Dreaming and Sleep Disorder

  • James F. Pagel
  • Seithikurippu R. Pandi-Perumal
Chapter

Abstract

The field of sleep medicine has contributed the aspect of empirical validity to the study of dreaming, a field long dominated by speculative theories based on anecdotal case reports. One aspect of this attempt toward clarity has been the classification and development of consistent definitions for the topic as well as for the phenomenology on which those definitions are based. Much of the recent history of dream research has been an exploration into the electrophysiology, neurochemistry, and neuroanatomy of REM sleep. Yet today, except when addressing nightmares, it is unclear as to whether any special relationship exists between dreaming and REM sleep. Different forms of dreaming occur in all stages of sleep, with dream mentation associated with many of the parasomnias. A spectrum of complex, yet difficult to control variables affects studies of dream content; however, the variables affecting dream recall are well defined. Today, the most pressing issue concerning dreaming for the field of sleep medicine involves questions as to the role of nightmares in the pathophysiology and therapy of post-traumatic stress disorder.

Keywords

REM NREM OSA PTSD Dream Rapid eye movement sleep Sleep-onset dreaming Arousal disorders Lucid dreaming Insomnia Mentation Nightmare Parasomnia Somnambulism Obstructive sleep apnea Psychiatric disorders Sleep 

References

  1. 1.
    Buckley K (2009) Dreaming and the worlds’ religions (Chapter 4). New York University Press, New York, p 344Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Plato. Theaetetus, R (1987) Wakefield (trans.) Penguin Books, p 272Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Descartes R (1641) Objections against the meditations and replies. In: Adler MJ (ed) Great books of the western world: Bacon, Descartes and Spinoza (1993). Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc, Chicago ILGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Scarry E (1987) The body in pain—the making and unmaking of the world. Oxford University Press, New York, p 400Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Freud S (1953) The interpretation of dreams. In: Strachey J (ed) The standard editions of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud, vol IV and V (1907). Hogarth Press, London, EnglandGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dement W, Vaughan C (1999) A short and personal history of sleep research. In: The promise of sleep. A Dell Trade Paperback, New York, pp 27–50Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    McCarley R, Hobson J (1975) Neuronal excitability modulation over the sleep cycle: a structural and mathematical model. Science 189:58–60CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hobson J, Pace-Schott E, Stickgold R (2003) Dreaming and the brain: toward a cognitive neuroscience of conscious states. In: Pace-Schott E, Solms M, Blagrove M, Harnad S (eds) Sleep and dreaming: scientific advances and reconsiderations. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, p 1–50Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Pagel J (2014) Dream science: exploring the forms of consciousness. Academic Press, Oxford, p 244Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Pagel J (1999) A dream can be gazpacho. Dreamtime 16:6–8Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Pagel JF, Blagrove M, Levin R, States B, Stickgold B, White S (2001) Defining dreaming—A paradigm for comparing disciplinary specific definitions of dream. Dreaming 11(4):195–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Pace-Schott EF (2003) Postscript: recent findings on the neurobiology of sleep and dreaming. In: Pace-Schott EF, Solms M, Blagrove M, Harnard S (eds) Sleep and dreaming: scientific advances and reconsiderations. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 335–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Moraes W, Poyares D, Guilleminault C, Ramos L, Bertolucci H, Tufik S (2006) The effect of donepezil on sleep and REM sleep EEG in patients with Alzheimer disease: a double-blind placebo-controlled study. Sleep 29:199–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Yuschak T (2006) Advanced lucid dreaming: the power of supplements. Lulu Enterprizes, p 196Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Stumbrys T, Erlacher D, Schädlich M, Schredl M (2012) Induction of lucid dreams: a systematic review of evidence. Conscious Cogn 21:1456–1475CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Pagel JF, Helfter P (2003) Drug induced nightmares—an etiology based review. Hum Psychopahrmacol Clin Exp 18:59–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Fotsch E (2013) Physicians desk reference, 67th edn. PDR Network, Montvale, NJ, pp 1910–1915Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Seda G et al (2015) Comparative meta-analysis of prazosin and imagery rehearsal therapy for nightmare frequency, sleep quality, and posttraumatic stress. J Clin Sleep Med 11:7–18Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Foulks D (1985) Dreaming: a cognitive-psychological analysis. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, p 232Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Solms M (2003) Dreaming and REM sleep are controlled by different brain mechanisms. In: Pace-Schott E, Solms M, Blagrove M, Harnad S (eds) Sleep and dreaming: scientific advances and reconsiderations. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 51–58Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Domhoff G (2003) The scientific study of dreams: neural networks, cognitive development and content analysis. American Psychological Association, Washington, D.C., p 209Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Nielsen T (2003) A review of mentation in REM and NREM sleep: “covert” REM sleep as a possible reconciliation of two opposing models. In: Pace-Schott E, Solms M, Blagrove M, Harnad S (eds) Sleep and dreaming: scientific advances and reconsiderations, pp 59–74Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hobson JA (1997) Dreaming as delirium: a mental status analysis of our nightly madness. Semin Neurol 17:121–128CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Holzinger B, LaBerge S, Levitan L (2006) Psychophysiological correlates of lucid dreaming. Dreaming 16(88–9):5Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hall CS, Van de Castle RL (1966) The content analysis of dreams. Appleton- Century-Crofts, New York, p 320Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hobson J, Hoffman S, Helfand R, Kostner D (1987) Dream bizarreness and the activation synthesis hypothesis. Hum Neurobiol 6:157–164PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hunt H (1989) The multiplicity of dreams. Yale University Press, pp 223–224Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    LaBerge S (1985) Lucid dreaming. JP Tarcher, Los Angeles. ISBN 0-87477-342-3Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Dressler M, Wehrle R, Spoormaker V et al (2012) Neural correlates of dream lucidity obtained from contrasting lucid versus non-lucid REM sleep: a combined EEG/fMRI case study. Sleep 35:1017–1020Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Voss U, Holzmann R, Tuin I, Hobson JA (2009) Lucid dreaming: a state of consciousness with features of both waking and non-lucid dreaming. Sleep 32:1191–1200CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Domhoff GW, Schneider A (1999) Much ado about very little: the small effect sizes when home and laboratory collected dreams are compared. Dreaming 9:139–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Stickgold R, Malia A, Fosse R, Propper R, Hobson JA (2001) Brain-mind states: I. Longitudinal field study of sleep/wake factors influencing mentation report length. Sleep 24:171–179CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    States BO (1994) Authorship in dreams and fictions. Dreaming 4:237–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Zadra A, Donderi D (2000) Nightmares and bad dreams: their prevalence and relationship to well-being. J Abnorm Psychol 109:273–281CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Levin R, Nielsen T (2007) Disturbed dreaming, posttraumatic stress disorder, and affect distress: a review and neurocognitive model. Psychol Bull 133:482–528CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    American Academy of Sleep Medicine (2014) The international classification of sleep disorders, 3rd edn. American Academy of Sleep Medicine, Darien. ISBN-10: 0991543416; ISBN-13: 978-0991543410Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Schenck C, Mahowald M (2002) REM sleep behavior disorder: clinical, developmental and neuroscience perspectives 16 years after its formal identification in SLEEP. Sleep 25:120–138CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Wolman R, Kozmova M (2006) Last night I had the strangest dream: varieties of rational thought processes in dream report. Conscious Cogn 16(4):838–849CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Ohayon MM (2000) Prevalence of hallucinations and their pathological associations in the general population. Psychiatry Res 97:153–164CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Horikawa T, Tamaki M, Miyawaki Y, Kamitani Y (2014) Neural decoding of visual imagery during sleep. Science 340:639–642CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Nielsen T (1999) Mentation during sleep. The NREM/REM distinction. In: Lydic R, Baghdoyan A (eds) Handbook of behavioral state control. Cellular and molecular mechanisms. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Horvitz S, Braun A, Carr W, Picchioni D, Balkin T, Fukunaga M, Duyn J (2009) Decoupling of the brain’s default mode network during deep sleep. PNAS 106:11376–11381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Koukkou M, Lehmann D (1983) Dreaming: the functional state-shift hypothesis, a neuropsychophysiological model. Br J Psychiatry 142:221–231CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    American Academy of Sleep Medicine (2005) The arousal disorders. In: The international classification of sleep disorders—diagnostic and coding manual (ICD-1l). American Academy of Sleep Medicine, Westchester, pp 137–147Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Goodenough D (1991) Dream recall: history and current status of the field. In: Ellman SJ, Antrobus JS (eds) The mind in sleep. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Kuiken D, Sikora S (1993) The impact of dreams on waking thoughts and feelings. In: Moffitt A, Kramer M, Hoffman R (eds) The functions of dreaming. State University of New York Press, Albany, pp 419–476Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Pagel JF, Kwiatkowski CF (2003) Creativity and dreaming: correlation of reported dream incorporation into awake behavior with level and type of creative interest. Creativity Res J 15:199–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Hartmann E (1994) Nightmares and other dreams. In: Kryger M, Roth T, Dement W (eds) Principles and practice of sleep medicine, 2nd edn. W. B. Saunders, London, pp 407–410Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Pagel JF (2008) The limits of dream—a scientific exploration of the mind/brain interface. Academic Press (Elsiever), Oxford, p 250. ISBN-10: 0080975933; ISBN-13: 978-0080975931Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Kramer M (2007) The dream experience: a systematic exploration. Routledge, New York, p 264. ISBN-10: 0415954460; ISBN-13: 978-0415954464Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Solms M (1997) The neuropsychology of dreams: a clinico-anatomical study. L. Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, p 312Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Pagel JF (2003) Non-dreamers. Sleep Med 4:235–241CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Smith C (2010) Sleep states, memory processing, and dreams. Dreaming and nightmares. Sleep Med Clin 5(2):217–228 (Pagel JF (ed), Saunders/Elsevier. Philadelphia)Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Fisher HL, Lereya ST, Thompson A, Lewis G, Zammit S, Wolke D (2014) Childhood parasomnias and psychotic experiences at age 12 in a United Kingdom birth cohort. Sleep 37:475–482CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Pagel JF, Shocknasse S (2007) Dreaming and insomnia: polysomnographic correlates of reported dream recall frequency. Dreaming 17:140–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Krakow B, Melendrez D, Pedersen B et al (2001) Complex insomnia: insomnia and sleep-disordered breathing in a consecutive series of crime victims with nightmares and PTSD. Biol Psychiatry 49:948–953CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Pagel JF (2010) The nightmares of sleep apnea: nightmare frequency declines with increasing apnea hypopnea index (AHI). J Clin Sleep Med 6:69–74PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Ross R, Ball W, Sullivan K, Caroff S (1989) Dream disturbance as the hallmark of post-traumatic stress disorder. Am J Psychiatry 146:697–707CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Schredl M (2010) Do sleep disorders affect the dreaming process? Dream recall and dream content in patients with sleep disorders. In: Pagel JF (ed) Dreaming and nightmares, sleep medicine clinics 5(2). Saunders/Elsevier, Philadelphia, pp 193–202Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Freud S (1916/1951) Beyond the pleasure principle, vol 18, Standard edn. (Trans., Strachey J ed.). London, HogarthGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Lavie P (2001) Sleep disturbances in the wake of traumatic events. New Engl J Med 345:1825–1832CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Hartmann E (1998) Nightmare after trauma as a paradigm for all dreams: a new approach to the nature and functions of dreaming. Psychiatry 61:223–238CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Maren S, Quirk G (2004) Neuronal signaling of fear memory. Nat Rev Neurosci 5:844–852CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Aurora RN, Zak RS, Auerbach SH et al (2010) Best practice guide for the treatment of nightmare disorder in adults. J Clin Sleep Med 6:389–401PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Santiago P, Uiasao R, Gray C et al (2013) A systematic review of PTSD prevalence and trajectories in DSM-5 defined trauma exposed populations: intentional and non-intentional traumatic events. PLoS ONE 8:e59236CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Pagel JF (2015) Treating nightmares—sleep medicine and posttraumatic stress disorder, commentary on Seda et al. Comparative meta-analysis of prazosin and imagery rehearsal therapy for nightmare frequency, sleep quality, and posttraumatic stress. J Clin Sleep Med 11:5–6Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Pagel JF (2010) Preface. Dreaming and nightmares. Sleep Med Clin 5(2) (Saunders/Elsevier, Philadelphia)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • James F. Pagel
    • 1
  • Seithikurippu R. Pandi-Perumal
    • 2
  1. 1.Rocky Mt. Sleep University of Colorado School of MedicinePuebloUSA
  2. 2.Somnogen Canada IncTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations