Advertisement

9.1 Introduction

Malaria is the most significant parasitic disease of human beings and remains a major cause of morbidity, anemia, and mortality worldwide. Malaria currently accounts for approximately 200 million morbid episodes and 2–3 million deaths each year, estimates that have been increasing over the last three decades [1]. The disease is caused by protozoan organisms of the genus Plasmodium, which invade and replicate within red blood cells (RBCs), a process resulting in the manifestations of disease, including cyclical fevers, anemia, convulsions, and death. The parasite is transmitted from person to person by biting anopheline mosquitoes. There are four malaria species that infect humans: Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malariae, and Plasmodium ovale. They are distributed in varying degrees throughout the tropical world and in some more temperate areas, wherever ecological and sociological conditions favor sufficient interactions between humans,...

Keywords

Preschool Child Severe Malaria Cerebral Malaria Parasite Density Iron Supplementation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Guinovart C, Navia MM, Tanner M, Alonso PL. Malaria: burden of disease. Curr Mol Med. 2006 Feb;6(2):137–140.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Shankar AH, 2000. Nutritional modulation of malaria morbidity and mortality. J Infect Dis 182(suppl 1): S37–S53Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bruce-Chwatt LJ. History of malaria from prehistory to eradication. In: Malaria: principles and practice of malariology. Wernsdorfer WH, McGregor IA, eds. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 1988:1–69.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    World Health Organization Expert Committee on Malaria. WHO Technical Report Series No. 357. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1967.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    World Health Organization. Re-examination of the global strategy of malaria eradication. A report by the director general to the 22nd World Health Assembly. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1969.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    krishna s. science, medicine, and the future. malaria. bmj 1997;315:730–732.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Binka FN, Kubaje A, Adjuik M, Williams LA, Lengeler C, Maude GH, et al. Impact of permethrin impregnated bednets on child mortality in Kassena-Nankana district, Ghana: a randomized controlled trial. Trop Med Int Health 1996;1:147–154.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Nevill CG, Some ES, Mung'ala VO, Mutemi W, New L, Marsh K, Lengeler C, Snow RW. Insecticide-treated bednets reduce mortality and severe morbidity from malaria among children on the Kenyan coast. Trop Med Int Health 1996;1:139–146.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    D'Alessandro U, Olaleye B, Langerock P, Bennett S, Cham K, Cham B, Greenwood BM. The Gambian National Impregnated Bednet Programme: evaluation of effectiveness by means of case-control studies. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1997;91:638–642.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lengeler C. Insecticide treated bednets and curtains for malaria control. Cochrane Review. In: The Cochrane Library, Issue 4. Oxford: Update Software, 1998.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Clyde DF, Most H, McCarthy VC, Vanderberg JP. Immunization of man against sporozoite-induced falciparum malaria. Am J Med Sci 1973;266:169–177.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Clyde DF. Immunization of man against falciparum and vivax malaria by use of attenuated sporozoites. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1975;24:397–401.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hoffman SL, Sherwood JA, Hollingdale MR, et al. Safety and efficacy of a recombinant DNA Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite vaccine. Lancet 1987;1:1277–1281.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Stoute JA, Slaoui M, Heppner DG, Momin P, Kester KE, Desmons P, Wellde BT, Garcon N, Krzych U, Marchand M. A preliminary evaluation of a recombinant circumsporozoite protein vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum malaria. N Engl J Med 1996;336:86–91.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Alonso PL, Sacarlal J, Aponte JJ, Leach A, Macete E, Milman J, Mandomando I, Spiessens B, Guinovart C, Espasa M, Bassat Q, Aide P, Ofori-Anyinam O, Navia MM, Corachan S, Ceuppens M, Dubois MC, Demoitie MA, Dubovsky F, Menendez C, Tornieporth N, Ballou WR, Thompson R, Cohen J. Efficacy of the RTS,S/AS02A vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum infection and disease in young African children: randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2004 Oct 16–22;364(9443):1411–1420.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Graves P, Gelband H. Vaccines for preventing malaria (pre-erythrocytic). Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006 Oct 18;(4):CD006198.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    McGregor IA, Carrington SP, Cohen S. Falciparum malaria with West African human gammaglobulin. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1963;57:170–175.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Patarroyo ME, Romero P, Torres ML, Clavijo P, Moreno A, Martinez A, et al. Induction of protective immunity against experimental infection with malaria using synthetic peptides. Nature 1987;328:629– 632Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Patarroyo ME, Amador R, Clavijo P, Moreno A, Guzman F, Romero P, et al. A synthetic vaccine protects humans against challenge with asexual blood stages of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Nature 1988;332:158–61.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Alonso PL, Smith T, Schellenberg DM, et al. Randomised trial of efficacy of SPf66 vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum malaria in children in southern Tanzania. Lancet 1994;344:1175–1181.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    D'Alessandro U, Leach A, Drakeley CJ, Bennett S, Olaleye BO, Fegan GW, et al. Efficacy trial of malaria vaccine Spf66 in Gambian infants. Lancet 1995;346:462–467.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Nosten F, Luxemburger C, Kyle DE et al. Randomized double blind placebo controlled trial of SPf66 malaria vaccine in children in northwestern Thailand. Shoklo SPf66 Malaria Vaccine Trial Group. Lancet 1996;348:701.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Acosta CJ, Galindo CM, Schellenberg DM, et al. Evaluation of the SPf66 vaccine for malaria control when delivered through the EPI scheme in Tanzania. Trop Med Int Health 1999;4:368–376.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Moorthy VS, Good MF, Hill AV. Malaria vaccine developments. Lancet 2004 Jan 10;363(9403):150– 156.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Graves P, Gelband H. Vaccines for preventing malaria (blood-stage). Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006 Oct 18;(4):CD006199.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Krogstad DJ. Malaria as a re-emerging disease. Epidemiol Rev 1996;18:77–79.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ghatoura GBS. A quantitative method of assessing the health impact of different diseases in less developed countries. Int J Epidemiol 1981;73–80.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hyder AA, Rotllant G, Morrow RH. Measuring the burden of disease: healthy life-years. Am J Public Health 1998;88:196–202.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Greenwood BM. Why do some African children develop severe malaria. Parasitol Today 1991;277–281.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Alonso PL, Lindsay SW, Armstrong JR, Conteh M, Hill AG, David PH, et al. The effect of insecticide-treated bed nets on mortality of Gambian children. Lancet 1991;337:1499–1502.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Bryce J, Boschi-Pinto C, Shibuya K, Black RE; WHO Child Health Epidemiology. WHO estimates of the causes of death in children. Lancet 2005 Mar 26–Apr 1;365(9465):1147–1152.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Brabin, B. The risks and severity of malaria in pregnant women. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1991. TDR/Applied Field Research in Malaria Reports, No. 1.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Krotoski WA, Collins WE, Bray RS, Garnham PC, Cogswell FB, Gwadz RW, et al. Demonstration of hypnozoites in sporozoite-transmitted Plasmodium vivax infection. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1982;31:1291– 1293.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Russell PF. Practical malariology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1963.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Garnham PC. Malaria parasites and other hemosporidia. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific, 1966.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Su XZ, Heatwole VM, Wertheimer SP, Guinet F, Herrfeldt JA, Peterson DS, et al. The large diverse gene family var encodes proteins involved in cytoadherence and antigenic variation of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes. Cell 1995;82:89–100.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Metselaar D. Two malaria surveys in the central mountains of the Netherlands and New Guinea. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1959;8:364–367.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Molineaux L. The epidemiology of human malaria as an explanation of its distribution including some implications for its control. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 1988:913–998.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Smith T, Genton B, Bawa K, Gibson N, Taime J, Narara A, et al. Relationships between Plasmodium falciparum infection and morbidity in an highly endemic area. Parasitology 1994;109:539–549.