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This chapter describes how Raman spectroscopy may be used in the analysis of pharmaceutical problems. The basic ideas around the technique are discussed along with some of the key issues in measuring Raman spectra that may be relevant to pharmaceutical samples. The limitations and strengths of different instruments (dispersive and Fourier-transform) are described. The use of Raman spectroscopy is highlighted in a number of case studies that utilize multivariate techniques; polymorphism, drug delivery and counterfeit drug studies are described. Finally, new technologies that are set to further enhance Raman spectroscopy as a method for analysis, such as low frequency Raman, spatially offset Raman scattering, transmission Raman and spatial heterodyne Raman spectroscopy are discussed.