Effect of the Antioxidant Supplement Pyrroloquinoline Quinone Disodium Salt (BioPQQ™) on Cognitive Functions

  • Yuji Itoh
  • Kyoko Hine
  • Hiroshi Miura
  • Tatsuo Uetake
  • Masahiko NakanoEmail author
  • Naohiro Takemura
  • Kaoru Sakatani
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 876)


Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is a quinone compound first identified in 1979. It has been reported that rats fed a PQQ-supplemented diet showed better learning ability than controls, suggesting that PQQ may be useful for improving memory in humans. In the present study, a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded study to examine the effect of PQQ disodium salt (BioPQQ™) on cognitive functions was conducted with 41 elderly healthy subjects. Subjects were orally given 20 mg of BioPQQ™ per day or placebo, for 12 weeks. For cognitive functions, selective attention by the Stroop and reverse Stroop test, and visual-spatial cognitive function by the laptop tablet Touch M, were evaluated. In the Stroop test, the change of Stroop interference ratios (SIs) for the PQQ group was significantly smaller than for the placebo group. In the Touch M test, the stratification analyses dividing each group into two groups showed that only in the lower group of the PQQ group (initial score < 70), did the score significantly increase. Measurements of physiological parameters indicated no abnormal blood or urinary adverse events, nor adverse internal or physical examination findings at any point in the study. The preliminary experiment using near-infrared spectrometry (NIRS) suggests that cerebral blood flow in the prefrontal cortex was increased by the administration of PQQ. The results suggest that PQQ can prevent reduction of brain function in aged persons, especially in attention and working memory.


PQQ Brain Memory Attention Supplement 



This research was supported in part by a Grant-in-Aid from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan (Grant-in-Aid for Exploratory Research 25560356), and grants from Alpha Electron Co., Ltd. (Fukushima, Japan) and Iing Co., Ltd. (Tokyo, Japan).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yuji Itoh
    • 1
  • Kyoko Hine
    • 1
  • Hiroshi Miura
    • 1
  • Tatsuo Uetake
    • 2
  • Masahiko Nakano
    • 3
    Email author
  • Naohiro Takemura
    • 4
  • Kaoru Sakatani
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyKeio UniversityTokyoJapan
  2. 2.CX Medical Japan Co., Inc.TokyoJapan
  3. 3.Niigata Research Laboratory, Mitsubishi Gas Chemical Co., Inc.NiigataJapan
  4. 4.Department of Electrical and Electronics EngineeringLaboratory of Integrative Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, Nihon UniversityTokyoJapan
  5. 5.Department of Neurological Surgery, School of MedicineNihon UniversityTokyoJapan

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