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Greenwood BM, Bradley AK, Greenwood AM, Byass P, Jammeh K, Marsh K, et al. Mortality and morbidity from malaria among children in a rural area of the Gambia, West Africa. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1987;81:478–486.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Lines J, Armstrong JRM. For a few parasites more: inoculum size, vector control and strain-specific immunity to malaria. Parasitol Today 1992;8:381–383.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Prevention of Malaria. Infect Dis Clin North Am Health Iss Int Travelers 1992:313–331.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Marsh K. Malaria: a neglected disease? Parasitology 1992;104:S53–S66.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Molineaux L. Plasmodium falciparum malaria: some epidemiological implications of parasite and host diversity. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 1996;90:379–393.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Molyneux ME, Taylor TE, Wirima JJ, Borgstein A. Clinical features and prognostic indicators in pae-diatric cerebral malaria: a study of 131 comatose Malawian children. Q J Med 1989;71:441–459.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Warrell DA. Severe and complicated malaria. R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1990;1–65.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Snow RW, Bastos de Azevedo I, Lowe BS, Kabiru EW, Nevill CG, et al. Severe childhood malaria in two areas of markedly different falciparum transmission in East Africa. Acta Trop 1994;57:289–300.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Snow RW. Will reducing Plasmodium falciparum transmission alter malaria mortality among African children? Parasitol Today 1995;188–190.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Marsh K, English M, Crawley J, Peshu N. The pathogenesis of severe malaria in African children. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 1996;90:396–402.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Slutsker L, Taylor TE, Wirima JJ, Steketee RW. In-hospital morbidity and mortality due to malaria-associated severe anaemia in two areas of Malawi with different patterns of malaria infection. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1994;88:548–551.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Snow RW, Schellenberg JR, Peshu N, Forster D, Newton CR, Winstanley PA, et al. Periodicity and space-time clustering of severe childhood malaria on the coast of Kenya. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1993;87:386–390.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Armstrong Schellenberg JRM. An analysis of the geographic distribution of severe malaria in children in the Kilifi District, Kenya. Int J Epidemiol 1998;323–329.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Oaks SC. Malaria: obstacles and opportunities. In: Institute of Medicine. Committee for the Study on Malaria Prevention and Control. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1991.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Shiff CJ, Premji Z, Minjas JN. The rapid manual ParaSight-F test. A new diagnostic tool for Plasmodium falciparum infection. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1993;87:646–648.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Baird JK. Effectiveness of antimalarial drugs. N Engl J Med 2005 Apr 14;352(15):1565–1577.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Allan RJ, Beattie P, Bate C, Van Hensbroek MB, Morris-Jones S, Greenwood BM, Kwiatkowski D. Strain variation in tumor necrosis factor induction by parasites from children with acute falciparum malaria. Infect Immun 1995;63:1173–1175.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Clark IA. The cytokine theory of human cerebral malaria. Parasitol Today 1994.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Clark IA, Rockett KA. Nitric oxide and parasitic disease. Adv Parasitol 1996;37:1–56.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Gupta S, Hill AV, Kwiatkowski D, Greenwood AM, Greenwood BM, Day KP. Parasite virulence and disease patterns in Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1994;91:3715–3719.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Treutiger CJ, Hedlund I, Helmby H, Carlson J, Jepson A, Twumasi P, et al. Rosette formation in Plasmodium falciparum isolates and anti-rosette activity of sera from Gambians with cerebral or uncomplicated malaria. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1992;46:503–510.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Babikker HA, Ranford-Cartwright LC, Currie D, Charlwood JD, et al. Random mating in natural population of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Parasitology 1994;109:413–421.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Kwiatowski D, Nowak N. Periodic and chaotic host—parasite interactions. Proc Nat Acad Sci U S A 1991;88:5111–5113.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    McGuire W, Hill AV, Allsopp CE, Greenwood BM, Kwiatkowski D. Variation in the TNF-alpha promotor region associated with susceptibility to cerebral malaria. Nature 1994;371:508–510.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Fleming AF, Storey J, Molineaux L, Iroko EA, Attai ED. Abnormal haemoglobins in the Sudan savanna of Nigeria. I. Prevalence of haemoglobins and relationship between sickle cell trait, malaria and survival. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 1979;73:161–172.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Weatherall DJ. Common genetic disorders of the red cell and the “malaria hypothesis.” Ann Trop Med Parasitol 1987;81:539–548.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Miller LH. Impact of malaria on genetic polymorphism and genetic diseases in Africans and African Americans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1994;91:2415–2419.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Report of the Indian famine commission. Calcutta: Government of India, 1898.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Gill CA. The genesis of epidemics and the natural history of disease: an introduction to the science of epidemiology. London: Bailliere, Tindall, and Cox, 1928.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Christophers SR. Scientific memoirs by officers of the medical and sanitary departments of the government of India, 1911.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Roubaud E. Le bien-être dans le paludisme et les maladies a Trypanosomes. Bull Soc Pathol Exotique 1921;662–665.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Farinaud EM. Le paludisme à Poulo-Condore. Ann Inst Pasteur 1939;540–570.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Eckstein A. Malaria in childhood. Acta Med Orient 1943;2:123–132.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Williams CD. Clinical malaria in children. Lancet 1940;1:441–443.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Garnham PCC. Malaria in the African child. East Afr Med J 1954;31:155–159.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Hackett LW. Malaria in Europe; an ecological study. London: Oxford University Press, 1937.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    James SP. Epidemiological results of a laboratory study of malaria in England. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1926;20:143–157.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Famine inquiry commission report on Bengal. New Delhi: Government of India, 1945:118.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Edington GM. Cerebral malaria in the Gold Coast African: four autopsy reports. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 1954;48:300–306.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Hendrickse RG. Interactions of nutrition and infection: experiene in Nigeria. In: Nutrition and infection. Wolstenhome GEW, O'Connor M, eds. Boston: Little, Brown, 1967:98–111.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Hendrickse RG, Hasan AH, Olumide LO, Akinkunmi A. Malaria in early childhood: an investigation of five hundred seriously ill children in whom a “clinical” diagnosis of malaria was made on admission to the children's emergency room at University College Hospital, Ibadan. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 1971;65:1–20.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Murray MJ, Murray NJ, Murray AB, Murray MB. Refeeding-malaria and hyperferraemia. Lancet 1975;1:653–654.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Murray MJ, Murray AB, Murray MB, Murray CJ. Somali food shelters in the Ogaden famine and their impact on health. Lancet 1976;1:1283–1285.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Murray MJ, Murray AB, Murray NJ, Murray MB. Diet and cerebral malaria: the effect of famine and refeeding. Am J Clin Nutr 1978;31:57–61.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Murray MJ, Murray AB, Murray MB, Murray CJ. The adverse effect of iron repletion on the course of certain infections. Br Med J 1978;2:1113–1115.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    McGregor IA. Malaria: nutritional implications. Rev Infect Dis 1982;4:798–804.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    McGregor IA. Malaria and nutrition. In: Malaria: principles and practice of malariology. Wernsdorfer WH, McGregor IA, eds. London: Churchill Livingstone, 1988:753–767.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Edirisinghe JS. Infections in the malnourished: with special reference to malaria and malnutrition in the tropics. Ann Trop Paediatr 1986;6:233–237.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Latham MC. Needed research on the interactions of certain parasitic diseases and nutrition in humans. Rev Infect Dis 1982;4:896–900.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Gongora J, McFie J. Malnutrition, malaria and mortality. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1959;53: 238–247.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Gongora J. Malnutrition, malaria and mortality. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1960;54:471–473.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Ahmad SH, Moonis R, Shahab T, Khan HM, Jilani T. Effect of nutritional status on total parasite count in malaria. Indian J Pediatr 1985;52:285–288.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Periera PCM, Meira DA, Curi PR, deSouza N, Burini RC. The malarial impact on the nutritional status of Amazonian adult subjects. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 1995;37:19–24.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Liashenko I. Primary tropical malaria in underweight patients. Voenno-Meditsinskii Zhurnal 1997;318:46–51.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Walt F. Anaemia and kwashiorkor. J Trop Pediatr 1960;6:3–9.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Edington GM. Pathology of malaria in West Africa. BMJ 1967;1:715–718.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Purtilo DT, Conner DH. Fatal infections in protein-calorie malnourished children with hymolymphatic atrophy. Arch Dis Child 1975;50:149–152.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Hendrickse RG. Of sick turkeys, kwashiorkor, malaria, perinatal mortality, heroin addicts and food poisoning: research on the influence of aflatoxins on child health in the tropics. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 1997;91:787–793.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Hendrickse RG, Lamplugh SM, Maegraith BG. Influence of aflatoxin on nutrition and malaria in mice. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1986;80:846–847.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Razanamparany MS, Randriamiharisoa FA, Razanamparany NJD, Ramialimanana V. L'epidémie de paludisme a Antananarivo de 1983 a 1994 vue a travers le service de pediatrie de l'hôpital général de Befelatanana. Cahiers Sante 1995;5:382–385.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Randriamiharisoa FA, Razanamparany NJD, Ramialimanana V, Razanamparany MS. Epidemiological data on children hospitalized with malaria from 1983 to 1992. Arch Inst Pasteur Madagascar 1993;60:38–42.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Olumese PE, Sodeinde O, Ademowo OG, Walker O. Protein energy malnutrition and cerebral malaria in Nigerian children. J Trop Pediatr 1997;43:217–219.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Faye O, Correa J, Camara B, et al. Malaria lethality in Dakar pediatric environment study of risk factors [in French]. Med Trop (Mars) 1998;58:361–364.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Renaudin P. Evaluation of the nutritional status of children less than 5 years of age in Moundou, Chad: correlations with morbidity and hospital mortality. Med Trop 1997;57:49–54.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Man WD, Weber M, Palmer A, et al. Nutritional status of children admitted to hospital with different diseases and its relationship to outcome in the Gambia, West Africa. Trop Med Int Health 1998;3: 678–686.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Mockenhaupt FP, Ehrhardt S, Burkhardt J, et al. Manifestation and outcome of severe malaria in children in northern Ghana. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2004;71:167–172.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Ong'echa JM, Keller CC, Were T, Ouma C, Otieno RO, Landis-Lewis Z, Ochiel D, Slingluff JL, Mogere S, Ogonji GA, Orago AS, Vulule JM, Kaplan SS, Day RD, Perkins DJ. Parasitemia, anemia, and malarial anemia in infants and young children in a rural holoendemic Plasmodium falciparum transmission area. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2006 Mar;74(3):376–385.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Goyal SC. Protein energy malnutrition and cerebral malaria. J Trop Pediatr 1991;37:143–144.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Nacher M, Singhasivanon P, Treeprasertsuk S, Vannaphan S, Traore B, Looareesuwan S, Gay F. Intestinal helminths and malnutrition are independently associated with protection from cerebral malaria in Thailand. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2002 Jan;96(1):5–13.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Burgess HJL, Burgess AP, Driessen F. The nutritional status of children aged 0–5 years in Nkhotakota, Malawi. Trop Geog Med 1975;27:375–382.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Wenlock RW. The epidemiology of tropical parasitic diseases in rural Zambia and the consequences for public health. J Trop Med Hyg 1979;82:90–98.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Sharp PT, Harvey P. Malaria and growth stunting in young children of the highlands of Papua New Guinea. Papua New Guinea Med J 1980;23:132–140.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    El Samani FZ, Willett WC, Ware JH. Nutritional and socio-demographic risk indicators of malaria in children under five: a cross-sectional study in a Sudanese rural community. J Trop Med Hyg 1987;90:69–78.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Renaudin P, Lombart JP. Anemia in infants less than 1 year old in Moundou, Chad: prevalence and etiology. Med Trop 1994;54:337–342.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Tshikuka J, Gray-Donald K, Scott M, Olela KN. Relationship of childhood protein-energy malnutrition and parasite infections in an urban African setting. Trop Med Int Health 1997;2: 374–382.Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Mbago MCY, Namtua PP. Some determinants of nutritional status of 1 to 4-year-old children in low income urban areas in Tanzania. J Trop Pediatr 1991;38: 299–306.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Dominguez-Vazquez A, Alzate-Sanchez A. Nutritional status in children under 6 years of age and its relation to malaria and intestinal parasitism. Salud Publica de Mexico 1990;32:52–63.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Carswell F, Hughes AO, Palmer RI, Higginson J, Harland PS, Meakins RH. Nutritional status, globulin titers, and parasitic infections of two populations of Tanzanian school children. Am J Clin Nutr 1981;34:1292–1299.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Monjour L, Palminteri R, Froment A, Renault T, Alfred C, Gentilini M. Is cell-mediated immune response related to nutritional state, but unaffected by concomitant malarial infection? Ann Trop Med Parasitol 1982;76:575–577.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Ehrhardt S, Burchard GD, Mantel C, Cramer JP, Kaiser S, Kubo M, Otchwemah RN, Bienzle U, Mockenhaupt F P. Malaria, anemia, and malnutrition in African children—defining intervention priorities. J Infect Dis 2006 Jul 1;194(1):108–114.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Mamiro PS, Kolsteren P, Roberfroid D, Tatala S, Opsomer AS, Van Camp JH. Feeding practices and factors contributing to wasting, stunting, and iron-deficiency anaemia among 3–23-month old children in Kilosa district, rural Tanzania. J Health Popul Nutr 2005 Sep;23(3):222–230.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Friedman JF, Kwena AM, Mirel LB, Kariuki SK, Terlouw DJ, Phillips-Howard PA, Hawley WA, Nahlen BL, Shi YP, ter Kuile FO. Malaria and nutritional status among pre-school children: results from cross-sectional surveys in western Kenya. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2005 Oct; 73(4):698–704.Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Tanner M, Burnier E, Mayombana C, et al. Longitudinal study on the health status of children in a rural Tanzanian community: parasitoses and nutrition following control measures against intestinal parasites. Acta Trop 1987;44:137–174.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Williams TN, Maitland K, Phelps L, et al. Plasmodium vivax: a cause of malnutrition in young children. Q J Med 1997;90:751–757.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Tonglet R, Mahangaiko Lembo E, Zihindula PM, Wodon A, Dramaix M, Hennart P. How useful are anthropometric, clinical, and dietary measurements of nutritional status as predictors of morbidity of young children in central Africa? Trop Med Int Health 1999;4:120–130.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Deen JL, Walraven GE, von Seidlein L. Increased risk for malaria in chronically malnourished children under 5 years of age in rural Gambia. J Trop Pediatr. 2002 Apr;48(2):78–83.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Snow RW, Byass P, Shenton FC, Greenwood BM. The relationship between anthropometric measurements and measurements of iron status and susceptibility to malaria in Gambian children. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1991;85:584–589.Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Genton B, Al-Yaman F, Ginny M, Taraika J, Alpers MP. Relation of anthropometry to malaria morbidity and immunity in Papua New Guinean children. Am J Clin Nutr 1998;68:734–741.Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    van den Broeck J, Eeckels R, Vuylsteke J. Influence of nutritional status on child mortality in rural Zaire. Lancet 1993;341:1491–1495.Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Muller O, Garenne M, Kouyate B, Becher H. The association between protein-energy malnutrition, malaria morbidity and all-cause mortality in West African children. Trop Med Int Health 2003; 8:507–511.Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Caulfield LE, Richard SA, Black RE. Undernutrition as an underlying cause of malaria morbidity and mortality in children less than 5 years old. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2004 Aug;71(2 suppl):55–63.Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Randomised trial to assess benefits and safety of vitamin A supplementation linked to immunisation in early infancy. WHO/CHD Immunisation-Linked Vitamin A Supplementation Study Group. Lancet 1998;352:1257–1263.Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Andersen M, 1997. Anthropometric measurements in health programmes: epidemiological and statistical aspects. PhD dissertation. University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Garenne M, Garenne M, Maire B, Fontaine O, Dieng K, Briend A, 2000. Risks of dying associated with different nutritional status in pre-school aged children. Final report. Dakar: ORSTOM, September 1987:246. Reprinted by CEPED, Paris.Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Wolday D, Kibreab T, Bukenya D, Hodes R. Sensitivity of Plasmodium falciparum in vivo to chloroquine and pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine in Rwandan patients in a refugee camp in Zaire. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1995;89:654–656.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Hess FI, Iannuzzi A, Leafasia J, et al. Risk factors of chloroquine resistance in Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Acta Trop 1996;61:293–306.Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Hess FI, Nukuro E, Judson L, Rodgers J, Nothdurft HD, Rieckmann KH. Anti-malarial drug resistance, malnutrition and socio-economic status. Trop Med Int Health 1997;2:721–728.Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Hamel MJ, Holtz T, Mkandala C, Kaimila N, Chizani N, Bloland P, Kublin J, Kazembe P, Steketee R. Efficacy of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole compared with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine plus erythromycin for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in children with integrated management of childhood illness dual classifications of malaria and pneumonia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2005 Sep;73(3):609–615.Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Geiman QM, McKee RW. Malarial parasites and their mode of life. Sci Month 1948;67:217.Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Ray AP. Haematological studies on Simian malaria. II. Blood picture in monkeys during acute and chronic stages of P. knowlesi infection. Indian J Malariol 1957;4:360.Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Tatke M, Bazaz-Malik G. Brain histomorphology in protein deprived rhesus monkeys with fatal malarial infection. Indian J Med Res 1989;89:404–410.Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Bazaz-Malik G, Tatke M. Response to Plasmodium cynomolgi infection in a protein deficient host. Indian J Med Res 1982;76:527–533.Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Tatke M, Malik GB. Pulmonary pathology in severe malaria infection in health and protein deprivation. J Trop Med Hyg 1990;93:377–382.Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Ramakrishnan SP, Prakash S, Krishnaswami SP, Singh LC. Studies on P. berghei Vincki and Lips: effect of glucose, biotin PABA and mathionine on the course of blood induced infection in starving albino rats. Indian J Malariol 1953;7:225.Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Ramakrishnan SP. Studies on Plasmodium berghei N. Sp. Vincke and Lips, 1948. VIII. The course of blood-induced infection in starved albino rats. Indian J Malariol 1953;7:53–60.Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    Ramakrishnan SP. Studies on Plasmodium berghei Vincke and Lips, 1948. XVI. Effect of ketogenic diet on the course of blood-induced infection in rats. Indian J Malariol 1954;8:85–88.Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Ramakrishnan SP. Studies on Plasmodium berghei Vincke and Lips, 1948. XVIII. Effect of diet different in quality but adequate in quantity on the course of blood-induced infection in rats. Indian J Malariol 1954;8:97–105.Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Ramakrishnan SP. Studies on Plasmodium berghei, Vincke and Lips, 1948. XVII. Effect of different quantities of the same diet on the course of blood-induced infection in rats. Indian J Malariol 1954;8:89–96.Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Edirisinghe JS, Fern EB, Targett GAT. The influence of dietary protein on the development of malaria. Ann Trop Paediatr 1981;1:87–91.Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Edirisinghe JS, Fern EB, Targett GAT. Dietary suppression of rodent malaria. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1981;75:591–593.Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Edirisinghe JS, Fern EB, Targett GAT. Resistance to superinfection with Plasmodium berghei in rats fed a protein-free diet. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1982;76:382–386.Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Fern EB, Edirisinghe JS, Targett GA. Increased severity of malaria infection in rats fed supplementary amino acids. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1984;78:839–841.Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Bhatia A, Aggarwal A, Sehgal S, Chakravarti RN, Vinayak VK. Interactions of protein calorie malnutrition, malaria infection and immune responses. Aust J Exp Biol Med Sci 1983;61:589–597.Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Bhatia A, Vinayak VK. Dietary modulation of malaria infection in rats. Indian J Malariol 1991;28: 237–242.Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    Ibekwe CAC, Ugwunna SC. The effects of host diet on Plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis. J Parasitol 1990;76:903–912.Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    Bakker NPM, Eling WMC, De Groot AMT, Sinkeldam EJ, Luyken R. Attenuation of malaria infection, paralysis and lesions in the central nervous system by low protein diets in rats. Acta Trop 1992;50:285–293.Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    van Doorne CW, Eling WMC, Luyken R. Rodent malaria in rats exacerbated by milk protein, attenuated by low-protein vegetable diet. Trop Med Int Health 1998;3:596–600.Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Keshavarz-Valian H, Alger NE, Boissonneault GA. Effects of p-aminobenzoic acid, methionine, threonine and protein levels on susceptibility of mice to Plasmodium berghei. J Nutr 1985;115: 1613–1620.Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    Fagbenro-Beyioku AF, Oyerinde JPO. Effect of host-diet inadequacy on the course of infection of Plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis. West Afr J Med 1990;9:124–128.Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    Hunt NH, Manduci N, Thumwood CM. Amelioration of murine cerebral malaria by dietary restriction. Parasitology 1993;107:471–476.Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    Garnham PCC. Malarial immunity in Africans: effects in infancy and early childhood. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1949;43:47–61.Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    Bruce-Chwatt LJ. Malaria in African infants and effect on growth and development in children in southern Nigeria. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 1952;46:173–200.Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    Frood JDL, Whitehead RG, Coward WA. Relationship between pattern of infection and development of hypoalbuminaemia and hypo-β-lipoproteinaemia in rural Ugandan children. Lancet 1971;2: 1047–1049.Google Scholar
  163. 163.
    Rowland MGM, Cole TJ, Whitehead RG. A quantitative study into the role of infection in determining nutritional status in Gambian village children. Br J Nutr 1977;37:441–450.Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    Marsden PD. The Sukuta Project: a longitudinal study of health in Gambian children from birth to 18 months of age. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1964;58:455–489.Google Scholar
  165. 165.
    Faich GA, Mason J. The prevalence and relationships of malaria, anemia, and malnutrition in a coastal area of El Salvador. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1975;24:161–167.Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    Nyakeriga AM, Troye-Blomberg M, Chemtai AK, Marsh K, Williams TN. Malaria and nutritional status in children living on the coast of Kenya. Am J Clin Nutr 2004 Dec;80(6):1604–1610.Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    Friedman JF, Kurtis JD, Mtalib R, Opollo M, Lanar DE, Duffy PE. Malaria is related to decreased nutritional status among male adolescents and adults in the setting of intense perennial transmission. J Infect Dis 2003 Aug 1;188(3):449–457. Epub July 15, 2003.Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    Colbourne MJ. The effect of malaria suppression in a group of Accra school children. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1955;49:356–369.Google Scholar
  169. 169.
    McGregor IA, Gilles HM, Walters JH, Davies AH, Pearson FA. Effects of heavy and repeated malarial infections on Gamiban infants and children. BMJ 1956;686–692.Google Scholar
  170. 170.
    Bradley-Moore AM, Greenwood BM, Bradley AK, Kirkwood BR, Gilles HM. Malaria chemoprophylaxis with chloroquine in young Nigerian children III. Its effect on nutrition. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 1985;79:575–584.Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    Molineaux L, Gramiccia G. The Garki Project. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1980.Google Scholar
  172. 172.
    Draper KC, Draper CC. Observations on the growth of African infants with special reference to the effects of malaria control. J Trop Med Hyg 1960;63:165–171.Google Scholar
  173. 173.
    Snow RW, Molyneux CS, Njeru EK, et al. The effects of malaria control on nutritional status in infancy. Acta Trop 1997;65:1–10.Google Scholar
  174. 174.
    Shiff C, Checkley W, Winch P, Premji Z, Minjas J, Lubega P. Changes in weight gain and anaemia attributable to malaria in Tanzanian children living under holoendemic conditions. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1996;90:262–265.Google Scholar
  175. 175.
