Advertisement

Clinical Applications of G-CSF and GM-CSF in the Treatment of Infectious Diseases

  • Kai Hübel
  • David C. Dale
  • Richard K. Root
  • W. Conrad Liles
Chapter
  • 118 Downloads
Part of the Infectious Disease book series (ID)

Abstract

Infectious diseases remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world, including the United States. The immune system represents the primary host defense against pathogenic bacteria, fungi, and parasites. The first line of defense is comprised primarily of polymorphnuclear granulocytes (PMNs), macrophages, natural killer (NK) cells, and cytotoxic lymphocytes. Upon activation, these cells can destroy and eliminate pathogenic microorganisms. The possibility of augmenting host defense has increased dramatically during the past two decades with the discovery and development of cytokines. The immunomodulatory effects of colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) on selected leukocyte populations have received increasing attention recently.

Keywords

Oral Mucositis Granulocyte Transfusion Severe Chronic Neutropenia Buffy Coat Cell Recombinant Human Granulocyte Colony 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Metcalf, D. (1986) The molecular biology and functions of the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factors. Blood 67, 257–267.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Liles, W.C. and Van Voorhis, W.C. (1995) Nomenclature and biologic significance of cytokines involved in inflammation and the host immune response. J. Infect. Dis. 172, 1573–1580.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Nagata, S., Tsuchiya, M., Asano, S., Kaziro, Y., Yamazaki, T., Yamamoto, O., et al. (1986) Molecular cloning and expression of cDNA for human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. Nature 319, 415–418.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Souza, L.M., Boone, T.C., Gabrilove, J., Lai, P.H., Zsebo, K.M., Murdock, D.C., et al. (1986) Recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor: effects on normal and leukemic myeloid cells. Science 232, 61–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gabrilove, J.L. and Jakubowski, A. (1990) Hematopoietic growth factors: biology and clinical application. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. Monogr. 10, 73–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hill, C.P., Osslund, T.D., and Eisenberg, D.S. (1993) The structure of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (r-hu-G-CSF) and its relationship to other growth factors. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90, 5167–5171.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Oheda, M., Hasegawa, M., Hattori, K., Kuboniwa, H., Kojima, T., Orita, T., et al. (1990) O-linked sugar chain of human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor protects it against polymerization and denaturation allowing it to retain its biological activity. J. Biol. Chem. 265, 11,432–11,435.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Nissen, C, Carbonare, V.D., and Moser, Y. (1994) In vitro comparison of the biological potency of glycosylated versus nonglycosylated rG-CSF. Drug. Invest. 7, 346–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kawakami, M., Tsursumi, H., Kumakawa, T., Abe, H., Hirai, M., Kurossawa, S., et al. (1990) Levels of serum granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in patients with infections. Blood 76, 1962–1964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Koeffler, H.P., Gasson, J., Ranyard, J., Souza, L., Shepard, M., and Munker, R. (1987) Recombinant human TNF-(stimulates production of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. Blood 70, 55–59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lundblad, R., Nesland, J.M., and Giercksky, K.E. (1996) Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor improves survival rate and reduces concentrations of bacteria, endotoxin, tumor necrosis factor, and endothelin-1 in fulminant intra-abdominal sepsis in rats. Crit. Care Med. 24, 820–826.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lieschke, G.J., Grail, D., Hodgson, G., Metcalf, D., Stanley, E., Cheers, C., et al. (1994) Mice lacking granulocyte colony-stimulating factor have chronic neutropenia, granulocyte and macrophage progenitor cell deficiency, and impaired neutrophil mobilization. Blood 84, 1737–1746.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Carulli, G., Minnucci, S., Azzara, A., Angiolini, C., Sbrana, S., Caracciolo, F., et al. (1995) Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) administration increases PMN CD32 (FcRII) expression and FcR-related functions. Haematologica 80, 150–154.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Nathan, C.F. (1989) Respiratory burst in adherent human neutrophils: triggering by colony-stimulating factors CSF-GM and CSF-G. Blood 73, 301–306.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Roilides, E., Walsh, T.J., Pizzo, P.A., and Rubin, M. (1991) Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor enhances the phagocytic and bactericidal activity of normal and defective human neutrophils. J. Infect. Dis. 163, 579–583.