Contraceptive Counseling in Obese Women

  • Colleen McNicholasEmail author
  • Rachel Zigler
  • Tessa Madden


Obesity continues to be a problem worldwide and is more commonly surfacing in young reproductive-age women. In obese reproductive-age women, effective contraceptive counseling can be difficult but is critical as pregnancy can carry serious maternal and neonatal morbidities. The high association of medical comorbidities makes individualized counseling essential. Several tools have been developed to assist clinicians in counseling these women. Ensuring obese women are using the most effective methods of contraception will help reduce unintended pregnancy, and subsequently obesity-related morbidities in this population.


Contraception Obesity LARC Bariatric 


  1. 1.
    Crane JM, Murphy P, Burrage L, Hutchens D. Maternal and perinatal outcomes of extreme obesity in pregnancy. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2013;35(7):606–11. PubMed PMID: 23876637.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Scott-Pillai R, Spence D, Cardwell CR, Hunter A, Holmes VA. The impact of body mass index on maternal and neonatal outcomes: a retrospective study in a UK obstetric population, 2004-2011. BJOG. 2013;120(8):932–9. PubMed PMID: 23530609.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Minsart AF, Buekens P, De Spiegelaere M, Englert Y. Neonatal outcomes in obese mothers: a population-based analysis. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2013;13. PubMed PMID: 23398843. Pubmed Central PMCID: 3575268.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cnattingius S, Villamor E, Johansson S, Edstedt Bonamy AK, Persson M, Wikstrom AK, et al. Maternal obesity and risk of preterm delivery. JAMA. 2013;309(22):2362–70. PubMed PMID: 23757084.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. ACOG Committee opinion no. 549: obesity in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2013;121(1):213–7. PubMed PMID: 23262963.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Curtis KM, Tepper NK, Marchbanks PA. Putting risk into perspective: the US medical eligibility criteria for contraceptive use. Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2011;12(2):119–25. PubMed PMID: 21541854.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Division of Reproductive Health NCfCDP, Health Promotion CfDC, Prevention. U.S. Selected Practice Recommendations for Contraceptive Use, 2013: adapted from the World Health Organization selected practice recommendations for contraceptive use, 2nd edition. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2013;62(RR-05):1–60. PubMed PMID: 23784109.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lessard LN, Karasek D, Ma S, Darney P, Deardorff J, Lahiff M, et al. Contraceptive features preferred by women at high risk of unintended pregnancy. Perspect Sex Reprod Health. 2012;44(3):194–200. PubMed PMID: 22958664.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Grimes DA, Shields WC. Family planning for obese women: challenges and opportunities. Contraception. 2005;72(1):1–4. PubMed PMID: 15964284.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Trussell J, Schwarz EB, Guthrie K. Obesity and oral contraceptive pill failure. Contraception. 2009;79(5):334–8. PubMed PMID: 19341843. Pubmed Central PMCID: 3638205.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mornar S, Chan LN, Mistretta S, Neustadt A, Martins S, Gilliam M. Pharmacokinetics of the etonogestrel contraceptive implant in obese women. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2012;207(2):110 e1–6. PubMed PMID: 22717269.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Society of Family Planning, Higginbotham S. Contraceptive considerations in obese women: release date 1 September 2009, SFP Guideline 20091. Contraception. 2009;80(6):583–90. PubMed PMID: 19913155.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Segall-Gutierrez P, Taylor D, Liu X, Stanzcyk F, Azen S, Mishell Jr DR. Follicular development and ovulation in extremely obese women receiving depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate subcutaneously. Contraception. 2010;81(6):487–95. PubMed PMID: 20472115.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Westhoff CL, Torgal AH, Mayeda ER, Petrie K, Thomas T, Dragoman M, et al. Pharmacokinetics and ovarian suppression during use of a contraceptive vaginal ring in normal-weight and obese women. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2012;207:39.e1–6. PubMed PMID: 22727346. Pubmed Central PMCID: 3403702.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    McNicholas C, Zhao Q, Secura G, Allsworth JE, Madden T, Peipert JF. Contraceptive failures in overweight and obese combined hormonal contraceptive users. Obstet Gynecol. 2013;121(3):585–92. PubMed PMID: 23635622.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Xu H, Wade JA, Peipert JF, Zhao Q, Madden T, Secura GM. Contraceptive failure rates of etonogestrel subdermal implants in overweight and obese women. Obstet Gynecol. 2012;120(1):21–6. PubMed PMID: 22678035.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Blokhin IO, Lentz SR. Mechanisms of thrombosis in obesity. Curr Opin Hematol. 2013;20(5):437–44. PubMed PMID: 23817170.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hatcher R, Trussel J, Nelson A, Cates W, Kowal D, Policar M. Contraceptive technology. 20th ed. New York: Ardent Media; 2011.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Andersson JK, Rybo G. Levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device in the treatment of menorrhagia. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1990;97(8):690–4. PubMed PMID: 2119218.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Baldaszti E, Wimmer-Puchinger B, Loschke K. Acceptability of the long-term contraceptive levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (Mirena): a 3-year follow-up study. Contraception. 2003;67(2):87–91. PubMed PMID: 12586318.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hidalgo M, Bahamondes L, Perrotti M, Diaz J, Dantas-Monteiro C, Petta C. Bleeding patterns and clinical performance of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (Mirena) up to two years. Contraception. 2002;65(2):129–32. PubMed PMID: 11927115.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Stoegerer-Hecher E, Kirchengast S, Huber JC, Hartmann B. Amenorrhea and BMI as independent determinants of patient satisfaction in LNG-IUD users: cross-sectional study in a Central European district. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2012;28(2):119–24. PubMed PMID: 21848413.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Wildemeersch D, Anderson E, Lambein K, Pauwels P, Dhont M. Successful treatment of early endometrial carcinoma by local delivery of levonorgestrel: a case report. Obstet Gynecol Int. 2010;2010:431950. PubMed PMID: 20981240. Pubmed Central PMCID: 2963141.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Benshushan A, Paltiel O, Rojansky N, Brzezinski A, Laufer N. IUD use and the risk of endometrial cancer. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2002;105(2):166–9. PubMed PMID: 12381481.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Orbo A, Arnes M, Hancke C, Vereide AB, Pettersen I, Larsen K. Treatment results of endometrial hyperplasia after prospective D-score classification: a follow-up study comparing effect of LNG-IUD and oral progestins versus observation only. Gynecol Oncol. 2008;111(1):68–73. PubMed PMID: 18684496.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Minig L, Franchi D, Boveri S, Casadio C, Bocciolone L, Sideri M. Progestin intrauterine device and GnRH analogue for uterus-sparing treatment of endometrial precancers and well-differentiated early endometrial carcinoma in young women. Ann Oncol. 2011;22(3):643–9. PubMed PMID: 20876910.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Brown AJ, Westin SN, Broaddus RR, Schmeler K. Progestin intrauterine device in an adolescent with grade 2 endometrial cancer. Obstet Gynecol. 2012;119(2 Pt 2):423–6. PubMed PMID: 22270425. Pubmed Central PMCID: 3266511.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Trussell J, Lalla AM, Doan QV, Reyes E, Pinto L, Gricar J. Cost effectiveness of contraceptives in the United States. Contraception. 2009;79(1):5–14. PubMed PMID: 19041435. Pubmed Central PMCID: 3638200.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Alvarez F, Brache V, Fernandez E, Guerrero B, Guiloff E, Hess R, et al. New insights on the mode of action of intrauterine contraceptive devices in women. Fertil Steril. 1988;49(5):768–73. PubMed PMID: 3360166.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Veldhuis HM, Vos AG, Lagro-Janssen AL. Complications of the intrauterine device in nulliparous and parous women. Eur J Gen Pract. 2004;10(3):82–7. PubMed PMID: 15534571.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Group ECW. Intrauterine devices and intrauterine systems. Hum Reprod Update. 2008;14(3):197–208. PubMed PMID: 18400840.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Mechanism of action, safety and efficacy of intrauterine devices. Report of a WHO Scientific Group. World Health Organization technical report series. 1987;753:1–91. PubMed PMID: 3118580.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Sezer SD, Odabasi AR, Kucuk M, Yuksel H. Lost intrauterine contraceptive device inserted 42 years before: a case report. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 2011;38(1):90–3. PubMed PMID: 21485737.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Markovitch O, Klein Z, Gidoni Y, Holzinger M, Beyth Y. Extrauterine mislocated IUD: is surgical removal mandatory? Contraception. 2002;66(2):105–8. PubMed PMID: 12204783.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Haimov-Kochman R, Doviner V, Amsalem H, Prus D, Adoni A, Lavy Y. Intraperitoneal levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device following uterine perforation: the role of progestins in adhesion formation. Hum Reprod. 2003;18(5):990–3. PubMed PMID: 12721174.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Van den Bosch T, Donders GG, Riphagen I, Debois P, Ameye L, De Brabanter J, et al. Ultrasonographic features of the endometrium and the ovaries in women on etonogestrel implant. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2002;20(4):377–80. PubMed PMID: 12383321.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Ciangura C, Corigliano N, Basdevant A, Mouly S, Decleves X, Touraine P, et al. Etonorgestrel concentrations in morbidly obese women following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery: three case reports. Contraception. 2011;84(6):649–51. PubMed PMID: 22078197.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    McNicholas C, Maddipati R, Swor E, Zhao Q, Peipert JF. Use of the Etonogestrel Implant and Levonorgestrel Intrauterine Device Beyond the U.S. Food and Drug Administration-Approved Duration. Obstet Gynecol. 2015;125(3):599–604.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Weisberg E, Hickey M, Palmer D, O’Connor V, Salamonsen LA, Findlay JK, et al. A randomized controlled trial of treatment options for troublesome uterine bleeding in Implanon users. Hum Reprod. 2009;24(8):1852–61. PubMed PMID: 19369294. Pubmed Central PMCID: 2710284.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Petta CA, Faundes A, Dunson TR, Ramos M, DeLucio M, Faundes D, et al. Timing of onset of contraceptive effectiveness in Depo-Provera users. II Effects on ovarian function. Fertil Steril. 1998;70(5):817–20. PubMed PMID: 9806559.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Petta CA, Faundes A, Dunson TR, Ramos M, DeLucio M, Faundes D, et al. Timing of onset of contraceptive effectiveness in Depo-Provera users: part I. Changes in cervical mucus. Fertil Steril. 1998;69(2):252–7. PubMed PMID: 9496338.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Croxatto HB. Mechanisms that explain the contraceptive action of progestin implants for women. Contraception. 2002;65(1):21–7. PubMed PMID: 11861052.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Mishell Jr DR. Pharmacokinetics of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate contraception. J Reprod Med. 1996;41(5 Suppl):381–90. PubMed PMID: 8725700.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Winner B, Peipert JF, Zhao Q, Buckel C, Madden T, Allsworth JE, et al. Effectiveness of long-acting reversible contraception. N Engl J Med. 2012;366(21):1998–2007. PubMed PMID: 22621627.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Jain J, Dutton C, Nicosia A, Wajszczuk C, Bode FR, Mishell Jr DR. Pharmacokinetics, ovulation suppression and return to ovulation following a lower dose subcutaneous formulation of Depo-Provera. Contraception. 2004;70(1):11–8. PubMed PMID: 15208047.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Bulletins-Gynecology ACoP. ACOG practice bulletin. No. 73: use of hormonal contraception in women with coexisting medical conditions. Obstet Gynecol. 2006;107(6):1453–72. PubMed PMID: 16738183.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Schwallie PC, Assenzo JR. Contraceptive use—efficacy study utilizing medroxyprogesterone acetate administered as an intramuscular injection once every 90 days. Fertil Steril. 1973;24(5):331–9. PubMed PMID: 4698589.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Belsey EM. Vaginal bleeding patterns among women using one natural and eight hormonal methods of contraception. Contraception. 1988;38(2):181–206. PubMed PMID: 2971505.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. The WHO Collaborative Study of Neoplasia and Steroid Contraceptives. Int J Cancer. 1991;49(2):191–5.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) and risk of endometrial cancer. The WHO Collaborative Study of Neoplasia and Steroid Contraceptives. Int J Cancer. 1991;49(2):186–90.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Bonny AE, Ziegler J, Harvey R, Debanne SM, Secic M, Cromer BA. Weight gain in obese and nonobese adolescent girls initiating depot medroxyprogesterone, oral contraceptive pills, or no hormonal contraceptive method. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2006;160(1):40–5. PubMed PMID: 16389209.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Curtis KM, Ravi A, Gaffield ML. Progestogen-only contraceptive use in obese women. Contraception. 2009;80(4):346–54. PubMed PMID: 19751857.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Mangan SA, Larsen PG, Hudson S. Overweight teens at increased risk for weight gain while using depot medroxyprogesterone acetate. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2002;15(2):79–82. PubMed PMID: 12057528.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Cundy T, Cornish J, Roberts H, Elder H, Reid IR. Spinal bone density in women using depot medroxyprogesterone contraception. Obstet Gynecol. 1998;92(4 Pt 1):569–73. PubMed PMID: 9764630.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Scholes D, LaCroix AZ, Ichikawa LE, Barlow WE, Ott SM. Injectable hormone contraception and bone density: results from a prospective study. Epidemiology. 2002;13(5):581–7. PubMed PMID: 12192229.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Scholes D, LaCroix AZ, Ichikawa LE, Barlow WE, Ott SM. Change in bone mineral density among adolescent women using and discontinuing depot medroxyprogesterone acetate contraception. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2005;159(2):139–44. PubMed PMID: 15699307.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Clark MK, Sowers MR, Nichols S, Levy B. Bone mineral density changes over two years in first-time users of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate. Fertil Steril. 2004;82(6):1580–6. PubMed PMID: 15589863.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Mosher WD, Jones J. Use of contraception in the United States: 1982-2008. Vital Health Stat. 2010;23(29):1–44. PubMed PMID: 20939159.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Edelman AB, Carlson NE, Cherala G, Munar MY, Stouffer RL, Cameron JL, et al. Impact of obesity on oral contraceptive pharmacokinetics and hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian activity. Contraception. 2009;80(2):119–27. PubMed PMID: 19631786. Pubmed Central PMCID: 2736633.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Westhoff CL, Torgal AH, Mayeda ER, Pike MC, Stanczyk FZ. Pharmacokinetics of a combined oral contraceptive in obese and normal-weight women. Contraception. 2010;81(6):474–80. PubMed PMID: 20472113. Pubmed Central PMCID: 3522459.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Westhoff CL, Torgal AH, Mayeda ER, Stanczyk FZ, Lerner JP, Benn EK, et al. Ovarian suppression in normal-weight and obese women during oral contraceptive use: a randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol. 2010;116(2 Pt 1):275–83. PubMed PMID: 20664386.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Zieman M, Guillebaud J, Weisberg E, Shangold GA, Fisher AC, Creasy GW. Contraceptive efficacy and cycle control with the Ortho Evra/Evra transdermal system: the analysis of pooled data. Fertil Steril. 2002;77(2 Suppl 2):S13–8. PubMed PMID: 11849631.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Dragoman M, Petrie K, Torgal A, Thomas T, Cremers S, Westhoff CL. Contraceptive vaginal ring effectiveness is maintained during 6 weeks of use: a prospective study of normal BMI and obese women. Contraception. 2013;87(4):432–6. PubMed PMID: 23312933. Pubmed Central PMCID: 3606661.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Dinger JC, Cronin M, Mohner S, Schellschmidt I, Minh TD, Westhoff C. Oral contraceptive effectiveness according to body mass index, weight, age, and other factors. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2009;201(3):263.e1–9. PubMed PMID: 19481720.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Holt VL, Cushing-Haugen KL, Daling JR. Body weight and risk of oral contraceptive failure. Obstet Gynecol. 2002;99(5 Pt 1):820–7. PubMed PMID: 11978293.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Holt VL, Scholes D, Wicklund KG, Cushing-Haugen KL, Daling JR. Body mass index, weight, and oral contraceptive failure risk. Obstet Gynecol. 2005;105(1):46–52. PubMed PMID: 15625141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Brunner LR, Hogue CJ. The role of body weight in oral contraceptive failure: results from the 1995 national survey of family growth. Ann Epidemiol. 2005;15(7):492–9. PubMed PMID: 16029841.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Lopez LM, Grimes DA, Gallo MF, Schulz KF. Skin patch and vaginal ring versus combined oral contraceptives for contraception. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008;(1):CD003552. PubMed PMID: 18254023.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Heit JA, Kobbervig CE, James AH, Petterson TM, Bailey KR, Melton 3rd LJ. Trends in the incidence of venous thromboembolism during pregnancy or postpartum: a 30-year population-based study. Ann Intern Med. 2005;143(10):697–706. PubMed PMID: 16287790.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    McCann MF, Potter LS. Progestin-only oral contraception: a comprehensive review. Contraception. 1994;50(6 Suppl 1):S1–195. PubMed PMID: 10226677.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Santry HP, Gillen DL, Lauderdale DS. Trends in bariatric surgical procedures. JAMA. 2005;294:1909–17. PubMed PMID: 16234497.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Elder KA, Wolfe BM. Bariatric surgery: a review of procedures and outcomes. Gastroenterology. 2007;132(6):2253–71. PubMed PMID: 17498516.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Practice Committee of American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Obesity and reproduction: an educational bulletin. Fertil Steril. 2008;90(5 Suppl):S21–9. PubMed PMID: 19007633.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Practice ACoG. ACOG committee opinion. Number 319, October 2005. The role of obstetrician-gynecologist in the assessment and management of obesity. Obstet Gynecol. 2005;106(4):895–9. PubMed PMID: 16199657.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Gerrits EG, Ceulemans R, van Hee R, Hendrickx L, Totte E. Contraceptive treatment after biliopancreatic diversion needs consensus. Obes Surg. 2003;13(3):378–82. PubMed PMID: 12841897.