    Friedman JF, Phillips-Howard PA, Hawley WA, Terlouw DJ, Kolczak MS, Barber M, Okello N, Vulule JM, Duggan C, Nahlen BL, ter Kuile FO. Impact of permethrin-treated bed nets on growth, nutritional status, and body composition of primary school children in western Kenya. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2003 Apr;68(4 suppl):78–85.Google Scholar
  176. 176.
    Hung LQ, de Vries PJ, Giao PT, Binh TQ, Nam NV, Chong MT, Kager PA. Nutritional status following malaria control in a Vietnamese ethnic minority commune. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2005 Aug;59(8): 891–899.Google Scholar
  177. 177.
    DeMaeyer E, et al. Preventing and controlling iron deficiency anaemia through primary health care: a guide for health administrators and programme managers. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1989.Google Scholar
  178. 178.
    Walter T. Early and long-term effect of iron deficiency anemia on child development. In: Nutritional anemias. Fomon SJ, Zlotkin S, eds. New York: Raven, 1992.Google Scholar
  179. 179.
    Fairbanks VF. Iron in medicine and nutrition. In: Modern nutrition in health and disease. Shils ME, Olson JA, Shike M, eds. Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger, 1994.Google Scholar
  180. 180.
    Gibson RS. Principles of nutritional assessment. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.Google Scholar
  181. 181.
    Wyler DJ. Malaria: overview and update. Clin Infect Dis 1993;16:449–458.Google Scholar
  182. 182.
    Oppenheimer SJ, Gibson FD, Macfarlane SB, et al. Iron supplementation increases prevalence and effects of malaria: report on clinical studies in Papua New Guinea. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1986;80:603–612.Google Scholar
  183. 183.
    Menendez C, Kahigwa E, Hirt R, et al. Randomized placebo-controlled trial of iron supplementation and malaria chemoprophylaxis for prevention of severe anaemia and malaria in Tanzanian infants. Lancet 1997;350:844–850.Google Scholar
  184. 184.
    Chippaux JP, Schneider D, Aplogan A, Dyck JL, Berger J. Effets de la supplementation en fer sur l'infection palustre. Bull Soc Pathol Exot 1991;84:54–62.Google Scholar
  185. 185.
    Smith AW, Hendrickse RG, Harrison C, Hayes RJ, Greenwood BM. The effects on malaria of treatment of iron-deficiency anaemia with oral iron in Gambian children. Ann Trop Paediatr 1989;9: 17–23.Google Scholar
  186. 186.
    Mebrahtu T, Stoltzfus RJ, Chwaya HM, Jape JK, Savioli L, Montresor A, Albonico M, Tielsch JM. Low-dose daily iron supplementation for 12 months does not increase the prevalence of malarial infection or density of parasites in young Zanzibari children. J Nutr. 2004 Nov;134(11):3037–3041.Google Scholar
  187. 187.
    Lawless JW, Latham MC, Stephenson LS, Kinoti SN, Pertet AM. Iron supplementation improves appetite and growth in anemic Kenyan primary school children. J Nutr 1994;124:645–654.Google Scholar
  188. 188.
    Adam, Z. Iron supplementation and malaria: a randomized, placebo-controlled field trial in rural Ethiopia. Study in children study. London: University of London, 1996.Google Scholar
  189. 189.
    Gebreselassie, H. Iron supplementation and malaria infection: results of a randomized controlled field trial. Montreal: McGill University, 1996.Google Scholar
  190. 190.
    Harvey PWJ, Heywood PF, Nesheim MC, et al. The effect of iron therapy on malarial infection in Papua New Guinean school children. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1989;40:12–18.Google Scholar
  191. 191.
    Adam, Z. Iron supplementation and malaria: a randomized, placebo-controlled field trial in rural Ethiopia. Study in adult women. London: University of London, 1996.Google Scholar
  192. 192.
    Fleming AF, Ghatoura GBS, Harrison KA, Briggs ND, Dunn DT. The prevention of anaemia in pregnancy in primigravidae in the guinea savanna of Nigeria. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 1986;80:211–233.Google Scholar
  193. 193.
    Menendez C, Todd J, Alonso PL, et al. The effects of iron supplementation during pregnancy, given by traditional birth attendants, on the prevalence of anaemia and malaria. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1994;88:590–593.Google Scholar
  194. 194.
    Bates CJ, Powers HJ, Lamb WH, Gelman W, Webb E. Effect of supplementary vitamins and iron on malaria indices in rural Gambian children. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1987;81:286–291.Google Scholar
  195. 195.
    Ekvall H, Premji Z, Bjorkman A. Micronutrient and iron supplementation and effective antimalarial treatment synergistically improve childhood anemia. Trop Med Int Health 2000;5:696–705.Google Scholar
  196. 196.
    van den Hombergh J, Dalderop E, Smit Y. Does iron therapy benefit children with severe malaria-associated anaemia? A clinical trial with 12 weeks supplementation of oral iron in young children from the Turiani Division, Tanzania. J Trop Pediatr 1996;42:220–227.Google Scholar
  197. 197.
    Nwanyanwu OC, Ziba C, Kazembe PN, Gamadzi G, Gondwe J, Redd SC. The effect of oral iron therapy during treatment for Plasmodium falciparum malaria with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine on Malawian children under 5 years of age. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 1996;90:589–595.Google Scholar
  198. 198.
    Boele van Hensbroek M, Morris-Jones S, Meisner S, et al. Iron, but not folic acid, combined with effective antimalarial therapy promotes haematological recovery in African children after acute falciparum malaria. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1995;89:672–676.Google Scholar
  199. 199.
    Gordeuk V, Thuma P, Brittenham G, et al. Effect of iron chelation therapy on recovery from deep coma in children with cerebral malaria. N Engl J Med 1992;327:1473–1477.Google Scholar
  200. 200.
    Oppenheimer SJ, Macfarlane SBJ, Moody JB, Harrison C. Total dose iron infusion, malaria and pregnancy in Papua New Guinea. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1986;80:818–822.Google Scholar
  201. 201.
    Masawe AEJ, Muindi JM, Swai GB. Infections in iron deficiency and other types of anaemia in the tropics. Lancet 1974;2:314–317.Google Scholar
  202. 202.
    Oppenheimer SJ. Iron and its relation to immunity and infectious disease. J Nutr 2001 Feb;131 (2S-2):616S–633S; discussion 633S–635SGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Harvey PWJ, Bell RG, Nesheim MC. Iron deficiency protects inbred mice against infection with Plasmodium chabaudi. Infect Immun 1985;50:932–934.Google Scholar
  204. 204.
    International Nutritional Anemia Consultative Group. Safety of iron supplementation programs in malaria-endemic regions. Washington, DC: International Life Science Institute, 2000.Google Scholar
  205. 205.
    Sazawal S, Black RE, Ramsan M, Chwaya HM, Stoltzfus RJ, Dutta A, Dhingra U, Kabole I, Deb S, Othman MK, Kabole FM. Effects of routine prophylactic supplementation with iron and folic acid on admission to hospital and mortality in preschool children in a high malaria transmission setting: community-based, randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2006 Jan 14;367(9505):133–143.Google Scholar
  206. 206.
    Tielsch JM, Khatry SK, Stoltzfus RJ, Katz J, LeClerq SC, Adhikari R, Mullany LC, Shresta S, Black RE. Effect of routine prophylactic supplementation with iron and folic acid on preschool child mortality in southern Nepal: community-based, cluster-randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2006 Jan 14;367(9505):144–152.Google Scholar
  207. 207.
    Nacher M, McGready R, Stepniewska K, Cho T, Looareesuwan S, White NJ, Nosten F. Haematinic treatment of anaemia increases the risk of Plasmodium vivax malaria in pregnancy. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2003 May–Jun;97(3):273–276.Google Scholar
  208. 208.
    Richard SA, Zavaleta N, Caulfield LE, Black RE, Witzig RS, Shankar AH. Zinc and iron supplementation and malaria, diarrhea, and respiratory infections in children in the Peruvian Amazon. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2006 Jul;75(1):126–132.Google Scholar
  209. 209.
    Nyakeriga AM, Troye-Blomberg M, Dorfman JR, Alexander ND, Back R, Kortok M, Chemtai AK, Marsh K, Williams TN. Iron deficiency and malaria among children living on the coast of Kenya. J Infect Dis 2004 Aug 1;190(3):439–447. Epub July 2, 2004.Google Scholar
  210. 210.
    Kartikasari AE, Georgiou NA, Visseren FL, van Kats-Renaud H, Sweder van Asbeck B, Marx JJ. Endothelial activation and induction of monocyte adhesion by nontransferrin-bound iron present in human sera. FASEB J. 2006 Feb;20(2):353–345. Epub December 20, 2005.Google Scholar
  211. 211.
    Iyer JK, Shi L, Shankar AH, Sullivan DJ Jr. Zinc protoporphyrin IX binds heme crystals to inhibit the process of crystallization in Plasmodium falciparum. Mol Med. 2003 May–Aug;9(5–8): 175–182.Google Scholar
  212. 212.
    Vyoral D, Petrak J. Hepcidin: a direct link between iron metabolism and immunity. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2005 Sep;37(9):1768–1773.Google Scholar
  213. 213.
    Shankar AH, Prasad AS. Zinc and immune function: the biological basis of altered resistance to infection. Am J Clin Nutr 1998;68:447S–463S.Google Scholar
  214. 214.
    Fischer Walker C, Black RE. Zinc and the risk for infectious disease. Annu Rev Nutr 2004;24: 255–275.Google Scholar
  215. 215.
    Good MF, Kaslow DC, Miller LH. Pathways and strategies for developing a malaria blood-stage vaccine. Ann Rev Immunol 1998;16:57–87.Google Scholar
  216. 216.
    Gibson RS, Heywood A, Yaman C, Sohlstrom A, Thompson LU, Heywood P. Growth in children from the Wosera subdistrict, Papua New Guinea, in relation to energy and protein intakes and zinc status. Am J Clin Nutr 1991;53:782–789.Google Scholar
  217. 217.
    Gibson RS, Huddle JM. Suboptimal zinc status in pregnant Malawian women: its association with low intakes of poorly available zinc, frequent reproductive cycling, and malaria. Am J Clin Nutr 1998;67:702–709.Google Scholar
  218. 218.
    Bates CJ, Evans PH, Dardenne M, et al. A trial of zinc supplementation in young rural Gambian children. Br J Nutr 1993;69:243–255.Google Scholar
  219. 219.
    Shankar AH, Kumar N, Scott AL. Zinc-deficiency exacerbates experimental malaria infection in mice. FASEB J 1995;9:A4269.Google Scholar
  220. 220.
    Arif AJ, Mathur PD, Chandra S, Singh C, Sen AB. Effect of zinc diet on xanthine oxidase activity of liver of mice infected with Plasmodium berghei. Indian J Malariol 1987;24:59–63.Google Scholar
  221. 221.
    Shankar AH, Genton B, Baisor M, Paino J, Tamja S, Adiguma T, Wu L, Rare L, Bannon D, Tielsch JM, West KP Jr, Alpers MP. The influence of zinc supplementation on morbidity due to Plasmodium falciparum: a randomized trial in preschool children in Papua New Guinea. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2000 Jun;62:663–669.Google Scholar
  222. 222.
    Muller O, Becher H, van Zweeden AB, Ye Y, Diallo DA, Konate AT, Gbangou A, Kouyate B, Garenne M. Effect of zinc supplementation on malaria and other causes of morbidity in west African children: randomised double blind placebo controlled trial. BMJ 2001 Jun 30;322(7302):1567.Google Scholar
  223. 223.
    Sazawal S, Black RE, Ramsan M, Chwaya HM, Dutta A, Dhingra U, Stoltzfus RJ, Othman MK, Kabole FM. Effect of zinc supplementation on mortality in children aged 1–48 months: randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2007 Mar 17;369(9565):927–934.Google Scholar
  224. 224.
    Zinc Against Plasmodium Study Group. Effect of zinc on the treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in children: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 2002 Oct;76(4):805–812.Google Scholar
  225. 225.
    Semba RD. The role of vitamin A and related retinoids in immune function. Nutr Rev 1998;56: S38–S48.Google Scholar
  226. 226.
    Roos A, Hegsted DM, Stare FJ. Nutritional studies with the duck. IV. The effect of vitamin deficiencies on the course of P. lophurae infection in the duck and the chick. J Nutr 1946;32: 473–484.Google Scholar
  227. 227.
    Krishnan S, Krishnan AD, Mustafa AS, Talwar GP, Ramalingaswami V. Effect of vitamin A and undernutrition on the susceptibility of rodents to a malarial parasite Plasmodium berghei. J Nutr 1976;106:784–791.Google Scholar
  228. 228.
    Stoltzfus RJ, Jalal F, Harvey PWJ, Nesheim MC. Interactions between vitamin A deficiency and Plasmodium berghei infection in the rat. J Nutr 1989;119:2030–2037.Google Scholar
  229. 229.
    Foote SJ, Burt RA, Baldwin TM, et al. Mouse loci for malaria-induced mortality and the control of parasitaemia. Nature Genet 1997;17:380–381.Google Scholar
  230. 230.
    Davis TME, Skinner-Adam TS, Beilby J. In vitro growth inhibition of Plasmodium falciparum by retinol at concentrations present in normal human serum. Acta Trop 1998;69:111–119.Google Scholar
  231. 231.
    Hamzah J, Skinner-Adams TS, Davis TM. In vitro antimalarial activity of retinoids and the influence of selective retinoic acid receptor antagonists. Acta Trop 2003 Aug;87(3):345–353.Google Scholar
  232. 232.
    Samba DC, Basco LK, Bleiberg-Daniel F, Lemmonier D, Le Bras J. Absence of effect of retinol on the in vitro development of Plasmodium falciparum. Int J Vit Nutr Res 1992;62:99–100.Google Scholar
  233. 233.
    Thurnham DI, Singkamani R. The acute phase response and vitamin A status in malaria. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1991;85:194–199.Google Scholar
  234. 234.
    Galan P, Samba C, Luzeau R, Amedee-Manesme O. Vitamin A deficiency in pre-school age Congolese children during malarial attacks. Part 2: impact of parasitic disease on vitamin A status. Int J Vit Nutr Res 1990;60:224–228.Google Scholar
  235. 235.
    Samba D, Luzeau R, Mourey MS, Amedee-Manesme O. Consequences de l'acces palustre sur les reserves vitaminiques A. Gastroenterol Clin Biol 1989;13:A288.Google Scholar
  236. 236.
    Tabone MD, Muanza K, Lyagoubi M, et al. The role of interleukin-6 in vitamin A deficiency during Plasmodium falciparum malaria and possible consequences for vitamin A supplementation. Immunology 1992;75:553–554.Google Scholar
  237. 237.
    Filteau SM, Morris SS, Abbott RA, et al. Influence of morbidity on serum retinol of children in a community-based study in northern Ghana. Am J Clin Nutr 1993;58:192–197.Google Scholar
  238. 238.
    Friis H, Mwaniki D, Omondi B, et al. Serum retinol concentrations and Schistosoma mansoni, intestinal helminths, and malarial parasitemia: a cross-sectional study in Kenyan preschool and primary school children. Am J Clin Nutr 1997;66:665–671.Google Scholar
  239. 239.
    Sturchler D, Tanner M, Hanck A, et al. A longitudinal study on relations of retinol with parasitic infections and the immune response in children of Kikwawila village, Tanzania. Acta Trop 1987;44: 213–227.Google Scholar
  240. 240.
