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Fluoridation and Defluoridation

  • Jerry R. Taricska
  • Lawrence K. Wang
  • Yung-Tse Hung
  • Kathleen Hung Li
Part of the Handbook of Environmental Engineering book series (HEE, volume 4)

Abstract

Fluorine is the 13th most abundant element, and it is naturally introduced into the environment in both water and air(1).As a result, fluorine is present in small yet varying amounts in almost all soils, water supplies, plants, and animals. It is a normal constituent of our diets. The highest concentration of fluorine is found in our bones and teeth. The process of increasing or adding the trace element fluorine into drinking water in its ionic form as fluoride for the prevention of dental caries (tooth decay)is known as water fluoridation,whereas water defluoridation is the lowering of the naturally occurring fluoride level in drinking water to prevent dental fluorosis or the browning (mottling) of teeth (2).In 2001,US Surgeon General David Satcher stated: “Water fluoridation continues to be a highly cost-effective strategy,even in areas where the overall caries level has declined and the cost of implementing water fluoridation has increased” (3). It has been reported that the cost of fluoridation of public water systems averages $0.54 per person annually (4).In recent years,water consumption from bottle water has increased;some of the water used for bottling has a suboptimal level of fluoride. This consumption may reduce the effectiveness of a community fluoridation program.

Keywords

Fluoride Concentration Sodium Fluoride Fluoride Level Water Fluoridation Feed Pump 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc., Totowa, NJ 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jerry R. Taricska
    • 1
  • Lawrence K. Wang
    • 2
  • Yung-Tse Hung
    • 3
  • Kathleen Hung Li
    • 4
  1. 1.Hole Montes,Inc.Naples
  2. 2.Lenox Institute of Water TechnologyLenox
  3. 3.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringCleveland State UniversityCleveland
  4. 4.NEC Unified SolutionsIrving

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