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Victor A, Odlind V, Kral JG. Oral contraceptive absorption and sex hormone binding globulins in obese women: effects of jejunoileal bypass. Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 1987;16(3):483–91. PubMed PMID: 2449395.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. ACOG practice bulletin no. 105: bariatric surgery and pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2009;113(6):1405–13. PubMed PMID: 19461456.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Merhi ZO. Weight loss by bariatric surgery and subsequent fertility. Fertil Steril. 2007;87(2):430–2. PubMed PMID: 17113090.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Merhi ZO. Bariatric surgery and subsequent sexual function. Fertil Steril. 2007;87(3):710–1. PubMed PMID: 17123521.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Hillman JB, Miller RJ, Inge TH. Menstrual concerns and intrauterine contraception among adolescent bariatric surgery patients. J Womens Health. 2011;20(4):533–8. PubMed PMID: 21413894. Pubmed Central PMCID: 3075047.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Mody SK, Hacker MR, Dodge LE, Thornton K, Schneider B, Haider S. Contraceptive counseling for women who undergo bariatric surgery. J Womens Health. 2011;20(12):1785–8. PubMed PMID: 21988600.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Jones J, Mosher WD, Daniels K. Current contraceptive use in the United States, 2006–2010, and changes in patterns of use since 1995, National Health Statistics Reports, 2012, No. 60.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Schraudenbach A, McFall S. Contraceptive use and contraception type in women by body mass index category. Womens Health Issues. 2009;19(6):381–9. PubMed PMID: 19879452.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Peterson HB. Sterilization. Obstet Gynecol. 2008;111(1):189–203. PubMed PMID: 18165410.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Peterson HB, Xia Z, Hughes JM, Wilcox LS, Tylor LR, Trussell J. The risk of pregnancy after tubal sterilization: findings from the U.S. Collaborative Review of Sterilization. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1996;174(4):1161–8. discussion 8–70. PubMed PMID: 8623843.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. ACOG Practice bulletin no. 133: benefits and risks of sterilization. Obstet Gynecol. 2013;121(2 Pt 1):392–404. PubMed PMID: 23344305.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Rodriguez MI, Edelman AB, Kapp N. Postpartum sterilization with the titanium clip: a systematic review. Obstet Gynecol. 2011;118(1):143–7. PubMed PMID: 21691172.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Kerin JF, Cooper JM, Price T, Herendael BJ, Cayuela-Font E, Cher D, et al. Hysteroscopic sterilization using a micro-insert device: results of a multicentre Phase II study. Hum Reprod. 2003;18(6):1223–30. PubMed PMID: 12773450.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Rodriguez MI, Seuc A, Sokal DC. Comparative efficacy of postpartum sterilisation with the titanium clip versus partial salpingectomy: a randomised controlled trial. BJOG. 2013;120(1):108–12. PubMed PMID: 22925277.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Bradley LD, Price TM, Van Herendael BJ, Cayuela E. Long-term follow-up of hysteroscopic sterilization with the Essure micro-insert. J Minim Invasive Gynecol. 2009;16(6 suppl):S14–5.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Povedano B, Arjona JE, Velasco E, Monserrat JA, Lorente J, Castelo-Branco C. Complications of hysteroscopic Essure((R)) sterilisation: report on 4306 procedures performed in a single centre. BJOG. 2012;119(7):795–9. PubMed PMID: 22360159.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Kovacs GT, Krins AJ. Female sterilisations with Filshie clips: what is the risk failure? A retrospective survey of 30,000 applications. J Fam Plann Reprod Health Care. 2002;28(1):34–5. PubMed PMID: 16259814.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Jamieson DJ, Hillis SD, Duerr A, Marchbanks PA, Costello C, Peterson HB. Complications of interval laparoscopic tubal sterilization: findings from the United States collaborative review of sterilization. Obstet Gynecol. 2000;96(6):997–1002. PubMed PMID: 11084192.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Chi IC, Wilkens L. Interval tubal sterilization in obese women—an assessment of risks. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1985;152(3):292–7. PubMed PMID: 4003474.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Dehlendorf C, Levy K, Kelley A, Grumbach K, Steinauer J. Women’s preferences for contraceptive counseling and decision making. Contraception. 2013;88(2):250–6. PubMed PMID: 23177265.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Colleen McNicholas
    • 1
    Email author
  • Rachel Zigler
    • 2
  • Tessa Madden
    • 2
  1. 1.Division of Clinical ResearchWashington University School of MedicineSt. LouisUSA
  2. 2.Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyWashington University School of MedicineSt. LouisUSA

Personalised recommendations