    Binka FN, Ross DA, Morris SS, et al. Vitamin A supplementation and childhood malaria in northern Ghana. Am J Clin Nutr 1995;61:853–859.Google Scholar
  241. 241.
    Shankar AH. Vitamin A and malaria. Am J Clin Nutr 1995;62:842–843.Google Scholar
  242. 242.
    Villamor E, Mbise R, Spiegelman D, Hertzmark E, Fataki M, Peterson KE, Ndossi G, Fawzi WW. Vitamin A supplements ameliorate the adverse effect of HIV-1, malaria, and diarrheal infections on child growth. Pediatrics. 2002 Jan;109(1):E6.Google Scholar
  243. 243.
    Nussenblatt V, Mukasa G, Metzger A, Ndeezi G, Eisinger W, Semba RD. Relationship between carotenoids and anaemia during acute uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in children. J Health Popul Nutr. 2002 Sep;20(3):205–214.Google Scholar
  244. 244.
    Cooper KA, Adelekan DA, Esimai AO, Northrop-Clewes CA, Thurnham DI. Lack of influence of red palm oil on severity of malaria infection in pre-school Nigerian children. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2002 Mar–Apr;96(2):216–223.Google Scholar
  245. 245.
    Shankar AH, Genton B, Semba RD, et al. Effect of vitamin A supplementation on morbidity due to Plasmodium falciparum in young children in Papua New Guinea: a randomised trial. Lancet 1999;354:203–209.Google Scholar
  246. 246.
    Cox SE, Staalsoe T, Arthur P, Bulmer JN, Tagbor H, Hviid L, Frost C, Riley EM, Kirkwood BR. Maternal vitamin A supplementation and immunity to malaria in pregnancy in Ghanaian primigravids. Trop Med Int Health. 2005 Dec;10(12):1286–1297.Google Scholar
  247. 247.
    Varandas L, Julien M, Gomes A, Rodrigues P, Van Lerberghe W, Malveiro F, Aguiar P, Kolsteren P, Van Der Stuyft P, Hilderbrand K, Labadarios D, Ferrinho P. A randomised, double-blind, placebocontrolled clinical trial of vitamin A in severe malaria in hospitalised Mozambican children. Ann Trop Paediatr 2001 Sep;21(3):211–222.Google Scholar
  248. 248.
    Serghides L, Kain KC. Mechanism of protection induced by vitamin A in falciparum malaria. Lancet 2002 Apr 20;359(9315):1404–1406.Google Scholar
  249. 249.
    Macreadie I, Ginsburg H, Sirawaraporn W, Tilley L, 2000. Antimalarial drug development and new targets. Parasitol Today 16: 438–444.Google Scholar
  250. 250.
    Seeler AO, Ott WH. Studies on nutrition and avian malaria. III. Deficiency of “folic acid” and other unidentified factors. J Infect Dis 1945;77:82–84.Google Scholar
  251. 251.
    Das KC, Virdi JS, Herbert V. Survival of the dietarily deprived: folate deficiency protects against malaria in primates. Blood 1992;80:281a.Google Scholar
  252. 252.
    Hamilton PJ, Gebbie DA, Wilks NE, Lothe F. The role of malaria, folic acid deficiency and haemoglobin AS in pregnancy at Mulago hospital. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1972;66:594–602.Google Scholar
  253. 253.
    Fleming AF, Werblinska B. Anaemia in childhood in the quinea savanna of Nigeria. Ann Trop Paediatr 1982;2:161–173.Google Scholar
  254. 254.
    Strickland GT, Kostinas JE. Folic acid deficiency complicating malaria. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1970;19:910–915.Google Scholar
  255. 255.
    Fleming AF, Hendrickse J P, Allan NC. The prevention of megaloblastic anaemia in pregnancy in Nigeria. J Obstet Gynaecol Br Commonw 1968;75:425–432.Google Scholar
  256. 256.
    Brabin BJ, van den Berg H, Nijmeyer F. Folacin, cobalamin, and hematological status during pregnancy in rural Kenya: the influence of parity, gestation, and Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Am J Clin Nutr 1986;43:803–815.Google Scholar
  257. 257.
    Fuller NJ, Bates CJ, Hayes RJ, et al. The effects of antimalarials and folate supplements on haemato-logical indices and red cell folate levels in Gambian children. Ann Trop Paediatr 1988;8:61–67.Google Scholar
  258. 258.
    Gail K, Herms V. Influence of pteroylglutamic acid (folic acid) on parasite density (Plasmodium falciparum) in pregnant women in West Africa. Zeitschrift Tropenmed Parasitol 1969;20:440–450.Google Scholar
  259. 259.
    Hurley MGD. Administration of pyrimenthamine with folic and folinic acids in human malaria. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1959;53:410–411.Google Scholar
  260. 260.
    Tong MJ, Strickland GT, Votteri BA, Gunning J. Supplemental folates in the therapy of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. J Am Med Assoc 1970;214:2330–2333.Google Scholar
  261. 261.
    Topley E. Anaemia where malaria is endemic. Trop Doctor 1975;5:18–22.Google Scholar
  262. 262.
    van Hensbroek MB, Morris-Jones S, Meisner S, et al. Iron, but not folic acid, combined with effective antimalarial therapy promotes haematological recovery in African children after acute falciparum malaria. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1995;89:672–676.Google Scholar
  263. 263.
    Carter JY, Loolpapit MP, Lema OE, Tome JL, Nagelkerke NJ, Watkins WM. Reduction of the efficacy of antifolate antimalarial therapy by folic acid supplementation. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2005 Jul;73(1):166–170.Google Scholar
  264. 264.
    Mulenga M, Malunga P, Bennett S, Thuma P, Shulman C, Fielding K, Greenwood B. Folic acid treatment of Zambian children with moderate to severe malaria anemia. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2006 Jun;74(6):986–990.Google Scholar
  265. 265.
    Mbaye A, Richardson K, Balajo B, Dunyo S, Shulman C, Milligan P, Greenwood B, Walraven G. Lack of inhibition of the anti-malarial action of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine by folic acid supplementation when used for intermittent preventive treatment in Gambian primigravidae. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2006 Jun;74(6):960–964.Google Scholar
  266. 266.
    Oppenheimer SJ, Bull R, Thurnham DI. Riboflavin deficiency in Madang infants. Papua New Guinea Med J 1983;26:17–20.Google Scholar
  267. 267.
    Thurnham DI, Oppenheimer SJ, Bull R. Riboflavin status and malaria in infants in Papua New Guinea. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1983;77:423–424.Google Scholar
  268. 268.
    Dutta P, Pinto J, Rivlin R. Antimalarial effects of riboflavin deficiency. Lancet 1985;2:1040–1043.Google Scholar
  269. 269.
    Thurnham DI. Antimalarial effects of riboflavin deficiency. Lancet 1985;2:1310–1311.Google Scholar
  270. 270.
    Bates CJ, Powers HJ, Lamb WH, Anderson BB, Perry GM, Vullo C. Antimalarial effects of riboflavin deficiency. Lancet 1986;1:329–330.Google Scholar
  271. 271.
    Das BS, Das DB, Satpathy RN, Patnaik JK, Bose TK. Riboflavin deficiency and severity of malaria. Eur J Clin Nutr 1988;42:277–283.Google Scholar
  272. 272.
    Traunmuller F, Ramharter M, Lagler H, Thalhammer F, Kremsner PG, Graninger W, Winkler S. Normal riboflavin status in malaria patients in Gabon. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2003 Feb;68(2):182–185.Google Scholar
  273. 273.
    Das BS, Thurnham DI, Patnaik JK, Das DB, Satpathy R, Bose TK. Increased plasma lipid peroxidation in riboflavin-deficient, malaria-infected children. Am J Clin Nutr 1990;51:859–863.Google Scholar
  274. 274.
