Characterizing Crystalline Materials in the SEM
While amorphous substances such as glass are encountered both in natural and artificial materials, most inorganic materials are found to be crystalline on some scale, ranging from sub-nanometer to centimeter or larger. A crystal consists of a regular arrangement of atoms, the so-called «unit cell,» which is repeated in a two- or three-dimensional pattern. In the previous discussion of electron beam–specimen interactions, the crystal structure of the target was not considered as a variable in the electron range equation or in the Monte Carlo electron trajectory simulation. To a first order, the crystal structure does not have a strong effect on the electron–specimen interactions. However, through the phenomenon of channeling of charged particles through the crystal lattice, crystal orientation can cause small perturbations in the total electron backscattering coefficient that can be utilized to image crystallographic microstructure through the mechanism designated «electron channeling contrast,» also referred to as «orientation contrast» (Newbury et al. 1986). The characteristics of a crystal (e.g., interplanar angles and spacings) and its relative orientation can be determined through diffraction of the high-energy backscattered electrons (BSE) to form «electron backscatter diffraction patterns (EBSD).
- El-Dasher BS, Torres SG (2009) Electron backscatter diffraction in low vacuum conditions. In: Schwarz AJ, Kumar M, Adams BL, Field DP (eds) Electron backscatter diffraction in materials science, 2nd edn. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Hirsch P, Howie A, Nicholson R, Pashley D, Whelan M (1965) Electron microscopy of thin crystals. Butterworths, London, p 85Google Scholar
- Kamaladasa R, Picard Y (2010) Basic principles and application of electron channeling in a scanning electron microscope for dislocation analysis. In: Mendez-Villas A, Diez J (eds) Microscopy: Science, Technology, applications and education. Formatex: SpainGoogle Scholar
- McKie D, McKie C (1986) Essentials of crystallography. Blackwell Scientific Publications, BostonGoogle Scholar
- Randle V (2013) Microtexture determination and its applications, 2nd edn. Maney, LondonGoogle Scholar
- Randle V, Engler O (2000) Introduction to texture analysis: macrotexture, microtexture and orientation mapping. Gordon and Breach Science Publications, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
- Rousseau JJ (1998) Basic crystallography. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Schwarzer R, Field D, Adams B, Kumar M, Schwartz A (2009) Present state of electron backscatter diffraction and prospective developments. In: Schwarz AJ, Kumar M, Adams BL, Field DP (eds) Electron backscatter diffraction in materials science, 2nd edn. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, p 1Google Scholar
- Winkelmann A (2009) Dynamical simulation of electron backscatter diffraction patterns. In: Electron backscatter diffraction in materials science. Springer US, pp 21–33Google Scholar
Open Access This chapter is licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 2.5 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.5/), which permits any noncommercial use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license and indicate if changes were made.
The images or other third party material in this chapter are included in the chapter's Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the chapter's Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.