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Restoring Host Antitumoral Immunity: How Coregulatory Molecules Are Changing the Approach to the Management of Renal Cell Carcinoma

  • Brant A. Inman
  • Xavier Frigola
  • Haidong Dong
  • James C. Yang
  • Eugene D. Kwon

Abstract

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a tumor whose past is filled with failed treatments and unpreventable patient death. Fortunately, science is progressing at an ever increasing rate and novel discoveries are bringing new possibilities for patients with RCC. The future of RCC treatment is bright, and we believe that immunotherapy will realize much of its potential within the next decade.

In this chapter, we discuss one of the newest discoveries in RCC tumor immunology: T-cell coinhibition. This chapter will first introduce key concepts of T-cell function and tumor immunology that are necessary for a good understanding of how coinhibition works. We then describe some of the key defects in immunity that are present in RCC. Finally, we propose a model to explain why certain renal tumors are eliminated by the immune system and others are not.

Keywords

Costimulation Coinhibition Tumor immunology Immunoediting Immunotherapy T lymphocyte Renal cell carcinoma 

Abbreviations

APC:

Antigen-presenting cell

CD:

Cluster of differentiation

DC:

Dendritic cell

IFN:

Interferon

IL:

Interleukin

MHC:

Major histocompatibility complex

NK:

Natural killer cell

RCC:

Renal cell carcinoma

SMAC:

Supramolecular activation complex

TC:

Cytotoxic T lymphocyte

TCR:

T-cell receptor

TH:

Helper T lymphocyte

TNF:

Tumor necrosis factor

Treg:

Regulatory T lymphocyte.

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Copyright information

© Humana Press, a part of Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Brant A. Inman
    • 1
  • Xavier Frigola
    • 2
  • Haidong Dong
    • 2
  • James C. Yang
    • 3
  • Eugene D. Kwon
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of UrologyMayo ClinicRochester
  2. 2.Department of ImmunologyMayo ClinicRochester
  3. 3.National Cancer InstituteNational Institutes of HealthBethesda

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