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Pediatric Acute Kidney Injury: Diagnosis, Epidemiology, and Treatment

  • Elizabeth A. K. Hunt
  • Michael A. Ferguson
Chapter

Abstract

Over the last decade, there has been considerable effort to standardize the definition of acute kidney injury (AKI) in pediatric patients. This has led to a clearer understanding of the incidence of childhood AKI as well as which populations appear to be at highest risk for disease development. It is now well established that AKI is a common occurrence in hospitalized children, particularly those who are critically ill. In addition, there is emerging evidence that AKI is associated with poorer short-term and long-term outcomes. Currently, there are no directed therapies that hasten renal recovery in affected patients. Treatment is largely supportive with severe cases requiring initiation of renal replacement therapy.

Keywords

Acute kidney injury (AKI) Pediatric RIFLE (pRIFLE) AKIN KDIGO Renal replacement therapy Pediatrics Childhood Chronic kidney disease (CKD) 

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric NephrologyUniversity of Vermont Medical Center, Larner College of Medicine at UVMBurlingtonUSA
  2. 2.Division of Nephrology, Department of MedicineBoston Children’s Hospital, Harvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA

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