Adsorption Desalination: A Novel Method

  • Kim Choon Ng
  • Ibrahim I. El-Sharkawy
  • Bidyut Baran Saha
  • Anutosh Chakraborty
Chapter
Part of the Handbook of Environmental Engineering book series (HEE, volume 13)

Abstract

The search for potable water for quenching global thirst remains a pressing concern throughout many regions of the world. The demand for new and sustainable sources and the associated technologies for producing fresh water are intrinsically linked to the solving of potable water availability and hitherto, innovative and energy efficient desalination methods seems to be the practical solutions. Quenching global thirst by adsorption desalination is a practical and inexpensive method of desalinating the saline and brackish water to produce fresh water for agriculture irrigation, industrial, and building applications. This chapter provides a general overview of the adsorption fundamentals in terms of adsorption isotherms, kinetics, and heat of adsorption. It is then being more focused on the principles of thermally driven adsorption desalination methods. The recent developments of adsorption desalination plants and the effect of operating conditions on the system performance in terms of specific daily water production and performance ratio are presented. Design of a large commercial adsorption desalination plant is also discussed herein.

Key Words

Adsorption desalination adsorption kinetics adsorption isotherms heat of adsorption heat recovery mass recovery performance ratio specific daily water production 

References

  1. 1.
    Al-kharabsheh S, Goswami DY (2004) Theoretical analysis of a water desalination system using low grade solar heat. J Solar Energy Eng Trans ASME 126(2):774–780CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ehrenman G (2004) From sea to sink. Mech Eng 126(10):38–43Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ng KC, Wang XL, Gao LZ, Chakraborty A, Saha BB, Koyama S, Akisawa A, Kashiwagi T (2006) Apparatus and method for desalination. Patent, Publication Number: WO/2006/121414Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Papadopoulos AM, Oxizidis S, Kyriakis N (2003) Perspectives of solar cooling in view of the developments in the air-conditioning sector. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 7(5):419–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ruthven DM (1984) Principles of adsorption and adsorption process. Wiley, Boston, MAGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Suzuki M (1990) Adsorption engineering. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Rouquerol F, Rouquerol J, Sing K (1999) Adsorption by powders and porous solids. Academic, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Srivastava NC, Eames IW (1998) A review of adsorbents and adsorbates in solid–vapour adsorption heat pump systems. Appl Therm Eng 18(9–10):707–714CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    El-Sharkawy II, Kuwahara K, Saha BB, Koyama S, Ng KC (2006) Experimental investigation of activated carbon fibers/ethanol pairs for adsorption cooling system application. Appl Therm Eng 26:859–865CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Glueckauf E (1955) Formula for diffusion into sphere and their application to chromatography. Trans Faraday Soc 51:1540–1551CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Liaw CH, Wang JSP, Greenkorn RH, Chao KC (1979) Kinetics of fixed-bed adsorption: a new solution. AIChE J 25:376–381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Li Z, Yang RT (1999) Concentration profile for linear driving force model for diffusion in a particle. AIChE J 45(1):196–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sircar S, Hufton JR (2000) Interparticle adsorbate concentration profile for linear driving force model. AIChE J 46(3):659–660CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    El-Sharkawy II, Saha BB, Koyama S, Ng KC (2006) A study on the kinetics of ethanol-activated carbon fiber: theory and experiments. Int J Heat Mass Transf 49:3104–3110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    El-Sharkawy II, Saha BB, Chakraborty A, Kuwahara K, Koyama S, Ng KC (2006) Determination of an improved linear driving force equation for adsorption of ethanol on activated carbon fiber. In: Proceedings of the 3rd Asian conference on refrigeration and air-conditioning, Gyeongju, Korea, vol 1, pp 129–132Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Akkimaradi BS, Prasad M, Dutta P, Srinivasan K (2001) Adsorption of 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC 134a) on activated carbon. J Chem Eng Data 46:417–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Prasad M, Akkimaradi BS, Rastogi SC, Rao RR, Srinivasan K (1999) Heats of adsorption for charcoal-nitrogen systems. Carbon 37:1641–1642CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Critoph RE (1988) Performance limitations of adsorption cycles for solar cooling. Solar Energy 41(1):21–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cacciola G, Restuccia G (1995) Reversible adsorption heat pump: a thermodynamic model. Int J Refrig 18(2):100–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    El-Sharkawy II, Saha BB, Koyama S, Srinivasan K (2007) Isosteric heats of adsorption extracted from experiments of ethanol and HFC 134a on carbon based adsorbents. Int J Heat Mass Transf 50(5–6):902–907CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Chakraborty A, Saha BB, Koyama S, Ng KC (2006) On the thermodynamic modeling of the isosteric heat of adsorption and comparison with experiments. Appl Phys Lett 89:171901CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Chakraborty A, Saha BB, Ng KC, Koyama S, Srinivasan K (2009) Theoretical insight of physical adsorption for a single component adsorbent–adsorbate system: I. Thermodynamic property surfaces. Langmuir 25(4):2204–2211PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Dunne AJ, Mariwala R, Rao M, Sircar S, Gorte RJ, Myers AL (1996) Calorimetric heats of adsorption and adsorption isotherms. 1. O2, N2, Ar, CO2, CH4, C2H6, and SF6 on silicalite. Langmuir 12(24):5888–5895CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Dunne AJ, Rao M, Sircar S, Gorte RJ, Myers AL (1996) Calorimetric heats of adsorption and adsorption isotherms. 2. O2, N2, Ar, CO2, CH4, C2H6, and SF6 on NaX, H-ZSM-5, and Na-ZSM-5 zeolites. Langmuir 12(24):5896–5904CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    El-Sharkawy II (2006) Development of adsorption systems powered by renewable energy or waste heat sources. Ph.D. Thesis, Kyushu University, JapanGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Fan Y, Luo L, Souyri B (2007) Review of solar sorption refrigeration technologies: development and applications. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 11(8):1758–1775CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ito M, Watanabe F, Hasatani M (1996) Improvement of both adsorption performances of silica gel and heat transfer characteristics by means of heat exchange modulation for a heat pump. Heat Transf Jpn Res 25(7):420–431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Dehler FC (1940) Silica gel adsorption. Chem Metall Eng 37:307–310Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Saha BB, Koyama S, Alam KCA, Hamamoto Y, Akisawa A Kashiwagi T, Ng KC, Chua HT (2003) Isothermal adsorption measurement for the development of high performance solid sorption cooling system. Trans JSRAE 20(3):421–427Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ryu Z, Zheng J, Wang M, Zhang B (1999) Characterization of pore size distributions on carbonaceous adsorbents by DFT. Carbon 37(8):1257–1264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ng KC, Chua HT, Chung CY, Loke CH, Kashiwagi T, Akisawa A, Saha BB (2001) Experimental investigation of the silica gel–water adsorption isotherm characteristics. Appl Therm Eng 21(16):1631–1642CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Wang X, Zimmermann W, Ng KC, Chakraborty A, Keller JU (2004) Investigation on the isotherm of silica gel + water systems. J Therm Anal Calorim 76(2):659–669CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Valenzuela DP, Myers DP (1989) Adsorption equilibrium data handbook. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Sircar S (1991) Isosteric heats of multicomponent gas adsorption on heterogeneous adsorbents. Langmuir 7(12):3065–3069CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Tóth J (1971) State equations of the solid–gas interface layers. Acta Chim Acad Sci Hung 69:311–328Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    NACC (1992) PTX data for silica gel/water pair, Manufacturer’s proprietary data. Nishiyodo Air Conditioning Co Ltd., Tokyo, JapanGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Chihara K, Suzuki M (1983) Air drying by pressure swing adsorption. J Chem Eng Jpn 16:293–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Cremer HW, Davis T (1958) Chemical engineering practice, vol 6. Butterworths, London, pp 286–287Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Sakoda A, Suzuki M (1984) Fundamental study on solar powered adsorption cooling system. J Chem Eng Jpn 17:52–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Wang XL, Ng KC (2005) Experimental investigation of an adsorption desalination plant using low-temperature waste heat. Appl Therm Eng 25:2780–2789CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Ng KC, Chua HT, Wang XL, Kashiwagi T, Saha BB (2003) Prototype testing of a novel four-bed regenerative silica gel–water adsorption chiller. In: ICR 0042, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Saha BB, El-Sharkawy II, Chakraborty A, Koyama S (2007) Study on an activated carbon fiber–ethanol adsorption chiller: Part II – performance evaluation. Int J Refrig 30(1):96–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Wang XL, Chua HT, Ng KC (2006) Experimental investigation of silica gel adsorption chillers with and without a passive heat recovery scheme. Int J Refrig 28:756–765CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    El-Sharkawy II, Thu K, Ng KC, Saha BB, Chakraborty A, Koyama S (2007) Performance improvement of adsorption desalination plant: experimental investigation. Int Rev Mech Eng 1(1):25–31Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Ng KC, Wang X, Lim YS, Saha BB, Chakraborty A, Koyama S, Akisawa A, Kashiwagi T (2006) Experimental study on performance improvement of a four-bed adsorption chiller by using heat and mass recovery. Int J Heat Mass Transf 49(19–20):3343–3348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    NUS (2008) Adsorption desalination to quench global thirst. Engineering Research, 23(3), Oct. 2008. National University of Singapore (NUS)Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Thu K, Ng KC, Saha BB, Chakraborty A, Koyama S (2009) Operational strategy of adsorption desalination systems. Int J Heat Mass Transf 52(7–8):1811–1816, MarchGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kim Choon Ng
    • 1
  • Ibrahim I. El-Sharkawy
    • 2
  • Bidyut Baran Saha
    • 3
  • Anutosh Chakraborty
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringNational University of SingaporeSingaporeSingapore
  2. 2.Mechanical Power Engineering DepartmentMansoura UniversityEl-MansouraEgypt
  3. 3.Mechanical Engineering DepartmentKyushu UniversityFukuokaJapan
  4. 4.School of Mechanical and Aerospace EngineeringNanyang Technological UniversitySingaporeSingapore

Personalised recommendations