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Low Beam Energy SEM

  • Joseph I. Goldstein
  • Dale E. Newbury
  • Joseph R. Michael
  • Nicholas W. M. Ritchie
  • John Henry J. Scott
  • David C. Joy
Chapter

Abstract

The incident beam energy is one of the most useful parameters over which the microscopist has control because it determines the lateral and depth sampling of the specimen properties by the critical imaging signals. The Kanaya–Okayama electron range varies strongly with the incident beam energy:
$$ {R}_{K-O}(nm)=\left(27.6\ A/{Z}^{0.89}\rho \right){E_0}^{1.67} $$
where A is the atomic weight (g/mol), Z is the atomic number, ρ is the density (g/cm3), and E0 (keV) is the incident beam energy, which is shown graphically in Fig. 11.1a–c.

Supplementary material

271173_4_En_11_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (1.8 mb)
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media LLC 2018

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Authors and Affiliations

  • Joseph I. Goldstein
    • 1
  • Dale E. Newbury
    • 2
  • Joseph R. Michael
    • 3
  • Nicholas W. M. Ritchie
    • 2
  • John Henry J. Scott
    • 2
  • David C. Joy
    • 4
  1. 1.University of MassachusettsAmherstUSA
  2. 2.National Institute of Standards and TechnologyGaithersburgUSA
  3. 3.Sandia National LaboratoriesAlbuquerqueUSA
  4. 4.University of TennesseeKnoxvilleUSA

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