Virtual Human Standardized Patients for Clinical Training
Since Dr. Howard Barrows (1964) introduced the human standardized patient in 1963, there have been attempts to game a computer-based simulacrum of a patient encounter; the first being a heart attack simulation using the online PLATO system (Bitzer M, Nursing Research 15:144–150, 1966). With the now ubiquitous use of computers in medicine, interest and effort have expended in the area of Virtual Patients (VPs). There are excellent summaries in the literature (Talbot TB, International Journal of Gaming and Computer Mediated Simulations 4:1–19, 2012) that explain the different types of virtual patients along with their best case applications, strengths and limitations.
KeywordsMedical education Medical games Medical simulation Serious games Virtual patient Virtual standardized patient
- Artstein, R., Gandhe, S., Leuski, A., & Traum, D. R. (2008). Field testing of an interactive question-answering character. In Proceedings of the European language resources association workshop on evaluation (pp. 36–40). Marrakech.Google Scholar
- Bickmore, T., Pfeifer, L., & Paasche-Orlow, M. (2007). Health document explanation by virtual agents. In Proceedings of the intelligent virtual agents conference, Paris. Springer.Google Scholar
- Campbell, J., Core, M., Artstein, R., Armstrong, L., Hartholt, A., Wilson, C. et al. (2011, March 14–12). Developing INOTS to support interpersonal skills practice. IEEE aerospace conference, big sky, MT.Google Scholar
- Cheek, W. (2012) Direct communications with breakaway ltd. via written survey. Retrieved from http://www.breakawayltd.com.
- Collins, J. P., & Harden, R. M. (1999). The use of real patients, simulated patients and simulators in clinical examinations. Association for Medical Education in Europe Dundee. Retrieved Jan. 4, 2011, from http://www.medev.ac.uk/resources/features/AMEE_summaries/Guide13summaryMay04.pdf.
- Evans, D., Hearn, M. T., Uhlemann, M. R., & Ivey, A. E. (1989). Essential interviewing: A programmed approach to effective communication (3rd ed.). Pacific Brooks: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company.Google Scholar
- Kenny, P., Rizzo, A. A., Parsons, T., Gratch, J., & Swartout, W. (2007). A virtual human agent for training clinical interviewing skills to novice therapists. Annual Review of Cybertherapy and Telemedicine, 5, 81–89.Google Scholar
- Kenny, P., Parsond, T., & Garrity, P. (2010, November 29–December 2). Virtual patients for virtual sick call medical training. Interservice/Industry training, simulation, and education conference, Orlando.Google Scholar
- Lamb, M. E., Orbach, Y., Hershkowitz, I., Esplin, P. W., & Horowitz, D. (2007). Structured forensic interview protocols improve the quality and informativeness of investigative interview with children: A review of research using NICHD investigative interview protocol. Child Abuse & Neglect, 31(11-39), 1201–1231. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2007.03.021.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Leuski, A., & Traum, D. R. (2010, July 11–15). Practical language processing for virtual humans. In Proceedings of the twenty-second annual conference on innovative applications of artificial intelligence (IAAI-10), Atlanta.Google Scholar
- Leuski, A., Kennedy, B., Patel, R., & Traum, D. R. (2006, November 27-30). Asking questions to limited domain virtual characters: How good does speech recognition have to be? In Proceedings of the 25th army science conference, Orlando.Google Scholar
- Lok, B., Ferdig, R. E., Raij, A., Johnson, K., Dickerson, R., & Coutts, J. (2007). Applying virtual reality in medical communication education: Current findings and potential teaching and learning benefits of immersive virtual patients. Journal of Virtual Reality, 43(3–4), 185–195. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10055-006-0037-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- McCauley, L., & D’Mello, S. (2006, August 21–23). A speech enabled intelligent kiosk. In J. Gratch et al. (Eds.), In Proceedings of the 6th annual intelligent virtual agents conference, Marina del Ray, CA (pp. 47–144). Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
- Morbini, F., DeVault, D., Sagae, K., Nazarian, A., Gerten, J., & Traum, D. R. (2013). FLoReS: A forward looking, reward seeking, dialogue manager. Submitted to the 13th annual SIGDIAL meeting on discourse and dialogue, Seoul.Google Scholar
- Morency, L.-P., de Kok, I., & Gratch, J. (2008, October 20–22). Context-based recognition during human interactions: Automatic feature selection and encoding dictionary. In Proceedings of the 10th international conference on multimodal interfaces, Chania.Google Scholar
- Rickel, J., Gratch, J., Hill, R., Marsella, S., & Swartout, W. (2001, March 25–27). Steve goes to bosnia: Towards a new generation of virtual humans for interactive experiences. In Proceedings of the AAAI spring symposium on AI and interactive entertainment, Stanford University.Google Scholar
- Rizzo, A. A., Kenny, P., & Parsons, T. (2011a). Intelligent virtual humans for clinical training. International Journal of Virtual Reality and Broadcasting, 8(3). Retrieved from http://www.jvrb.org/8.2011/.
- Rossen, B., Cendan, J., & Lok, B. (2010, September 20-22). Using virtual humans to bootstrap the creation of other virtual humans. In Allbeck et al (Ed.), Proceedings of the international conference on virtual agents 2010, Philadelphia (LNAI6356, pp. 392–398).Google Scholar
- Swartout, W., Gratch, J., Hill, A. W., Marsella, S., Rickel, J., & Traum, D. (2006). Toward virtual humans. AI Magazine, 27(1), 96–108.Google Scholar
- Swartout, W., Traum, D. R., Artstein, R., Noren, R., Debevec, P., Bronnenkant, K., et al. (2010). Ada and Grace: Toward realistic and engaging virtual museum guides. Intelligent Virtual Agents, 286–300.Google Scholar
- Talbot, T. B. (2013). Balancing physiology, anatomy & immersion: How much biological fidelity is necessary in a medical simulation? Journal of Military Medicine.Google Scholar
- Talbot, T. B., Sagae, K., John, B., & Rizzo, A. A. (2012). Sorting out the virtual patient: How to exploit artificial intelligence, game technology and sound educational practices to create engaging role-playing simulations. International Journal of Gaming and Computer Mediated Simulations., 4(4), 1–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Thiebaux, M., Marshall, A., Marsella, S., Fast, E., Hill, A., Kallmann, M., et al. (2008, May 12-73) Smart body: Behavior realization for embodied conversational agents. In Proceedings of the Inter-national conference on autonomous agents and multi-agent systems (AAMAS), Estoril.Google Scholar
- Traum, D. R., Marsella, S., Gratch, J., Lee, J., & Hartholt, A. (2008a, September 1–3). Multi-party, multi-issue, multi-strategy negotiation for multi-modal virtual agents. In Proceedings of the 8th international conference on intelligent virtual agents, Tokyo.Google Scholar
- Traum, D. R., Marsella, S., Gratch, J., Lee, J., & Hartholt, A. (2008b). Multi-party, multi-issue, multi-strategy negotiation for multi-modal virtual agents. In Proceedings of the conference on intelligent virtual agents (pp. 117–130).Google Scholar
- Triola, M., Feldman, H., Kalet, A. L., Zabar, S., Kachur, E. K., & Gillespie, C. (2006). A randomized trial of teaching clinical skills using virtual and live standardized patients. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 21, 424–426. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1525-1497.2006.00421.x.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar