Advertisement

Soft Tissue Tumors of Uncertain Histogenesis

  • Darya BuehlerEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

The mesenchymal tumors discussed in this chapter represent a diverse group with distinctive morphologic, immunophenotypic, and molecular genetic features. Many of these tumors arise in the dermis or subcutis and can closely mimic cases routinely encountered in dermatopathology practice such as melanoma, carcinoma, dermatofibroma (fibrous histiocytoma), nerve sheath tumors, or granulomatous inflammation. Others occupy deep and visceral locations and cause diagnostic difficulties when encountered in an unusual site, such as the dermis or subcutis. Reviewed herein are epithelioid sarcoma (ES), clear cell sarcoma (CCS), perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa), ossifying fibromyxoid tumor (OFMT), pleomorphic hyalinizing angiectatic tumor (PHAT), hemosiderotic fibrolipomatous tumor (HFLT), Rosai-Dorfman disease (RDD), solitary fibrous tumor (SFT), synovial sarcoma (SS), alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS), and cutaneous myoepithelial tumors. The discussion emphasizes the clinicopathologic features, differential diagnosis, and important diagnostic pitfalls encountered with these neoplasms, as well as diagnostically useful immunohistochemical and molecular genetic findings.

Keywords

Epithelioid sarcoma Clear cell sarcoma PEComa Ossifying fibromyxoid tumor Pleomorphic hyalinizing angiectatic tumor Hemosiderotic fibrolipomatous tumor Rosai-Dorfman disease Solitary fibrous tumor Synovial sarcoma Alveolar soft part sarcoma Myoepithelioma Mixed tumor 

Selected References

  1. 1.
    Achtman JC, Pavlidakey PG, Zhang PJ, Elenitsas R, Gutman AB. Synovial sarcoma with cutaneous metastasis. J Cutan Pathol. 2016;43(1):85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Alomari AK, Brown N, Andea AA, Betz BL, Patel RM. Cutaneous syncytial myoepithelioma: a recently described neoplasm which may mimic nevoid melanoma and epithelioid sarcoma. J Cutan Pathol. 2017;44(10):892.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Amin MB, Patel RM, Oliveira P, Cabrera R, Carneiro V, Preto M, Balzer B, Folpe AL. Alveolar soft-part sarcoma of the urinary bladder with urethral recurrence: a unique case with emphasis on differential diagnoses and diagnostic utility of an immunohistochemical panel including TFE3. Am J Surg Pathol. 2006 Oct;30(10):1322–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Antonescu CR, Tschernyavsky SJ, Woodruff JM, Jungbluth AA, Brennan MF, Ladanyi M. Molecular diagnosis of clear cell sarcoma: detection of EWS-ATF1 and MITF-M transcripts and histopathological and ultrastructural analysis of 12 cases. J Mol Diagn. 2002;4(1):44.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Antonescu CR, Zhang L, Chang NE, et al. EWSR1-POU5F1 fusion in soft tissue myoepithelial tumors. A molecular analysis of sixty-six cases, including soft tissue, bone, and visceral lesions, showing common involvement of the EWSR1 gene. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2010;49(12):1114.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Antonescu CR, Zhang L, Nielsen GP, Rosenberg AE, Dal Cin P, Fletcher CD. Consistent t(1;10) with rearrangements of TGFBR3 and MGEA5 in both myxoinflammatory fibroblastic sarcoma and hemosiderotic fibrolipomatous tumor. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2011;50(10):757.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Antonescu CR, Zhang L, Shao SY, et al. Frequent PLAG1 gene rearrangements in skin and soft tissue myoepithelioma with ductal differentiation. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2013;52(7):675.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Antonescu CR, Sung YS, Chen CL, et al. Novel ZC3H7B-BCOR, MEAF6-PHF1, and EPC1-PHF1 fusions in ossifying fibromyxoid tumors – molecular characterization shows genetic overlap with endometrial stromal sarcoma. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2014;53(2):183.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Atanaskova Mesinkovska N, Buehler D, McClain CM, Rubin BP, Goldblum JR, Billings SD. Ossifying fibromyxoid tumor: a clinicopathologic analysis of 26 subcutaneous tumors with emphasis on differential diagnosis and prognostic factors. J Cutan Pathol. 2015;42(9):622.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bahrami A, Dalton JD, Krane JF, Fletcher CD. A subset of cutaneous and soft tissue mixed tumors are genetically linked to their salivary gland counterpart. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2012;51(2):140.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Boland JM, Folpe AL. Hemosiderotic fibrolipomatous tumor, pleomorphic hyalinizing angiectatic tumor, and myxoinflammatory fibroblastic sarcoma: related or not? Adv Anat Pathol. 2017;24(5):268.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Browne TJ, Fletcher CD. Haemosiderotic fibrolipomatous tumour (so-called haemosiderotic fibrohistiocytic lipomatous tumour): analysis of 13 new cases in support of a distinct entity. Histopathology. 2006;48(4):453.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Calder KB, Schlauder S, Morgan MB. Malignant perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (‘PEComa’): a case report and literature review of cutaneous/subcutaneous presentations. J Cutan Pathol. 2008;35(5):499.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Carter JM, Sukov WR, Montgomery E, et al. TGFBR3 and MGEA5 rearrangements in pleomorphic hyalinizing angiectatic tumors and the spectrum of related neoplasms. Am J Surg Pathol. 2014;38(9):1182.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Charli-Joseph Y, Saggini A, Vemula S, Weier J, Mirza S, LeBoit PE. Primary cutaneous perivascular epithelioid cell tumor: a clinicopathological and molecular reappraisal. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2014;71(6):1127.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Chase DR, Enzinger FM. Epithelioid sarcoma. Diagnosis, prognostic indicators, and treatment. Am J Surg Pathol. 1985;9(4):241.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Chbani L, Guillou L, Terrier P, et al. Epithelioid sarcoma: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical analysis of 106 cases from the French sarcoma group. Am J Clin Pathol. 2009;131(2):222.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Cheah AL, Billings SD, Goldblum JR, Carver P, Tanas MZ, Rubin BP. STAT6 rabbit monoclonal antibody is a robust diagnostic tool for the distinction of solitary fibrous tumor from its mimics. Pathology. 2014;46(5):389.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Chung EB, Enzinger FM. Malignant melanoma of soft parts. A reassessment of clear cell sarcoma. Am J Surg Pathol. 1983;7(5):405.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Demicco EG, Harms PW, Patel RM, et al. Extensive survey of STAT6 expression in a large series of mesenchymal tumors. Am J Clin Pathol. 2015;143(5):672.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Demicco EG, Wagner MJ, Maki RG, et al. Risk assessment in solitary fibrous tumors: validation and refinement of a risk stratification model. Mod Pathol. 2017;30(10):1433.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Doyle LA, Vivero M, Fletcher CD, Mertens F, Hornick JL. Nuclear expression of STAT6 distinguishes solitary fibrous tumor from histologic mimics. Mod Pathol. 2014;27(3):390.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    El Beaino M, Araujo DM, Lazar AJ, Lin PP. Synovial sarcoma: advances in diagnosis and treatment identification of new biologic targets to improve multimodal therapy. Ann Surg Oncol. 2017;24(8):2145.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Emile JF, Abla O, Fraitag S, et al. Revised classification of histiocytoses and neoplasms of the macrophage-dendritic cell lineages. Blood. 2016;127(22):2672.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Enzinger FM, Weiss SW, Liang CY. Ossifying fibromyxoid tumor of soft parts. A clinicopathological analysis of 59 cases. Am J Surg Pathol. 1989;13(10):817.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Falconieri G, Bacchi CE, Luzar B. Cutaneous clear cell sarcoma: report of three cases of a potentially underestimated mimicker of spindle cell melanoma. Am J Dermatopathol. 2012;34(6):619.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Feasel PC, Cheah AL, Fritchie K, Winn B, Piliang M, Billings SD. Primary clear cell sarcoma of the head and neck: a case series with review of the literature. J Cutan Pathol. 2016;43(10):838.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Feasel P, Al-Ibraheemi A, Fritchie K, et al. Superficial solitary fibrous tumor: a series of 26 cases. Am J Surg Pathol. 2018;42(6):778–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Flieder DB, Moran CA. Primary cutaneous synovial sarcoma: a case report. Am J Dermatopathol. 1998;20(5):509.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Flucke U, Palmedo G, Blankenhorn N, Slootweg PJ, Kutzner H, Mentzel T. EWSR1 gene rearrangement occurs in a subset of cutaneous myoepithelial tumors: a study of 18 cases. Mod Pathol. 2011;24(11):1444.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Folpe AL, Deyrup AT. Alveolar soft-part sarcoma: a review and update. J Clin Pathol. 2006;59(11):1127.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Folpe AL, Kwiatkowski DJ. Perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasms: pathology and pathogenesis. Hum Pathol. 