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Itoh, Y., Kuratsuji, T., Tsunawaki, S., Aizawa, S., and Toyama, K. (1991) In vivo effects of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor on normal neutrophil function and membrane effector molecule expression. Int. J. Hematol. 54, 463–469.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Allen, R.C., Stevens, P.R., Price, T.H., Chatta, G.S., and Dale, D.C. (1997) In vivo effects of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor on neutrophil oxidative functions in normal human volunteers. J. Infect. Dis. 175, 1184–1192.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gorgen, I., Hartung, T., Leist, M., Niehorster, M., Tiegs, G., Uhlig, S., et al. (1992) Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor treatment protects rodents against lipopolysaccharide-induced toxicity via suppression of systemic tumor necrosis factor-α. J. Immunol. 149, 918–924.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Dale, D.C., Liles, W.C., Summer, W.R., and Nelson, S. (1995) Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor—role and relationships in infectious diseases. J. Infect. Dis. 172, 1061–1075.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Nelson, S. (1995) Role of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in the immune response to acute bacterial infection in the nonneutropenic host: an overview. Clin. Infect. Dis. 18, 197–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Smith, W.S., Sumnicht, G.E., Sharpe, R.W., Samuelson, D., and Millard, F.E. (1995) Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor versus placebo in addition to penicillin G in a randomized blinded study of gram-negative pneumonia sepsis: analysis of survival and multisystem organ failure. Blood 86, 1301–1309.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Abraham, E. and Stevens, P. (1992) Effects of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in modifying mortality from Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia after hemorrhage. Crit. Care Med. 20, 1127–1133.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Nelson, S., Summer, W., Bagby, G., Nakamura, C., Steward, L., Lipscomb, G., et al. (1991) Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor enhances pulmonary host defences in normal and ethanol-treated rats. J. Infect. Dis. 164, 901–906.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hebert, J.C., O’Reilly, M., and Gamelli, R.L. (1990) Protective effect of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor against pneumococcal infections in splenectomized mice. Arch. Surg. 125, 1075–1078.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Dunne, J.R., Dunkin, B.J., Nelson, S., and White, J.C. (1996) Effects of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in a nonneutropenic rodent model of Escherichia coli peritonitis. J. Surg. Res. 61, 348–354.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Cairo, M.S., Mauss, D., Kommareddy, S., Norris, K., van de Ven, C, and Modanlou, H. (1990) Prophylactic or simultaneous administration of recombinant human granulocyte colony stimulating factor in the treatment of group B streptococcal sepsis in neonatal rats. Pediatr. Res. 27, 612–616.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Nelson, S., Daifuku, R., and Andresen, J. (1994) Use of Filgrastim (r-metHuG-CSF) in infectious diseases, in Filgrastim (r-metHuG-CSF) in Clinical Practice (Morstyn, G. and Dexter, T.M., eds.), Marcel Dekker, New York, pp. 253–266.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    King, J., Deboisblanc, B.P., Mason, CM., Onofrio, J.M., Lipscomb, G., Mercante, D.E., et al. (1995) Effect of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor on acute lung injury in the rat. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 151, 302–309.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hollingshead, L.M. and Goa, K.L. (1991) Recombinant granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rG-CSF). A review of its pharmacological properties and prospective role in neutropenic conditions. Drugs 42, 300–330.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Steward, W.P. (1993) Granulocyte and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factors. Lancet 342, 153–157.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Dale, D.C. (1994) Potential role of colony-stimulating factors in the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases. Clin. Infect. Dis. 18(Suppl 2), S180–S188.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Crawfort, J., Ozer, H., Stoller, R., Johnson, D., Lyman, G., Tabbara, I., et al. (1991) Reduction by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor of fever and neutropenia induced by chemotherapy in patients with small cell lung cancer. N. Engl. J. Med. 325, 164–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Trillet-Lenoir, V., Green, J., Manegold, C, Von Pawel, J., Gatzemeier, U., Lebebau, B., et al. (1993) Recombinant granulocyte colony-stimulating factor reduces the infectious complications of cytotoxic chemotherapy. Eur. J. Cancer. 29A, 319–324.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Frampton, J.E., Yarker, Y.E., and Goa, K.L. (1995) Lenograstim. A review of its pharmacological properties and therapeutic efficacy in neutropenia and related clinical settings. Drugs 49, 767–793.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Welte, K., Gabrilove, J., Bronchud, M.H., Platzer, E., and Morstyn, G. (1996) Filgrastim (r-metHuG-CSF): the first 10 years. Blood 88, 1907–1929.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Dale, D.C. (1998) The discovery, development and clinical applications of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. Trans. Am. Clin. Climatol. Assoc. 109, 27–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Welte, K. and Boxer, L.A. (1997) Severe chronic neutropenia: pathophysiology and therapy. Semin. Hematol. 34,267–278.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Freedman, M.H. (1997) Safety of long-term administration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor for severe chronic neutropenia. Curr. Opin. Hematol. 4, 217–224.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Pizzo, P. A. (1993) Management of fever in patients with cancer and treatment-induced neutropenia. N. Engl. J. Med. 328, 1323–1332.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Dale, D.C, Liles, W.C, Llewellyn, C., Rodger, E., Bowden, R., and Price, T.H. (1998) Neutrophil transfusion therapy: characteristics and kinetics of cells from donors treated with a combination of G-CSF and dexamethasone. Transfusion 38,713–721.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Price, T.H., Bowden, R.A., Boeckh, M., Liles, W.C., Llewellyn, C., Fuller, F., et al. (1997) Neutrophil collection from community apheresis donors after granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and dexamethasone stimulation: feasibility and efficacy. Blood 90, 137b (abstract).Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Price, T.H., Bowden, R.A., Boeckh, M., Bux, J., Nelson, K., Liles, W.C., et al. (2000) Phase I/II trial of neutrophil transfusion from donors stimulated with G-CSF and dexamethasone for treatment of infections in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation patients. Blood 95, 3302–3304.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Ferrieri, P. (1990) Neonatal susceptibility and immunity to major bacterial pathogens. Rev. Infect. Dis. 12(Suppl.), S394–400.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Berger, M. (1990) Complement deficiency and neutrophil dysfunction as risk factors for bacterial infection in newborns and the role of granulocyte transfusion in therapy. Rev. Infect. Dis. 12 (Suppl.), S401–409.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Gillan, E.R., Christensen, R.D., Suen, Y., Ellis, R., van de Ven, C, and Cairo, M.S. (1994) A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor administration in newborn infants with presumed sepsis: significant induction of peripheral and bone marrow neutrophilia. Blood 84, 1427–1233.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Bohme, A. and Karthaus, M. (1999) Systemic fungal infections in patients with hematologic malignancies: indications and limitations of the antifungal armamentarium. Chemotherapy 45, 315–324.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Diamond, R.D. (1993) Interactions of phagocytic cells with Candida and other opportunistic fungi. Arch. Med. Res. 24, 361–369.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Gaviria, J.M., van Burk, J.-A.H., Dale, D.C, Root, R.K., and Liles, W.C. (1999) Modulation of neutrophil-mediated activity against the pseudohyphal form of Candida albicans by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) administered in vivo. J. Infect. Dis. 179, 1301–1304.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Kullberg, B.J., Netea, M.G., Vonk, A.G., and van der Meer, J.W. (1999) Modulation of neutrophil function in host defense against disseminated Candida albicans infection in mice. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 26, 299–307.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Root, R.K. and Dale, D.C. (1999) Granulocyte colony-stimualting factor and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor: comparisons and potential for use in the treatment of infections in nonneutropenic patients. J. Infect. Dis. 179 (Suppl 2), S342–S352.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Smith, J.A. (1994) Neutrophils, host defense, and inflammation: a double-edged sword. J. Leukocyte Biol. 56, 672–686.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Nelson, S., Belknap, S.M., Carlson, R.W., Dale, D., DeBoisblanc, B., Farkas, S., et al. (1998) A randomized controlled trial of filgrastim as an adjunct to antibiotics for treatment of hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia. CAP study group. J. Infect. Dis. 178, 1075–1080.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Nelson, S., Heyder, A.M., Stone, J., Bergeron, M.G., Daugherty, S., Peterson, G., et al. (2000) A randomized controlled trial of Filgrastim for the treatment of hospitalized patients with multilabor pneumonia. J. Infect. Dis. 182, 970–973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Root, R., Nelson, S., Dale, D., Martin, T., and Welch, W. (2000) A multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of Filgrastim (r-methuG-CSF) in the treatment of patients with multilobar community-acquired pneumonia (MLCAP). Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 161, A91 (abstract).Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Gough, A., Clapperton, M., Rolando, N., Foster, A.V., Philpott-Howard, J., and Edmonds, M.E. (1997) Randomized placebo-controlled trial of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor in diabetic foot infection. Lancet 350, 855–859.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Hermans, P. (1999) HIV disease-related neutropenia: an independent risk factor for severe infections. AIDS 13 (Suppl 2), S11–S17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Frumkin, L.R. (1997) Role of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in the treatment of patients with HIV infection. Curr. Opin. Hematol. 4, 200–206.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Mitsuyasu, R. (1999) Prevention of bacterial infections in patients with advanced HIV infection. AIDS 13(Suppl. 2), S19–S23.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    George, S., Coffey, M., Cinti, S., Collins, J., Brown, M., and Kazanjian, P. (1998) Neutrophils from AIDS patients treated with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor demonstrate enhanced killing of Mycobacterium avium. J. Infect. Dis. 178, 1530–1533.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Hartung, T., Pitrak, D.L., Foote, M., Shatzen, E.M., Verral, S.C, and Wendel, A. (1998) Filgrastim restores interleukin-2 production in blood from patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection. J. Infect. Dis. 178, 686–692.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Weiss, M., Gross-Weege, W., Schneider, M., Neidhardt, H., Liebert, S., Mirow, N., et al. (1995) Enhancement of neutrophil function by in vivo filgrastim treatment for prophylaxis of sepsis in surgical intensive care patients. J. Crit. Care 10, 21–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Foster, P.F., Mital, D., Sankary, H.N., McChesney, L.P., Marcon, J., Koukoulis, G., et al. (1995) The use of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor after liver transplantation. Transplantation 59, 1557–1563.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Endo, S., Inada, K., Inoue, Y., Yamada, Y., Takakuwa, T., Kasai, T., et al. (1994) Evaluation of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) therapy in granulopoietic patients complicated with sepsis. Curr. Med. Res. Opin. 13, 233–241.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Schafer, H., Hubel, K., Bohlen, H., Mansmann, G., Hegener, K., Richarz, B., et al. (2000) Perioperative treatment with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in patients with esophageal cancer stimulates granulocyte function and reduces infectious complications after esophagectomy. Ann. Hematol. 79, 143–151.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Seymour, J.F., Lieschke, G.J., Grail, D., Quilici, C., Hodgson, G., and Dunn, A.R. (1997) Mice lacking both granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (CSF) and granulocyte-macrophage CSF have impaired reproductive capacity, pertubed neonatal granulopoiesis, lung disease, amyloidosis, and reduced long-term survival. Blood 90, 3037–3049.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Wong, G.G., Witek, J.S., Temple, P.A., Wilkens, K.M., Leary, A.C., Luxenberg, D.P., et al. (1985) Human GM-CSF: molecular cloning of the complementary DNA and purification of the natural and recombinant proteins. Science 228, 810–815.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Huebner, K., Isobe, M., Croce, CM., Golde, D.W., Kaufmann, S.E., and Gasson, J.C. (1985) The human gene encoding GM-CSF is at 5 q21–q32, the chromosome region deleted in the 5q- anomaly. Science 230, 1282–1285.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Hara, T. and Miyajima, A. (1996) Function and signal transduction mediated by the interleukin 3 receptor system in hematopoiesis. Stem Cells 14, 605–618.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Gasson, J.C. (1991) Molecular physiology of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Blood 11, 1131–1145.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Ruef, C. and Coleman, D.L. (1990) Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor: pleiotropic cytokine with potential clinical usefulness. Rev. Infect. Dis. 12, 41–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Clark, S.C. (1988) Biological activities of human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Int. J. Cell. Cloning 6,365–377.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Denzlinger, C, Tetzloff, W., Gerhartz, H.H., Pokorny, R., Sagebiel, S., Haberl, C, et al. (1993) Differential activation of the endogenous leukotriene biosynthesis by two different preparations of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in healthy volunteers. Blood 81, 2007–2013.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Dorr, R.T. (1993) Clinical properties of yeast-derived granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor. Clin. Ther. 15, 19–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Dale, D.C., Liles, W.C, Llewellyn, C, and Price, T.H. (1998) Effects of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) on neutrophil kinetics and function in normal human volunteers. Am. J. Hematol. 