Filtration can be defined as the removal of solids from a liquid stream by passing the stream through a porous medium, which retains the solids. Figure 1 shows a flow diagram of a filtration system (1).
KeywordsSolid Concentration Vacuum Filter Filter Cake Coil Spring Cost Index
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.US EPA, Process Design Manual-Sludge Treatment and Disposal, US Environmental Protection Agency, Municipal Environmental Research Lab, EPA 625/1-79-011, Cincinnati, OH, September, 1979.Google Scholar
- 2.L. K. Wang, Y. T. Hung, and N. K. Shammas (eds.), Physicochemical Treatment Processes, The Humana Press, Inc., Totowa, NJ, 2005.Google Scholar
- 3.H. P. G. Darcy, Les fontaines publiques de la Ville de Dijon (The public wells of the City of Dijon) V. Dalmont Paris, 1856. English translation by J. J. Fried, Water Res. Bull., Am. Water Res. Assoc., 1, 4 (1965).Google Scholar
- 4.L. Svarovsky, Filtration fundamentals, in Solid-Liquid Separation, L. Svarovsky (ed.), Butterworths, Inc., London, UK (1977).Google Scholar
- 5.A. P. Sincero and G. A. Sincero, Environmental Engineering—A Design Approach, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 1996.Google Scholar
- 6.A. L. Masters, Filter aids, in Solid-Liquid Separation, L. Svarovsky (ed.), Butterworths, Inc., London, UK (1977).Google Scholar
- 7.NCASI, A Pilot plant study of mechanical dewatering devices operated on waste activated sludge, Prepared for National Council of the Paper Industry for Air and Stream Improvement, Technical Bulletin 288, November, 1976.Google Scholar
- 8.E. O. Flynn, The mechanical dewatering of sewage sludge on vacuum filters, Sewage Works J. 5, 957 (1933).Google Scholar
- 9.R. D. Leary, L. A. Ernest, G. R. Douglas, A. Geinopolos, and D. G. Mason, Top-feed vacuum filtration of activated sludge, J. Water Pollut. Control Fed. 46, 1761 (1974).Google Scholar
- 10.WPCF, Sludge Dewatering, Manual of Practice Number 20, Water Pollution Control Federation, 1983.Google Scholar
- 11.US EPA, Design Manual for Dewatering Municipal Wastewater Sludges, US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, EPA/625/1-87/014, Washington, DC, September, 1987.Google Scholar
- 12.Metcalf and Eddy, Wastewater Engineering, Treatment Disposal and Reuse, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, 1991.Google Scholar
- 13.W. Viessman, Jr. and M. J. Hammer, Water Supply and Pollution Control, Harper Collins, New York, NY, 1993.Google Scholar
- 14.P. A. Vesilind, (ed.), Wastewater Treatment Plant Design, Water Environment Federation, Alexandria, VA, 2003.Google Scholar
- 15.RPI Web Site, Rotary Vacuum Filter, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Department of Chemical Engineering, http://www.rpi.edu/dept/chem-eng/Biotech-Environ/FILTRATION/rotvac.htm, March (1998).
- 16.Menardi, Rotary Drum Filters, http://www.menardifilters.com/rotary_drum_filters.htm (2003).
- 18.RRWRD, Vacuum Filtration, Rock River Water Reclamation District, Rockford Illinois, Web Site: http://www.rrwrd.dst.il.us/history.htm (2004).
- 19.B. Koumanova and M. Karsheva, Study on the sludge characteristics and rheological behavior at dewatering with vacuum filters, J. Univ. Chem. Technol. Metall. XXXVIII, Book 3, Sofia, Bulgaria, http://www.uctm.edu/journal/j2002-3/ChemEng.htm (2002).
- 20.L. Spinosa and P. A. Vesilind (eds.), Sludge into Biosolids: Processing, Disposal, Utilization, IWA Publishing, December, 2001.Google Scholar
- 21.N. P. Cheremisinoff, Wastewater and Biosolids Treatment Technologies, Publisher GI/ABS Consulting, Scarecrow Press, Inc., Government Institutes Division, Blue Ridge Summit, PA, December, 2002.Google Scholar
- 22.D. B. Purchas, Filtration in the chemical and process industries-1, Filtration, 256 (1964).Google Scholar
- 23.W. W. Eckenfelder and D. L Ford, Water Pollution Control, Pemberton Press, Austin, TX, 1970.Google Scholar
- 24.P. A. Vesilind, Treatment and Disposal of Wastewater Sludges, Ann Arbor Science, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1974.Google Scholar
- 25.C. Visvanathan, Lecture notes, Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand, Web Site Address: http://www.courses.ait.ac.th/ED08.13/chapter_863.htm (1998).Google Scholar
- 26.MECC, Wastewater Treatment Plant Operation-Vacuum Filtration, Mountain Empire Comm. Coll., Big Stone Gap, VA, http://water.me.vccs.edu/courses/ENV149/dewateringb.htm, August (2004).Google Scholar
- 27.US EPA, Sludge Handling and Conditioning, US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water Programs Operations, Washington, DC, EPA 430/9-78-002, February, 1978.Google Scholar
- 28.WEF, Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, (20th ed.), Water Environment Federation, Alexandria, VA, 1998.Google Scholar
- 29.US EPA, Review of Techniques for Treatment and Disposal of Phosphorus-Laden Chemical Sludges, US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Cincinnati, Ohio, EPA 600/2-79-083, February, 1979.Google Scholar
- 30.US EPA, Energy Conservation in Municipal Wastewater, prepared by G. M. Wesner, et al., US Environmental Protection Agency, MCD-32, EPA-430/9-77-011, March, 1978.Google Scholar
- 31.E. R. Bennett, D. A. Rein, and K. D. Linstedt, Economic aspects of sludge dewatering and disposal, ASCE J. Environ. Eng. Division 99, 55 (1973).Google Scholar
- 32.US ACE, Civil Works Construction Cost Index System Manual, 110-2-1304, US Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC, p. 44, 2000-Tables Revised 31 March, 2003.Google Scholar
- 33.R. E. Aviles Jr., Auditing your treatment plant’s energy usage could help cut costs, Water Environ. Technol., 16(2), 37–42, December (2004).Google Scholar