Carbon as a Biomaterial

  • Vasif Hasirci
  • Nesrin Hasirci


Carbon is an element found abundantly in the Earth’s crust and in the human body. The various bonding capabilities enable it to form so many different varieties of compounds including the many gases, liquids, and solids. The carbon compounds constitute the nutrients, the organic energy sources, the building materials for plants, and many other molecules in the body. Since all living species are hydrocarbon based, carbon basically is the element of life if water is the molecule of life. Carbon-derived compounds like diamond, graphite, and graphene are made of only one element, and the method of their production is different than the commercially available ceramics since the melting temperature of carbon is very high.


  1. 1.
  2. 2.
    Bernasek TL, Stahl JL, Pupello D (2009) Pyrolytic carbon endoprosthetic replacement for osteonecrosis and femoral fracture of the hip: a pilot study. Clin Orthop Relat Res 467(7):1826–1832CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ratner BD (2004) Pyrolytic carbon. In: Biomaterials science: an introduction to materials in medicine. Academic Press, Cambridge, pp 171–180Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Walker PL (1964) Carbon: an old but new material. In: Science in progress. Yale University Press, New Haven, pp 177–228Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sengupta R, Bhattacharya M, Bandyopadhyay S, Bhowmick AK (2011) A review on the mechanical and electrical properties of graphite and modified graphite reinforced polymer composites. Prog Polym Sci 36:638–670CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Recek N, Jaganjac M, Kolar M, Milkovic L, Mozeti M, Stana-Kleinschek K, Vesel A (2013) Protein adsorption on various plasma-treated polyethylene terephthalate substrates. Molecules 18:12441–12463. Scholar
  7. 7.
    McEnaney B (1990) Carbon materials for the future. Energeia 1(5):1–6Google Scholar
  8. 8.
  9. 9.
    Ilomuanya M, Nashiru B, Ifudu N, Igwilo CI (2017) Effect of pore size and morphology of activated charcoal. J Microsc Ultrastruct 5(1):32–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Yatzidis H (1964) A convenient haemoperfusion micro-apparatus over charcoal for the treatment of endogenous and exogenous intoxications. Its use as an effective artificial kidney. Proc Eur Dial Transplant Assoc 1:83Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kolff WJ (1967) Introduction of a simple artificial kidney in the United States: result of international cooperation. Cleve Clin J Med 34:151–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hasirci N, Akovali G (1986) Polymer coating for hemoperfusion over activated charcoal. JBiomed Mater Res 20:963–970CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hasirci N, Akovali G (1984) Some studies on coating of activated charcoal with plasma polymer hexamethyldisiloxane. In: Boenig HV (ed) Advances in low temperature plasma chemistry, technology, applications, vol 1. Technomic Publ. Co., Lancaster, pp 339–342Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Terrones M, Botello-Méndez AR, Campos-Delgado J, López-Urías F, Vega-Cantú YI, Rodríguez-Macías FJ, Elíase AL, Muñoz-Sandoval E, Cano-Márquezd AG, Charlier J-C, Terrones H (2010) Graphene and graphite nanoribbons: Morphology, properties, synthesis, defects and applications. NanoToday 5(4):351–372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Morpurgo AF (2015) Ten years of nature physics: the ABC of 2D materials. Nat Phys 11(8):625CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Pinto AM, Goncalves IC, Magalhaes FD (2013) Graphene-based materials biocompatibility: a review. Colloids Surf B: Biointerfaces 111:188–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Zhang X, Yin J, Peng C, Hu W, Zhu Z, Li W (2011) Distribution and biocompatibility studies of graphene oxide in mice after intravenous administration. Carbon 49(3):986–995CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Mehra NK, Mishra V, Jain NK (2014) A review of ligand tethered surface engineered carbon nanotubes. Biomaterials 35(4):1267–1283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Iijima S (1991) Helical microtubules of graphitic carbon. Nature 354:56–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Loiseau A, Pascard H (1996) Synthesis of long carbon nanotubes filled with Se, S, Sb and Ge by the arc method. Chem Phys Lett 256:246–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Deng L, Eichhorn SJ, Kao C-C, Young RJ (2011) The effective Young’s modulus of carbon nanotubes in composites. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 3:433–440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Roy A, Sreejith C, Abhishek S, Ragul G, Ghosh I Effect of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on automotive and aerospace applications- case study. Int J Emerg Trends Sci Technol. Scholar
  23. 23.
    Li Q, Li Y, Zhang X et al (2007) Structure-dependent electrical properties of carbon nanotube fibers. Adv Mater 19:3358–3363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    von Recum AF (ed) (1999) Handbook of biomaterials evaluation. Taylor and Francis, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Cui FZ, Li DJ (2000) A review of investigations on biocompatibility of diamond-like carbon and carbon nitride films. Surf Coat Technol 131:481–487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hauert R (2003) A review of modified DLC coatings for biological applications. Diam Relat Mater 12(3–7):583–589CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Rodil SE, Olivares R, Arzate H, Muhl S (2006) Biocompatibility, cytotoxicity and bioactivity of amorphous carbon films. In: Messina G, Santangelo S (eds) Carbon, the future material for advanced technology applications, Topics Appl. Phys, vol 100. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 55–75Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ohgoe Y, Hirakuri KH, Tsuchimoto K, Friedbacher G, Miyashita O (2004) Uniform deposition of diamond-like carbon films on polymeric materials for biomedical applications. Surf Coat Technol 184:263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Butany J, Ahluwalia MS, Munroe C et al (2003) Mechanical heart valve prostheses: identification and evaluation (erratum). Cardiovasc Pathol 12(6):322–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Adam F, Hammer DS, Pfautsch S, Westermann K (2002) Early failure of a press-fit carbon fiber hip prosthesis with a smooth surface. J Arthroplast 17(2):217–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Du C, Su XW, Cui FZ, Zhu XD (1998) Morphological behaviour of osteoblasts on diamond-like carbon coating and amorphous C–N film in organ culture. Biomaterials 19:651CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Tiainen VM (2001) Amorphous carbon as a bio-mechanical coating-Mechanical properties and biological applications. Diam Relat Mater 10:153–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Roy RK, Lee KR (2007) Biomedical applications of diamond-like carbon coatings: a review. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 83B:72–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Gutensohn K, Beythien C, Bau J et al (2000) In vitro analyses of diamondlike carbon coated stents: reduction of metal ion release, platelet activation and thrombogenicity. Thromb Res 99:577–558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Maguire PD, McLaughlin JA, Okpalugo TII et al (2005) Mechanical stability, corrosion performance and bioresponse of amorphous diamond-like carbon for medical stents and guidewires. Diam Relat Mater 14:127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Milano A, Bortolotti U, Mazzucco A et al (1992) Heart valve replacement with the Sorin tilting-disc prosthesis: a 10-year experience. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 103:267Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Borman JB, de Riberolles C (2003) E J Cardio-Thor Surg. 23:86Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Airoldi F, Colombo A, Tavano D, Stankovic G, Klugmann S, Paolillo V, Bonizzoni E, Briguori C, Carlino M, Montorfano M (2004) Comparison of diamond like carbon coated stents versus uncoated stainless steel stents in coronary artery disease. Am J Cardiol 93(4):474–477CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vasif Hasirci
    • 1
  • Nesrin Hasirci
    • 2
  1. 1.BIOMATEN Center of Excellence in Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, and Department of Biological SciencesMiddle East Technical UniversityAnkaraTurkey
  2. 2.BIOMATEN Center of Excellence in Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, and Department of ChemistryMiddle East Technical UniversityAnkaraTurkey

Personalised recommendations