57, 7–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Frenck, R.W., Sarman, G., Harper, T.E., and Buescher, E.S. (1990) The ability of recombinant murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor to protect neonatal rats from septic death due to Staphylococcus aureus. J. Infect. Dis. 162, 109–114.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Wheeler, J.G. and Givner, L.B. (1992) Therapeutic use of recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in neonatal rats with type III group B streptococcal sepsis. J. Infect. Dis. 165, 938–941.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Givner, L.B. and Nagaraj, S.K. (1993) Hyperimmune human IgG or recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor as adjunctive therapy for group B streptococcal sepsis in newborn rats. J. Pediatr. 122, 774–779.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Toda, H., Murata, A., Oka, Y., Uda, K., Tanaka, N., Ohashi, I., et al. (1994) Effect of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor on sepsis-induced organ injury in rats. Blood 83, 2893–2898.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Freund, M. and Kleine, H.D. (1992) The role of GM-CSF in infection. Infection 20(Suppl 2), S84–S92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Heidenreich, S., Gong, J.H., Schmidt, A., Nain, M., and Gemsa, D. (1989) Macrophage activation by granulocyte/ macrophage colony-stimulating factor. J. Immunol. 143, 1198–1205.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Tiegs, G., Barsig, J., Matiba, B., Uhlig, S., and Wendel, A. (1994) Potentiation by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor of lipopolysaccharide toxicity in mice. J. Clin. Invest. 93, 2616–2622.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    LeVine, A.M., Reed, J.A., Kurak, K.E., Cianciolo, E., and Whitsett, J.A. (1999) GM-CSF-deficient mice are susceptible to pulmonary group B streptococcal infection. J. Clin. Invest. 103, 563–569.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Bermudez, L.E., Martinelli, J., Petrofsky, M., Kolonoski, P., and Young, L.S. (1994) Recombinant granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor enhances the effects of antibiotics against Mycobacterium avium complex infection in the beige mouse model. J. Infect. Dis. 169, 575–580.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Liehl, E., Hildebrandt, J., Lam, C, and Mayer, P. (1994) Prediction of the role of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in animals and man from in vitro results. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 13(Suppl 2), S9-S17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Mayer, P., Schutze, E., Lam, C, Kricek, F., and Liehl, E. (1991) Recombinant murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor augments neutrophil recovery and enhances resistance to infections in myelosuppressed mice. J. Infect. Dis. 163, 584–590.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Mandujano, J.F., D’Souza, N.B., Nelson, S., Summer, W.R., Beckerman, R.C., and Shellito, J.E. (1995) Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in mice. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 151, 1233–1238.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Antman, K.S., Griffin, J.D., Elias, A., Socinski, M.A., Ryan, L., Cannistra, S.A., et al. (1988) Effect of recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor on chemotherapy-induced myelosuppression. N. Engl. J. Med. 319, 593–598.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Avanzi, G.C., Gallicchio, M., and Saglio, G. (1998) Hematopoietic growth factors in autologous transplantation. Biotherapy 10, 299–308.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Nemunaitis, J., Buckner, CD., Dorsey, K.S., Willis, D., Meyer, W., and Appelbaum, F. (1998) Retrospective analysis of infectious disease in patients who received recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor versus patients not receiving a cytokine who underwent autologous bone marrow transplantation for treatment of lymphoid cancer. Am. J. Clin. Oncol. 21, 341–346.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Scarffe, J.H. (1991) Emerging clinical use for GM-CSF. Eur. J. Cancer 27, 1493–1504.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    De Witte, T., Vreugdenhil, A., and Schattenberg, A. (1995) The role of recombinant granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) after T-cell deplete allogenic bone marrow transplantation, in Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF). Current Use and Future Applications (Nissen, N.I. and Dexter, T.M., eds.), Pennine, Cheshire, pp. 30–34.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Ruef, C. and Colemann, D.L. (1991) GM-CSF and G-CSF: cytokines in clinical applications. Schweiz. Med. Wochenschr. 121, 397–412.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Moore, M.A. (1991) The clinical use of colony stimulating factors. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 9, 159–191.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Yoshida, Y., Nakahata, T., Shibata, A., Takahashi, M., Moriyama, Y., Kaku, K., et al. (1995) Effects of long-term treatment with recombinant human granuolocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome. Leukocyte Lymphoma 18, 457–463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Lieschke, GJ. and Burgess, A.W. (1992) Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. N. Engl. J. Med. 327, 99–106.