Food Fraud Prevention Overview (Part 1 of 3): Basics

  • John W. Spink
Part of the Food Microbiology and Food Safety book series (FMFS)


This chapter presents the overall food fraud prevention concept and introduces the fundamental theory of prevention, the relation of food fraud to all other food risks (e.g., food quality, food safety, and food defense), why the core focus is prevention, and finally the Food Fraud Prevention Strategy (FFPS). There is a specific focus on how these activities interact and also how new information enters the cycle. The next chapter will expand to include the application of the Food Fraud Prevention Cycle (FFPC).


  1. APA, American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-IV). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  2. CFSAN, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. (2005). Guidane for industry, submitting requests, under 21 CFR 170.39, threshold of regulation for substances used in food-contact articles. U. S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Office of Food Additive Safety.Google Scholar
  3. CODEX, Codex Alimentarius. (2003). Guidelines on the judgement of equivalence of sanitary measures associated with food inspection and certification systems, 1, CAC/GL 53-2003, URL: file:///C:/Users/J/Downloads/CXG_053e.pdfGoogle Scholar
  4. COSO, Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission. (2012). Risk assessment in practice - enterprise risk management, Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission, COSO.Google Scholar
  5. Dunn & Bradstreet. (2018). Key to the D&B Rating, Dun & Bradstreet, (and overall assessment of a company’s credit worthiness or financial stability), URL:
  6. EFSA, European Food Safety Authority. (2015). Threshold of toxicological concern approach: Conclusions and recommendations of the EFSA/WHO Expert Workshop DRAFT for public consultation These are the conclusions and recommendations as agreed by the experts. A full workshop report will be published together with the final conclusions and recommendations after the public comment period. February 2015, URL:
  7. FDA, U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2007). Food protection plan.Google Scholar
  8. FDA, U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2008). Food protection plan; outreach activities; opportunity for public comment, 04/02/2008, Published in the Federal Register, Docket No. FDA-2008-N-0188, URL:
  9. FSSC, Foundation for Food Safety Certification. (2018). Guidance on food fraud mitigation, Version 1,April 10, 2018, URL:
  10. GFSI FFTT, GFSI Food Fraud Think Tank. (2013). Presentation: Food fraud think tank -- addressing food safety from a Fraudulent Angle , presented by Petra Weissenburg, GFSI Annual Conference, 2013, Barcelona.Google Scholar
  11. GFSI, Global Food Safety Initiative. (2016). Issue 7 - final draft for comments, GFSI,
  12. Gray, J. I. (2011). Multidisciplinary research: Opportunities and challenges, November 8, 2011, MSU Office of Graduate Research Seminar Series, East Lansing.Google Scholar
  13. HC, Health Canada. (2016). Science approach document, Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC)-based, approach for certain substances, Health Canada, September 2016, URL:
  14. ILSI, International Life Sciences Institute (2000). Threshond of toxicological concern for chemical substances present in the diet, organised by the ILSI Europe, Threshold of Toxicological Concern Task Force, Report of a workshop held on 5–6 October 1999 in Paris, France, Organized by the ILSI Europe Threshold of Toxicological Concern Task Force, August 2000, URL:
  15. ISO, International Organization for Standardization. (2013). ISO/IEC TR 33014:2013 Information technology -- Process assessment -- Guide for process improvement, URL:
  16. ISO, International Organization for Standardization. (2016). ISO 24516-1:2016(en Guidelines for the management of assets of water supply and wastewater systems — Part 1: Drinking water distribution networks, URL:
  17. ISO, International Standards Organization. (2011). ISO 12931 - Performance criteria for authentication solutions for anti-counterfeiting in the field of material goods. 2012, from
  18. Lam, J. K., & Spink, J. (2018). Developing a preliminary model to identify food fraud within the meat industry, food fraud initiative report, May 25, 2018, Michigan State University,
  19. Liang, B. A. (2006). Fade to black: Importation and counterfeit drugs. American Journal of Law & Medicine, 32(2–3), 279–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Merriam-Webster. (2004). The Merriam-Webster dictionary -- New Edition.Google Scholar
  21. MSU-FFI, Food Fraud Initiaive. (2018). Blog series, food fraud initiative, Michigan State University, developed and presented by John Spink, URL:
  22. Scott, L. (2005). 21st century leadership speech, October 23, 2005, Walmart Corporation, URL:
  23. Spink, J. (2011). The challenge of intellectual property enforcement for agriculture technology transfers, additives, raw materials, and finished goods against product fraud and counterfeiters. Journal of Intellectual Property Rights (JIPR), 16(2), 183–193.Google Scholar
  24. Spink, J. (2012a). The role of tamper-evident packaging in brand protection. Packaging World Magazine, 21(5), 21.Google Scholar
  25. Spink, J. (2012b). Tamper-evident packaging in brand protection, backgrounder series, Anti-Counterfeit and Product Protection Program (A-CAPP/ A-CAPPP), April 2012, URL:
  26. Spink, J. (2014). Food Fraud prevention overview, introducing the Food Fraud Prevention Cycle (FFPC)/ Food Fraud Prevention System, GFSI China Focus Day 2014, Beijing.Google Scholar
  27. Spink, J. (2019). Chapter: Food fraud prevention – Selecting the right test, method, and sampling plan. In M. Burns, L. Foster, & M. Walker (Eds.), DNA techniques to verify food authenticity: Applications in food fraud, food chemistry, function and analysis series. Royal Society of Chemistry, ISBN 1788011783, 9781788011785.Google Scholar
  28. Spink, J., & Moyer, D. C. (2011). Defining the public health threat of food fraud. Journal of Food Science, 76(9), R157–R162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Spink, J., Zhang, G., Chen, W., & Speier-Pero, C. (2019). Introducing the food fraud prevention cycle (FFPC): A dynamic information management and strategic roadmap. Food Control, 105, 233–241.Google Scholar
  30. Stout, M. (2005). The sociopath next door : The ruthless versus the rest of us. New York: Broadway Books.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • John W. Spink
    • 1
  1. 1.Michigan State UniversityOkemosUSA

Personalised recommendations