    Barraviera B, Machado PE, Meira DA. Glutathione reductase activity and its relation with riboflavin levels measured by methemoglobin reduction by cystamine in patients with malaria (preliminary report). Rev Instit Med Trop Sao Paulo 1988;30:107–108.Google Scholar
  275. 275.
    Anderson BB, Giuberti M, Perry GM, Salsini G, Casadio I, Vullo C. Low red blood cell glutathione reductase and pyridoxine phosphate oxidase activities not related to dietary riboflavin: selection by malaria? Am J Clin Nutr 1993;57:666–672.Google Scholar
  276. 276.
    Dutta P. Enhanced uptake and metabolism of riboflavin in erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium falciparum. J Protozool 1991;38:479–483.Google Scholar
  277. 277.
    Cowden WB, Clark IA. Antimalarial activity of synthetic riboflavin antagonists. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1987;81:533.Google Scholar
  278. 278.
    Cowden WB, Butcher GA, Hunt NH, Clark IA, Yoneda F. Antimalarial activity of a riboflavin analog against Plasmodium vinckei in vivo and Plasmodium falciparum in vitro. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1987;37:495–500.Google Scholar
  279. 279.
    Kaikai P, Thurnham DI. The influence of riboflavin deficiency on Plasmodium berghei infection in rats. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1983;77:680–686.Google Scholar
  280. 280.
    Seeler AO, Ott WH. Effect of riboflavin deficiency on the course of Plasmodium Lophurae infection in chicks. J Infect Dis 1944;75:175–178.Google Scholar
  281. 281.
    Dutta P, Gee M, Rivlin RS, Pinto J. Riboflavin deficiency and glutathione metabolism in rats: possible mechanisms underlying altered responses to hemolytic stimuli. J Nutr 1988;118:1149–1157.Google Scholar
  282. 282.
    Akompong T, Ghori N, Haldar K. In vitro activity of riboflavin against the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2000;44:88–96.Google Scholar
  283. 283.
    Krishna S, Taylor AM, Supanaranond W, et al. Thiamine deficiency and malaria in adults from southeast Asia. Lancet 1999;353:546–549.Google Scholar
  284. 284.
    Ramo Rao R, Sirsi N. Avian malaria and B complex vitamins. I. Thiamine. J Indian Instit Sci 1956;38:108.Google Scholar
  285. 285.
    Adamolekun B, Eniola A. Thiamine-responsive acute cerebellar ataxia following febrile illness. Cent Afr J Med 1993;39:40–41.Google Scholar
  286. 286.
    Wrenger C, Eschbach ML, Muller IB, Laun NP, Begley TP, Walter RD. Vitamin B1 de novo synthesis in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum depends on external provision of 4-amino-5-hydroxymethyl-2-methylpyrimidine. Biol Chem. 2006 Jan;387(1):41–51.Google Scholar
  287. 287.
    Wrenger C, Eschbach ML, Muller IB, Warnecke D, Walter RD. Analysis of the vitamin B6 biosynthesis pathway in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. J Biol Chem. 2005 Feb 18;280(7):5242–5248. Epub December 7, 2004.Google Scholar
  288. 288.
    Levander OA, Ager AL Jr. Malarial parasites and antioxidant nutrients. Parasitology 1993;107: S95–S106.Google Scholar
  289. 289.
    Kretschmar W. The importance of p-aminobenzoic acid to the course and immunity of malaria in animals (Plasmodium berghei) and in man (Plasmodium falciparum). 2. Studies on naturally fed small children. Z Trop Parasitol 1966;17:369–374.Google Scholar
  290. 290.
    Eaton JW, Eckman JR, Berger E, Jacob HS. Suppression of malaria infection by oxidant-sensitive host erythrocytes. Nature 1976;264:758–760.Google Scholar
  291. 291.
    Godfrey DG. Antiparasitic action of dietary cod liver oil upon Plasmodium berghei and its reversal by vitamin E. Exp Parasitol 1957;6:555–565.Google Scholar
  292. 292.
    Eckman JR, Eaton JW, Berger E, Jacob HS. Role of vitamin E in regulating malaria expression. Trans Assoc Am Physicians 1976;89:105–115.Google Scholar
  293. 293.
    Levander OA, Ager AL Jr, Morris VC, May RG. Menhaden-fish oil in a vitamin E-deficient diet: protection against chloroquine-resistant malaria in mice. Am J Clin Nutr 1989;50:1237–1239.Google Scholar
  294. 294.
    Levander OA, Ager AL Jr, Morris VC, May RG. Plasmodium yoelii: comparative antimalarial activities of dietary fish oils and fish oil concentrates in vitamin E-deficient mice. Exp Parasitol 1990;70: 323–329.Google Scholar
  295. 295.
    Levander OA, Ager AL Jr, Morris VC, May RG. Protective effect of ground flaxseed or ethyl linolenate in a vitamin E-deficient diet against murine malaria. Nutr Res 1991;11:941–948.Google Scholar
  296. 296.
    Taylor DW, Levander OA, Krishna VR, Evans CB, Morris VC, Barta JR. Vitamin E-deficient diets enriched with fish oil suppress lethal Plasmodium yoelii infections in athymic and scid/bg mice. Infect Immun 1997;65:197–202.Google Scholar
  297. 297.
    Levander OA, Fontela R, Morris VC, Ager AL Jr. Protection against murine cerebral malaria by dietary-induced oxidative stress. J Parasitol 1995;81:99–103.Google Scholar
  298. 298.
    Yarrington JT, Whitehair CK, Corwin RM. Vitamin E-selenium deficiency and its influence on avian malarial infection in the duck. J Nutr 1973;103:231–241.Google Scholar
  299. 299.
    Levander OA. Selenium and sulfur in antioxidant protective systems: relationships with vitamin E and malaria. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1992;200:255–259.Google Scholar
  300. 300.
    Levander OA, Ager AL Jr, Morris VC, May RG. Qinghaosu, dietary vitamin E, selenium, and codliver oil: effect on the susceptibility of mice to the malarial parasite Plasmodium yoelii. Am J Clin Nutr 1989;50:346–352.Google Scholar
  301. 301.
    McKee RW, Geiman QM. Studies on malarial parasites. V. Effects of ascorbic acid on malaria (Plasmodium knowlesi) in monkeys. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1946;63:313–315.Google Scholar
  302. 302.
    Metzger A, Mukasa G, Shankar AH, Ndeezi G, Melikian G, Semba RD. Antioxidant status and acute malaria in children in Kampala, Uganda. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2001 Aug;65(2):115–119.Google Scholar
  303. 303.
    West KP Jr. Vitamin A deficiency: its epidemiology and relation to child mortality and morbidity. In: Vitamin A in health and disease. Blomhoff R, ed. New York: Dekker, 1994:585–614.Google Scholar
  304. 304.
    Graves PM. Comparison of the cost-effectiveness of vaccines and insecticide impregnation of mosquito nets for the prevention of malaria. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 1998;92:399–410.Google Scholar
  305. 305.
    Black RE. Therapeutic and preventive effects of zinc on serious childhood infectious diseases in developing countries. Am J Clin Nutr 1998;68:476S–479S.Google Scholar
  306. 306.
    Sazawal S, Black R, Jalla S, Bhan MK, Bhandari N, Sinha A. Zinc supplementation in young children with acute diarrhea in India. N Engl J Med 1995;333:839–844.Google Scholar
  307. 307.
    Sazawal S, Black R, Jalla S, Mazumdar S, Sinha A, Bhan MK. Zinc supplementation reduces the incidence of acute lower respiratory infections in infants and preschool children: a double-blind controlled trial. Pediatrics 1998;102:1–5.Google Scholar
  308. 308.
    Snow RW, Omumbo JA, Lowe B, et al. Relation between severe malaria morbidity in children and level of Plasmodium falciparum transmission in Africa. Lancet 1997;349:1650–1654.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Humana Press, a part of Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anuraj H. Shankar
    • 1
  1. 1.World Health OrganizationJakartaIndonesia

Personalised recommendations