Differences and Disparities in Cardiovascular Medicine Related to Gender, Race, and Ethnicity: The Role of Cardiac CT
Knowledge of demographic differences in physiology, pathology, and therapeutic response is necessary for optimal patient diagnosis and treatment. However, there are demographic, socioeconomic, and geographic differences in healthcare access, disease occurrence, and resultant morbidity/mortality that transcend biology; these differences constitute healthcare and health status disparities. Some differences in healthcare quality are due to clinical appropriateness/need and patient preferences, which may be appropriate, but there is also well-established discrimination as well as differences in the operation of healthcare systems leading to unnecessary, unjust, and avoidable inequities. An understanding of both unavoidable biological differences and avoidable disparities in cardiovascular health and care is necessary to appropriately select patients for cardiac CT, interpret the findings, and guide further management. Differences and disparities, as defined above, will be discussed concurrently.
KeywordsCardiovascular medicine related to gender, race, and ethnicity Cardiac CT and gender, race, and ethnicity Gender and cardiovascular imaging Gender in cardiac care Race and ethnicity in cardiac care
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