Virtual Human Standardized Patients for Clinical Training

  • Thomas TalbotEmail author
  • Albert “Skip” Rizzo
Part of the Virtual Reality Technologies for Health and Clinical Applications book series (VRTHCA)


Since Dr. Howard Barrows (1964) introduced the human standardized patient in 1963, there have been attempts to game a computer-based simulacrum of a patient encounter; the first being a heart attack simulation using the online PLATO system (Bitzer M, Nursing Research 15:144–150, 1966). With the now ubiquitous use of computers in medicine, interest and effort have expended in the area of Virtual Patients (VPs). There are excellent summaries in the literature (Talbot TB, International Journal of Gaming and Computer Mediated Simulations 4:1–19, 2012) that explain the different types of virtual patients along with their best case applications, strengths and limitations.


Medical education Medical games Medical simulation Serious games Virtual patient Virtual standardized patient 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of Southern California Institute for Creative TechnologiesLos AngelesUSA

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