2010;41(1):1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Folpe AL, Weiss SW. Ossifying fibromyxoid tumor of soft parts: a clinicopathologic study of 70 cases with emphasis on atypical and malignant variants. Am J Surg Pathol. 2003;27(4):421.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Folpe AL, Weiss SW. Pleomorphic hyalinizing angiectatic tumor: analysis of 41 cases supporting evolution from a distinctive precursor lesion. Am J Surg Pathol. 2004;28(11):1417.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Folpe AL, Mentzel T, Lehr HA, Fisher C, Balzer BL, Weiss SW. Perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasms of soft tissue and gynecologic origin: a clinicopathologic study of 26 cases and review of the literature. Am J Surg Pathol. 2005;29(12):1558.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Foo WC, Cruise MW, Wick MR, Hornick JL. Immunohistochemical staining for TLE1 distinguishes synovial sarcoma from histologic mimics. Am J Clin Pathol. 2011;135(6):839.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Foucar E, Rosai J, Dorfman R. Sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (Rosai-Dorfman disease): review of the entity. Semin Diagn Pathol. 1990;7(1):19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Garces S, Medeiros LJ, Patel KP, et al. Mutually exclusive recurrent KRAS and MAP 2K1 mutations in Rosai-Dorfman disease. Mod Pathol. 2017;30(10):1367.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Gebre-Medhin S, Nord KH, Moller E, et al. Recurrent rearrangement of the PHF1 gene in ossifying fibromyxoid tumors. Am J Pathol. 2012;181(3):1069.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Graham RP, Weiss SW, Sukov WR, et al. PHF1 rearrangements in ossifying fibromyxoid tumors of soft parts: A fluorescence in situ hybridization study of 41 cases with emphasis on the malignant variant. Am J Surg Pathol. 2013;37(11):1751.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Guillou L, Wadden C, Coindre JM, Krausz T, Fletcher CD. “Proximal-type” epithelioid sarcoma, a distinctive aggressive neoplasm showing rhabdoid features. Clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural study of a series. Am J Surg Pathol. 1997;21(2):130.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Guillou L, Gebhard S, Coindre JM. Lipomatous hemangiopericytoma: a fat-containing variant of solitary fibrous tumor? Clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural analysis of a series in favor of a unifying concept. Hum Pathol. 2000a;31(9):1108.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Guillou L, Gebhard S, Coindre JM. Orbital and extraorbital giant cell angiofibroma: a giant cell-rich variant of solitary fibrous tumor? Clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical analysis of a series in favor of a unifying concept. Am J Surg Pathol. 2000b;24(7):971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Hallor KH, Sciot R, Staaf J, et al. Two genetic pathways, t(1,10) and amplification of 3p11-12, in myxoinflammatory fibroblastic sarcoma, haemosiderotic fibrolipomatous tumour, and morphologically similar lesions. J Pathol. 2009;217(5):716.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Hantschke M, Mentzel T, Rutten A, et al. Cutaneous clear cell sarcoma: a clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular analysis of 12 cases emphasizing its distinction from dermal melanoma. Am J Surg Pathol. 2010;34(2):216.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Hisaoka M, Ishida T, Kuo TT, et al. Clear cell sarcoma of soft tissue: a clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular analysis of 33 cases. Am J Surg Pathol. 2008;32(3):452.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Hornick JL, Fletcher CD. Myoepithelial tumors of soft tissue: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 101 cases with evaluation of prognostic parameters. Am J Surg Pathol. 2003;27(9):1183.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Hornick JL, Fletcher CD. Cutaneous myoepithelioma: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 14 cases. Hum Pathol. 2004;35(1):14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Hornick JL, Dal Cin P, Fletcher CD. Loss of INI1 expression is characteristic of both conventional and proximal-type epithelioid sarcoma. Am J Surg Pathol. 2009;33(4):542.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Huang SC, Chen HW, Zhang L, et al. Novel FUS-KLF17 and EWSR1-KLF17 fusions in myoepithelial tumors. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2015;54(5):267.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Jo VY, Antonescu CR, Zhang L, Dal Cin P, Hornick JL, Fletcher CD. Cutaneous syncytial myoepithelioma: clinicopathologic characterization in a series of 38 cases. Am J Surg Pathol. 2013;37(5):710.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Kacerovska D, Michal M, Nemcova J, et al. Crystal-deficient alveolar soft-part sarcoma with cutaneous involvement: a case report. Am J Dermatopathol. 2009;31(3):272.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Kao YC, Sung YS, Zhang L, Chen CL, Huang SC, Antonescu CR. Expanding the molecular signature of ossifying fibromyxoid tumors with two novel gene fusions: CREBBP-BCORL1 and KDM2A-WWTR1. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2017;56(1):42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Kilpatrick SE, Hitchcock MG, Kraus MD, Calonje E, Fletcher CD. Mixed tumors and myoepitheliomas of soft tissue: a clinicopathologic study of 19 cases with a unifying concept. Am J Surg Pathol. 1997;21(1):13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Kosemehmetoglu K, Vrana JA, Folpe AL. TLE1 expression is not specific for synovial sarcoma: a whole section study of 163 soft tissue and bone neoplasms. Mod Pathol. 2009;22(7):872.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Kroft SH. Rosai-Dorfman disease: familiar yet enigmatic. Semin Diagn Pathol. 2016;33(5):244.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Kutzner H, Mentzel T, Kaddu S, Soares LM, Sangueza OP, Requena L. Cutaneous myoepithelioma: an under-recognized cutaneous neoplasm composed of myoepithelial cells. Am J Surg Pathol. 2001;25(3):348.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Ladanyi M, Antonescu CR, Drobnjak M, et al. The precrystalline cytoplasmic granules of alveolar soft part sarcoma contain monocarboxylate transporter 1 and CD147. Am J Pathol. 2002;160(4):1215.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Lieberman PH, Brennan MF, Kimmel M, Erlandson RA, Garin-Chesa P, Flehinger BY. Alveolar soft-part sarcoma. A clinico-pathologic study of half a century. Cancer. 1989;63(1):1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Liegl B, Hornick JL, Fletcher CD. Primary cutaneous PEComa: distinctive clear cell lesions of skin. Am J Surg Pathol. 2008;32(4):608.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Lin L, Skacel M, Sigel JE, et al. Epithelioid sarcoma: an immunohistochemical analysis evaluating the utility of cytokeratin 5/6 in distinguishing superficial epithelioid sarcoma from spindled squamous cell carcinoma. J Cutan Pathol. 2003;30(2):114.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Liu L, Perry AM, Cao W, et al. Relationship between Rosai-Dorfman disease and IgG4-related disease: study of 32 cases. Am J Clin Pathol. 2013;140(3):395.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Llamas-Velasco M, Mentzel T, Requena L, Palmedo G, Kasten R, Kutzner H. Cutaneous PEComa does not harbour TFE3 gene fusions: immunohistochemical and molecular study of 17 cases. Histopathology. 2013;63(1):122.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Mantilla JG, Goldberg-Stein S, Wang Y. Extranodal Rosai-Dorfman disease: clinicopathologic series of 10 patients with radiologic correlation and review of the literature. Am J Clin Pathol. 2016;145(2):211.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Marshall-Taylor C, Fanburg-Smith JC. Hemosiderotic fibrohistiocytic lipomatous lesion: ten cases of a previously undescribed fatty lesion of the foot/ankle. Mod Pathol. 2000;13(11):1192.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Menon MP, Evbuomwan MO, Rosai J, Jaffe ES, Pittaluga S. A subset of Rosai-Dorfman disease cases show increased IgG4-positive plasma cells: another red herring or a true association with IgG4-related disease? Histopathology. 2014;64(3):455.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Mentzel T, Requena L, Kaddu S, Soares de Aleida LM, Sangueza OP, Kutzner H. Cutaneous myoepithelial neoplasms: clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 20 cases suggesting a continuous spectrum ranging from benign mixed tumor of the skin to cutaneous myoepithelioma and myoepithelial carcinoma. J Cutan Pathol. 2003;30(5):294.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Mentzel T, Reisshauer S, Rutten A, Hantschke M, Soares de Almeida LM, Kutzner H. Cutaneous clear cell myomelanocytic tumour: a new member of the growing family of perivascular epithelioid cell tumours (PEComas). Clinicopathological and immunohistochemical analysis of seven cases. Histopathology. 2005;46(5):498.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Miettinen M, Fanburg-Smith JC, Virolainen M, Shmookler BM, Fetsch JF. Epithelioid sarcoma: an immunohistochemical analysis of 112 classical and variant cases and a discussion of the differential diagnosis. Hum Pathol. 1999;30(8):934.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Miettinen M, Finnell V, Fetsch JF. Ossifying fibromyxoid tumor of soft parts – a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 104 cases with long-term follow-up and a critical review of the literature. Am J Surg Pathol. 2008;32(7):996.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Miettinen M, McCue PA, Sarlomo-Rikala M, et al. Sox10 – a marker for not only schwannian and melanocytic neoplasms but also myoepithelial cell tumors of soft tissue: a systematic analysis of 5134 tumors. Am J Surg Pathol. 2015;39(6):826.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Mosquera JM, Fletcher CD. Expanding the spectrum of malignant progression in solitary fibrous tumors: a study of 8 cases with a discrete anaplastic component – is this dedifferentiated SFT? Am J Surg Pathol. 2009;33(9):1314.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Moyano S, Aguilera P, Petit A, et al. Alveolar soft part sarcoma presenting with cutaneous metastases: report of a case with immunohistochemical and molecular characterization. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2009;61(1):117.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Naujokas A, Charli-Joseph Y, Ruben BS, et al. SOX-10 expression in cutaneous myoepitheliomas and mixed tumors. J Cutan Pathol. 2014;41(4):353.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Panagopoulos I, Mertens F, Isaksson M, Mandahl N. Absence of mutations of the BRAF gene in malignant melanoma of soft parts (clear cell sarcoma of tendons and aponeuroses). Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2005;156(1):74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Patel RM, Downs-Kelly E, Weiss SW, Folpe AL, Tubbs RR, Tuthill RJ, Goldblum JR, Skacel M. Dual-color, break-apart fluorescence in situ hybridization for EWS gene rearrangement distinguishes clear cell sarcoma of soft tissue from malignant melanoma. Mod Pathol. 2005 Dec;18(12):1585–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Portera CA Jr, Ho V, Patel SR, et al. Alveolar soft part sarcoma: clinical course and patterns of metastasis in 70 patients treated at a single institution. Cancer. 2001;91(3):585.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Robinson DR, Wu YM, Kalyana-Sundaram S, et al. Identification of recurrent NAB2-STAT6 gene fusions in solitary fibrous tumor by integrative sequencing. Nat Genet. 2013;45(2):180.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Schofield JB, Krausz T, Stamp GW, Fletcher CD, Fisher C, Azzopardi JG. Ossifying fibromyxoid tumour of soft parts: immunohistochemical and ultrastructural analysis. Histopathology. 1993;22(2):101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Smith ME, Fisher C, Weiss SW. Pleomorphic hyalinizing angiectatic tumor of soft parts. A low-grade neoplasm resembling neurilemoma. Am J Surg Pathol. 1996;20(1):21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Solomon DA, Antonescu CR, Link TM, O’Donnell RJ, Folpe AL, Horvai AE. Hemosiderotic fibrolipomatous tumor, not an entirely benign entity. Am J Surg Pathol. 2013;37(10):1627.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Thway K, Fisher C. Synovial sarcoma: defining features and diagnostic evolution. Ann Diagn Pathol. 2014;18(6):369.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Thway K, Fisher C. PEComa: morphology and genetics of a complex tumor family. Ann Diagn Pathol. 2015;19(5):359.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Varela-Duran J, Enzinger FM. Calcifying synovial sarcoma. Cancer. 1982;50(2):345.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Wang WL, Mayordomo E, Zhang W, et al. Detection and characterization of EWSR1/ATF1 and EWSR1/CREB1 chimeric transcripts in clear cell sarcoma (melanoma of soft parts). Mod Pathol. 2009;22(9):1201.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Williams A, Bartle G, Sumathi VP, et al. Detection of ASPL/TFE3 fusion transcripts and the TFE3 antigen in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue in a series of 18 cases of alveolar soft part sarcoma: useful diagnostic tools in cases with unusual histological features. Virchows Arch. 2011;458(3):291.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Zreik RT, Carter JM, Sukov WR, et al. TGFBR3 and MGEA5 rearrangements are much more common in “hybrid” hemosiderotic fibrolipomatous tumor-myxoinflammatory fibroblastic sarcomas than in classical myxoinflammatory fibroblastic sarcomas: a morphological and fluorescence in situ hybridization study. Hum Pathol. 2016;53:14.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Pathology and Laboratory MedicineUniversity of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public HealthMadisonUSA

Personalised recommendations