Acute Kidney Injury and Cancer: Incidence, Pathophysiology, Prevention/Treatment, and Outcomes
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is an important complication of cancer and its treatment. Although AKI in the cancer patient is often multifactorial, it is useful to consider its causes under the traditional categories of prerenal, intrarenal, and postrenal. Risk factors which predispose to AKI in the cancer patient include advanced age, pre-existing renal disease, hypovolemia, intrinsic nephrotoxicity of a given chemotherapy drug, and the cumulative dose of nephrotoxic drugs received. As in many areas of medical practice, the development of AKI is generally associated with a poorer overall prognosis. Identification of at-risk patients allows measures to reduce the risk of AKI. Where AKI does occur, early diagnosis and treatment is important—this is most likely to happen when there is close collaboration between oncologists and nephrologists.
KeywordsAcute kidney injury Cancer Malignancy Nephrotoxicity Tumor lysis syndrome Hemolytic uremic syndrome Hematopoietic cell transplantation
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