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Genome Editing pp 161-186 | Cite as

Using Engineered Nucleases to Create HIV-Resistant Cells

  • George Nicholas Llewellyn
  • Colin M. Exline
  • Nathalia Holt
  • Paula M. CannonEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB)

Abstract

HIV-1/AIDS is often considered a priority disease in the development of genetic and cell based therapies because of the high burden imposed by current treatments, which require life-long adherence to antiretroviral drug regimens. Engineered nucleases have the capability to either disrupt a specific gene, or to promote precise gene edits or additions at the targeted gene. As one application for the gene disruption capabilities of the nucleases, HIV-1 infection provides an exceptional target in the CCR5 gene. This is the most commonly used entry co-receptor through which the virus enters into CD4+ T cells. Importantly, the loss of CCR5 is expected to be well-tolerated, since a relatively high percentage of individuals are naturally homozygous for a defective CCR5 allele. As a result, CCR5 disruption by zinc finger nuclease treatment of autologous T cells was the first-in-man use of engineered nucleases. Future applications to refine this therapy may include disrupting CCR5 in precursor hematopoietic stem cells, the additional disruption of the alternate HIV-1 co-receptor, CXCR4, in T cells, and the addition of other anti-HIV genes at a disrupted CCR5 locus to provide a combinatorial therapy. Finally, the gene disrupting actions of engineered nucleases could also be harnessed to inactivate the integrated HIV-1 genomes that persist in patients’ cells despite drug therapy, and which thereby prevent the complete eradication of the virus by drug treatments.

Keywords

Homology directed repair (HDR) Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) Non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) TAL effector nuclease (TALENs) Zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We gratefully acknowledge the expertise of our collaborators at Sangamo BioSciences, including Michael Holmes, Jianbin Wang and Philip Gregory, and thank Liz Wolffe for her help compiling Table 1. This work was supported by the James B. Pendleton Charitable Trust, NIH grants HL073104, AI110149 and HL129902, and the California HIV/AIDS Research Program grant ID12-USC-245.

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Copyright information

© American Society of Gene and Cell Therapy 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • George Nicholas Llewellyn
    • 1
  • Colin M. Exline
    • 1
  • Nathalia Holt
    • 1
  • Paula M. Cannon
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Molecular Microbiology and ImmunologyKeck School of Medicine, University of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA

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