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Bodey, G., Bueltmann, B., Duguid, W., Gibbs, D., Hanak, H., Hotchi, M., et al. (1992) Fungal infections in cancer patients: an internatonal autopsy survey. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 11, 99–109.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Smith, P.D., Janoff, E.N. and Wahl, S.M. (1993) Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor augmentation of human monocyte effector and accessory cell function, in Hemopoietic Growth Factors and Mononuclear Phagocytes (Van Furth, R., ed.), Karger, Basel, pp. 79–89.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Montgomery, B., Bianco, J.A., Jacobsen, A., and Singer, J.W. (1991) Localization of transfused neutrophils to site of infection during treatment with recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and pentoxyfylline. Blood 78, 533–534.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Gaviria, J.M., van Burik, J.-A.H., Dale, D.C., Root, R.K., and Liles, W.C. (1999) Comparison of interferon-gamma, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor for priming leukocyte-mediated hyphal damage of opportunistic fungal pathogens. J. Infect. Dis. 179, 1038–1041.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Hast, R., Bernell, P., Kimby, E., and Petrescu, A. (1995) rhGM-CSF in combination with standard induction chemotherapy for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia—an overview, in Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF). Current Use and Future Applications (Nissen, N.I. and Dexter, T.M., eds.), Pennine, Cheshire, pp. 24–26.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Lanza, F., Rigolin, G.M., Castagnari, B., Moretti, S., and Castoldi, G. (1997) Potential clinical applications of rhGM-CSF in acute myeloid leukemia based on its biologic activity and receptor interaction. Haematologica 82, 239–245.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Schlimok, G., Fackler-Schwalbe, I., Lindemann, F., Gruber, R., Flieger, D., Heiss, M., et al. (1995) GM-CSF in gastric cancer: monitoring of micrometastatic tumour cells in bone marrow, in Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF). Current Use and Future Applications (Nissen, N.I. and Dexter, T.M., eds.), Pennine Cheshire, pp. 20–24.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Chi, K.H., Chen, C.H., Chan, W.K., Chow, K.C., Cher, S., Yen, S.H., et al. (1995) Effect of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor on oral mucositis in head and neck cancer patients after cisplatin, fluorouracil and leucovorin chemotherapy. J. Clin. Oncol. 13, 2620–2628.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Masucci, G. (1996) New clinical applications of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Med. Oncol. 13, 149–154.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Silverstein, S.C., Cao, C, Rudin, D., Gao, P., and Neu, H. (1993) Organic anion transporters promote the secretion of anionic antibiotics from cells of the J774 macrophage-like cell line, in Hemopoietic Growth Factors and Mononuclear Phagocytes (Van Furth, R., ed.), Karger, Basel, pp. 134–139.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Skowron, G., Stein, D., Drusano, G., Melbourne, K., Bilello, J., Mikolich, D., et al. (1999) The safety and efficacy of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (Sargramostin) added to indinavir- or ritonavir-based antiretroviral therapy: a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J. Infect. Dis. 180, 1064–1071.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Badaro, R., Nascimento, C, Carvalho, J.S., Badaro, F., Russo, D., Ho, J.L., et al. (1994) Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in combination with pentavalent antimony for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 13 (Suppl. 2), S23–S28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Decoster, G., Rich, W., and Brown, S.L. (1994) Safety profile of Filgrastim (r-metHuG-CSF), in Filgrastim (r-metHuG-CSF) in Clinical Practice (Morstyn, G. and Dexter, T.M., eds.), Marcel Dekker, New York, pp. 267–290.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Peters, W.P., Shogan, J.S., Shpall, E.J., Jones, R.B., and Kim, C.S. (1988) Recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor produces fever, [letter]. Lancet 1, 950.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Lieschke, G.J., Cebon, J., and Morstyn, G. (1989) Characterization of the clinical effects after the first dose of bacteri-ally synthesized recombinant granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Blood 74, 2634–2643.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Arnig, M., Kliche, K.O., and Schneider, W. (1991) GM-CSF therapy and capillary-leak syndrome, [letter]. Ann. Hematol. 62, 83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Mueller, M.M. and Fusenig, N.E. (1999) Constitutive expression of G-CSF and GM-CSF in human skin carcinoma cells with functional consequence for tumor progression. Int. J. Cancer 83, 780–789.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kai Hübel
  • David C. Dale
  • Richard K. Root
  • W. Conrad Liles

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations