Advertisement

Standards and Certifications (Part 1 of 2): The Role of the Public-Private Partnership

  • John W. Spink
Chapter
Part of the Food Microbiology and Food Safety book series (FMFS)

Abstract

This chapter presents an overview of the standards and certifications which are different from, but support, laws and regulations that apply to food fraud. This is not intended to be a deep dive into the exact specifications but to provide an overview of the organizations, their missions, their scopes, and the general concepts they address. There will be a deeper dive into the Global Food Safety Initiative (GFSI) requirements since they provide broad direction and foundation setting.

References

  1. 26 USC 501. (2012). 26 U.S. Code § 501 - Exemption from tax on corporations, certain trusts, etc. URL: https://www.govinfo.gov/app/details/USCODE-2011-title26/USCODE-2011-title26-subtitleA-chap1-subchapF-partI-sec501.
  2. ANSI, American National Standards Institute. (2018). Home page. URL: https://www.ansi.org/.
  3. BSI, British Standards Institution. (2018). Different types of standards. URL: https://www.bsigroup.com/en-US/Standards/Information-about-standards/Different-types-of-standards/.
  4. Cadieux, B., Goodridge, L. D., & Spink, J. (2019). Gap analysis of the Canadian food fraud regulatory oversight and recommendations for improvement. Food Control, 102, 46–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. CEN, European Committee for Standardization. (2018). Home page. URL: https://www.cen.eu/Pages/default.aspx.
  6. CODEX CCFICS, Codex Alimentarius. (2017). Codex committee on food import and export inspection and certification systems (CCFICS). From http://www.fao.org/fao-who-codexalimentarius/committees/committee-detail/en/?committee=CCFICS.
  7. CODEX, Codex Aliementarius. (2015). Revised Codex Standard for Olive Oil, Standard for Olive Oil and Olive Pomace Oils, CODEX STAN 33-1981 Adopted in 1981. Revision: 1989, 2003, 2015. Amendment: 2009, 2013, www.fao.org/input/download/standards/88/CXS_033e_2015.pdfGoogle Scholar
  8. CODEX, Codex Alimentarius. (2001). Revised codex standard for honey. Codex stan, 12, 1982.Google Scholar
  9. CODEX, Codex Alimentarius. (2014). Procedural manual (22nd ed.). Geneva/Rome: World Health Organization/Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.Google Scholar
  10. CODEX, Codex Alimentarius. (2017). Invitation to participate in the CCFICS EWG on Food Integrity and Food Authenticity. Home Page for WG on Food Integrity and Food Authenticity - CCFICS 23, August 7, 2017. URL: http://www.fao.org/fileadmin/user_upload/codexalimentarius/invitations/EWG%20Kick%20off%20message%20fraud.pdf.
  11. CODEX, Codex Alimentarius. (2018). Home page. URL: http://www.fao.org/fao-who-codexalimentarius/en/.
  12. DEFRA, United Kingdom Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs. (2014). Elliott review into the integrity and assurance of food supply networks. Independent report, Ref: PB14089, PDF, 539KB, 84 pages. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/350726/elliot-review-final-report-july2014.pdf.
  13. Dye, T. R. (1976). What governments do, why they do it, what difference it makes. Understanding public policy: 1–18.Google Scholar
  14. Dye, T. R. (2001). Top down policymaking. New York: Chatham House Publishers.Google Scholar
  15. Dye, T. R. (2012). Understanding public policy (14th ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  16. Dye, T. R., & Gaddie, R. K. (2013). Politics in America (Political science textbook) (8th ed.). London: Pearson Higher Ed.Google Scholar
  17. FDA, U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2014). Opportunities for collaboration and progress on verification (3rd party inspections). Presented by Michael Taylor director for the FDA Office of Foods, November 2014. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/Food/GuidanceRegulation/FSMA/ucm421685.htm.
  18. GFSI FFTT, GFSI Food Fraud Think Tank. (2013). Food fraud - the industry approach. Presented by Petra Wissenburg, June 26, 2013, GFSI China Focus Day, Beijing. URL: https://www.mygfsi.com/events/previous-events.h.
  19. GFSI, Global Food Safety Initiative. (2014). GFSI position on mitigating the public health risk of food fraud. Global Food Safety Initiative, Consumer Goods Forum.Google Scholar
  20. INFOSAN, International Food Safety Authorities Network. (2016). New Science for Food Safety: Foodborne Disease Burden, Food Fraud, Risk Assessment and Sustainability, and Next Generation Sequencing (DNA), Singapore, November 2017, (Includes video of lectures). URL: http://www.who.int/foodsafety/areas_work/infosan/en/.
