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Variable Pressure Scanning Electron Microscopy (VPSEM)

  • Joseph I. Goldstein
  • Dale E. Newbury
  • Joseph R. Michael
  • Nicholas W. M. Ritchie
  • John Henry J. Scott
  • David C. Joy
Chapter

Abstract

The conventional SEM must operate with a pressure in the sample chamber below ~10−4 Pa (~10−6 torr), a condition determined by the need to satisfy four key instrumental operating conditions:

References

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  3. Danilatos GD (1991) Review and outline of environmental SEM at present. J Microsc 162:391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Danilatos DD (1993) Introduction to the ESEM instrument. Microsc Res Tech 25:354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Newbury D (1996) Imaging deep holes in structures with gaseous secondary electron detection in the environmental scanning electron microscope. Scanning 18:474CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media LLC 2018

Open Access This chapter is licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 2.5 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.5/), which permits any noncommercial use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license and indicate if changes were made.

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Authors and Affiliations

  • Joseph I. Goldstein
    • 1
  • Dale E. Newbury
    • 2
  • Joseph R. Michael
    • 3
  • Nicholas W. M. Ritchie
    • 2
  • John Henry J. Scott
    • 2
  • David C. Joy
    • 4
  1. 1.University of MassachusettsAmherstUSA
  2. 2.National Institute of Standards and TechnologyGaithersburgUSA
  3. 3.Sandia National LaboratoriesAlbuquerqueUSA
  4. 4.University of TennesseeKnoxvilleUSA

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