermatitis skin subverts the innate immune response to vaccinia virus, Immunity, 24, 341–348.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  553. 543.
    Sullivan, N. J., Geisbert, T. W., Geisbert, J. B., Shedlock, D. J., Xu, L., Lamoreaux, L., Custers, J. H., Popernack, P. M., Yang, Z. Y., Pau, M. G., Roederer, M., Koup, R. A., Goudsmit, J., Jahrling, P. B., and Nabel, G. J. (2006) Immune protection of nonhuman primates against Ebola virus with single low-dose adenovirus vectors encoding modified GPs, PLoS Med., 3(6), e177.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  554. 544.
    Epstein, S. L., Kong, W. P., Misplon, J. A., Lo, C. Y., Tumpey, T. M., Xu, L., and Nabel, G. J. (2005) Protection against multiple influenza a subtypes by vaccination with highly conserved nucleoprotein, Vaccine, 23(46–47), 5404–5410.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Humana Press, a part of Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Health & Human ServicesNational Institutes of HealthBethesdaUSA

Personalised recommendations