  21. INFOSAN, International Food Safety Authorities Network. (2017). World Health Organization. Home Page for International Food Safety Authorities Network (INFOSAN). URL: http://www.who.int/foodsafety/areas_work/infosan/en/.
  22. IRS, US Internal Revenue Service. (2018). Exemption requirements - 501(c)(3) organizations. URL: https://www.irs.gov/charities-non-profits/charitable-organizations/exemption-requirements-section-501c3-organizations.
  23. ISO, International Organization for Standardization. (2005). ISO 22000 Food safety management systems -- Requirements for any organization in the food chain; 2012. From http://www.iso.org/iso/home/store/catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail.htm?csnumber=35466.
  24. ISO, International Organization for Standardization. (2008). ISO Homepage. From http://www.iso.org/iso/home.htm.
  25. ISO, International Organization for Standardization. (2017a). Technical committee 34 food products (ISO/TC34). Home Page. URL: https://www.iso.org/committee/47858.html.
  26. ISO, International Organization for Standardization. (2017b). Technical committee 176 quality management and quality assurance (TC176). Home Page. URL: https://www.iso.org/committee/53882.html.
  27. ISO, International Organization for Standardization. (2017c). Technical committee 262 risk management (TC262). Home Page. https://www.iso.org/committee/629121.html.
  28. ISO, International Organization for Standardization. (2017d). Technical committee 292 security management and resilience, work group 04 product fraud countermeasures and controls. Home Page. URL: https://www.iso.org/committee/5259148.html.
  29. ISO, International Organization for Standardization. (2018a). ISO 22000:2018 - Food safety management systems -- Requirements for any organization in the food chain. URL: https://www.iso.org/standard/65464.html.
  30. ISO, International Organization for Standardization. (2018b). ISO 22380:2018 Security and resilience -- Authenticity, integrity and trust for products and documents -- General principles for product fraud risk and countermeasures. Status: Published, Publication date: 2018-08-22. URL: https://www.iso.org/standard/73857.html.
  31. ISO, International Organization for Standardization. (2018c). Technical committee 292 security and resilience (ISO/TC 292). Home Page. URL: https://www.iso.org/committee/5259148.html.
  32. ISO, International Standards Organization. (2011). ISO 12931 - Performance criteria for authentication solutions for anti-counterfeiting in the field of material goods; 2012. From http://www.iso.org/iso/catalogue_detail.htm?csnumber=52210.
  33. MacManus, S. A., & Dye, T. R. (2002). Politics in states and communities (15th ed.). London: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  34. MSU-FFI, Food Fraud Initiaive. (2018). Blog series, food fraud initiative. Michigan State University, developed and presented by John Spink. URL: www.FoodFraud.msu.edu/Blog/.
  35. Spink, J. (2014). Food fraud prevention overview, Introducing the food fraud prevention cycle (FFPC)/food fraud prevention system. GFSI China focus day 2014, Beijing.Google Scholar
  36. Spink, J., Embarek, P. B., Savelli, C. J., & Bradshaw, A. (2019a). Global perspectives on food fraud: Results from a WHO survey of members of the International Food Safety Authorities Network (INFOSAN). NPJ Science of Food, 3(12), 1–5.Google Scholar
  37. Spink, J., Vincent Hegarty, P., Fortin, N. D., Elliott, C. T., & Moyer, D. C. (2019b). The application of public policy theory to the emerging food fraud risk: Next steps. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 00(00), 00–00.Google Scholar
  38. Spink, J., & Moyer, D. C. (2011). Defining the public health threat of food fraud. Journal of Food Science, 76(9), R157–R162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Spink, J., Moyer, D. C., Park, H., & Heinonen, J. A. (2014). Development of a counterfeit incident clustering tool (PCICT). Crime Science, 3(3), 1–8.Google Scholar
  40. Spink, J., Zhang, G., Chen, W., & Speier-Pero, C. (2019). Introducing the food fraud prevention cycle (FFPC): A dynamic information management and strategic roadmap. Food Control, 105, 233–241.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • John W. Spink
    • 1
  1. 1.Michigan State UniversityOkemosUSA

Personalised recommendations