Overview and Translational Impact of Space Cell Biology Research
Space life sciences research is critical to preparation for long-duration space exploration. It is expected that this research will increase our knowledge of basic biological processes, and provide insight into critical mechanisms for treatment of various medical conditions in space and here on Earth. The study of terrestrial organisms and human cells in space poses many challenges, but offers unique opportunities that may be infrequent in ground-based research settings.
Cell biology and microbiology provide windows into terrestrial living systems for much of the basic and applied research in the biological sciences today. As we proceed into the next phase of spaceflight and exploration wherein humans will travel beyond low Earth orbit and even beyond the solar system, it is essential that we understand the impact of hypogravity and the space environment on life. Cells and microbes offer an expeditious and cost effective tool to begin addressing the critical questions on the adaptation of terrestrial life to space and planetary environments. Animal experiments can have extensive design, hardware, time, and personnel requirements. In the beginning, while resources are precious, we can avail ourselves of the technology to study microbial cells and mammalian cell and tissue culture models in spaceflight. Likewise, this is a great opportunity to embark on spaceflight studies to understand the role of physical forces in the form and function of life. Investigations into the response of cells during microgravity and ground-based microgravity analogue culture have and will continue to unveil novel biomedically relevant responses that may not be observed using conventional experimental approaches. Indeed, significant discoveries in biological research and translational advancements to the healthcare setting are achieved through study of the response of biological systems to extreme environments. The spaceflight and ground-based spaceflight analogue environments are no exception. The intent of this book is to emphasize the immeasurable opportunity of these innovative research platforms to fundamentally advance our understanding of how human and microbial cells behave normally or transition to disease-causing phenotypes and the potential for translation of these findings into novel strategies to advance human health and quality of life on Earth and for space exploration.
As the intensive investigative phase of cell biology and microbiology in spaceflight research and the parallel development research technologies continues to be advanced in terms of its capabilities, modularity, and experimental flexibility, it is essential that we establish a research plan consist with attaining answers to the key questions that are critical for safe missions in the hostile environment beyond Earth. Indeed, evolution has not designed a proscribed format for the adaptation of terrestrial life to microgravity. As we observe terrestrial life transition to space over the next century, we will gain useful insight into the role of gravitational as well as other forces in life processes. Furthermore, cell-based research will afford new opportunities to understand how life operates in these conditions, and give new fundamental mechanistic insight into disease processes beneficial to explorers and to the general public.
This chapter will discuss the implementation of cell and tissue culture models and microbial cell culture technology and prepare us for an era of biology with an emphasis on the impact of physical forces on terrestrial life.
KeywordsMicrobiology Cell biology Microgravity Ground-based microgravity analogue culture Cell culture technology Adaptation
The author acknowledges the steadfast dedication and expertise of Universities Space Research Association employee Mildred D. Young in the preparation of the manuscript.
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