Staging in Multiple Myeloma

  • Leonard T. Heffner
Part of the Contemporary Hematology book series (CH)

A useful staging system should define a specific point in the course of a disease that can be characterized by a certain group of clinical or laboratory findings. Among the values of a uniformly accepted staging system are the ability to predict responses to treatment and survival, as well as having a system that allows for retrospective analyses of therapies and prospective planning of clinical trials. As useful treatments became available for myeloma, the search for parameters that might predict outcomes among these patients became more important. Initially, individuals presenting clinical features were considered for prognostic importance, including mainly renal function, hemoglobin, calcium, presence of Bence-Jones proteinuria, and immunoglobulin subtype.1, 2, 3, 4, 5However, Carbone was among the first to group a series of such features that represented good or poor prognosis and found that performance status, level of anemia, calcium level, and renal function correlated with...


Staging System International Stage System Southwest Oncology Study Group Poor Risk Group International Stage System Stage 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Leonard T. Heffner
    • 1
  1. 1.Winship Cancer InstituteEmory University School of MedicineAtlantaUSA

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