3D Printing from Cardiac CT Images
Advancements in CT imaging of cardiovascular pathology have been instrumental in ensuring accurate diagnosis and appropriate management of complex cardiovascular diseases. Among these advances, the development of 3D printed models of cardiovascular disease has enabled rapid communication of cardiovascular pathology and unparalleled opportunities for planning surgical and interventional procedures by allowing direct manipulation with real-time haptic feedback. Procedures previously planned using a limited two-dimensional screen can now be prepared using 3D printed models, allowing for tailored execution, possibly incorporating personalized medical devices developed through computer-aided design and manufactured with 3D printing. Such technology has been applied to a spectrum of cardiovascular pathology which includes congenital, structural, and valvular heart disease. This chapter provides an overview of concepts in 3D printing and summarizes a typical 3D printing workflow, from image acquisition to anatomic model fabrication. A practical example of this workflow is demonstrated using commercially available software. Several selected cardiovascular applications, the current status of 3D printing, and future perspectives are discussed.
Keywords3D printing from cardiac CT images Cardiac CT 3D images CT imaging of cardiovascular pathology Medical 3D printing Computer-aided design in medicine
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