Virtual Reality: Whence, How and What For

  • William S. Ryan
  • Jessica Cornick
  • Jim Blascovich
  • Jeremy N. Bailenson
Part of the Virtual Reality Technologies for Health and Clinical Applications book series (VRTHCA)


In the 1990s, the term “virtual reality” brought to mind futuristic scenarios based on sci-fi fantasies popularized in books such as Gibson’s (1984) Neuromancer and movies such as the Wachowski brothers’ The Matrix. These media classics pointed to and perhaps raised expectations for digital three-dimensional sensory displays rendered by some complex yet to be invented or at least not-quite-ready for prime time hardware.


Virtual reality Digital virtual environments Digital media technologies Avatars Networked platforms Grounded reality Immersive virtual environment Agency Communicative realism Response level system 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • William S. Ryan
    • 1
  • Jessica Cornick
    • 1
  • Jim Blascovich
    • 1
  • Jeremy N. Bailenson
    • 2
  1. 1.University of CaliforniaSanta BarbaraUSA
  2. 2.Stanford UniversityStanfordUSA

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