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Secondary Electrons

  • Joseph I. Goldstein
  • Dale E. Newbury
  • Joseph R. Michael
  • Nicholas W. M. Ritchie
  • John Henry J. Scott
  • David C. Joy
Chapter

Abstract

Secondary electrons (SE) are created when inelastic scattering of the beam electrons ejects weakly bound valence electrons (in the case of ionically or covalently bonded materials) or conduction band electrons (in the case of metals), which have binding energies of ~ 1–15 eV to the parent atom(s). Secondary electrons are quantified by the parameter δ, which is the ratio of secondary electrons emitted from the specimen, NSE, to the number of incident beam (primary) electrons, NB:
$$ \delta ={N}_{SE}/{N}_B $$

Supplementary material

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media LLC 2018

Open Access This chapter is licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 2.5 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.5/), which permits any noncommercial use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license and indicate if changes were made.

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Authors and Affiliations

  • Joseph I. Goldstein
    • 1
  • Dale E. Newbury
    • 2
  • Joseph R. Michael
    • 3
  • Nicholas W. M. Ritchie
    • 2
  • John Henry J. Scott
    • 2
  • David C. Joy
    • 4
  1. 1.University of MassachusettsAmherstUSA
  2. 2.National Institute of Standards and TechnologyGaithersburgUSA
  3. 3.Sandia National LaboratoriesAlbuquerqueUSA
  4. 4.University of TennesseeKnoxvilleUSA

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