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Pediatric and Adolescent Cervical Spine Trauma

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Abstract

Cervical spine injury in children and adolescents is rare but presents a diagnostic challenge. Anatomic and radiographic differences between the pediatric and adult spine must be understood in order to differentiate injury from normal variant. Conditions predominantly seen in childhood, such as spinal cord injury without radiologic abnormality (SCIWORA), need to be aggressively sought. A formal policy for cervical spine clearance in children can help avoid unnecessary treatment and missed injuries. Injuries can be divided into upper cervical injury (cervical vascular injury, occipital condyle fractures, atlanto-occipital injuries, odontoid fractures, atlantoaxial rotary subluxation, fractures of C1 and C2) as well as subaxial injuries (fractures and dislocations). As in the adult, stable injuries are treated with immobilization, while unstable injuries require stabilization. An understanding of the relevant anatomy and surgical approaches to the treatment of these injuries in the growing child is crucial to provide effective treatment in this population.

Keywords

Pediatric cervical spine SCIWORA Atlantoaxial rotatory subluxation Pediatric cervical spine clearance Pediatric cervical spine injury Pediatric cervical spine anatomy 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media LLC 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Orthopedic Surgery and PediatricsDrexel University College of Medicine, St. Christopher’s Hospital for ChildrenPhiladelphiaUSA
  2. 2.St. Christopher’s Hospital for Children, Orthopedic Center for ChildrenPhiladelphiaUSA
  3. 3.Division of Pediatric Orthopedic Surgery, Orthopedic Surgery ResidencyAlpert Medical School of Brown UniversityProvidenceUSA
  4. 4.Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Children’s Mercy Hospital and Clinics – Kansas CityUniversity of Kansas School of MedicineKansas CityUSA

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