Transporting Cognitive Behavior Interventions to the School Setting

Chapter

Abstract

Today’s children and adolescents face many challenges: increasing educational demands (Shepard & Smith, 1988), rising rates of divorce (Heckel, Clarke, Barry, McCarthy, & Selikowitz, 2009), media exposure to messages of violence and terrorism (Comer & Kendall, 2007), and other psychosocial stressors. These contribute to youth’s vulnerability to a wide range of associated mental-health difficulties, and, indeed, youth psychopathology prevalence rates have been found to range from 1 to 51 %, with the most reliable estimates suggesting that between 12 and 20 % of youth struggle with clinical-level symptoms of disorder at any given time (Costello, Egger, & Angold, 2005; Roberts, Attkisson, & Rosenblatt, 1998). Such figures are generally consistent with estimates made by the United States Congress, suggesting that between 5.6 million and 6.8 million (18–22 %) youth are in need of mental-health services (U.S. Public Health Service, 2000).

References

  1. Aarons, G. A. (2005). Measuring provider attitudes toward evidence-based practice: Consideration of organizational context and individual differences. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 14, 255–271.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anglin, T. M., Naylor, K. E., & Kaplan, D. W. (1996). Comprehensive school-based health care: High school students’ use of medical, mental health, and substance abuse services. Pediatrics, 97, 318–330.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. APA Task Force on Promotion and Dissemination of Psychological Procedures. (1995). Training in and dissemination of empirically-validated psychological treatments: Report and recommendations. The Clinical Psychologist, 48, 3–24.Google Scholar
  4. Beidas, R. S., Edmunds, J. M., Marcus, S. C., & Kendall, P. C. (2012). Training and consultation to promote implementation of an empirically supported treatment: A randomized trial. Psychiatric Services, 63, 660–665.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Beidas, R. S., & Kendall, P. C. (2010). Training therapists in evidence-based practice: A critical review of studies from a systems-contextual perspective. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 17, 1–30.Google Scholar
  6. Beidas, R. S., Mychailyszyn, M. P., Edmunds, J. E., Khanna, M. S., Downey, M. M., & Kendall, P. (2012). Training school mental health providers to deliver cognitive-behavioral therapy. School Mental Health, 4, 197–206.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Beidas, R. S., Mychailyszyn, M. P., Podell, J. L., & Kendall, P. C. (2013). Brief cognitive behavioral therapy for anxious youth: The inner workings. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 20, 134–146.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brady, E. U., & Kendall, P. C. (1992). Comorbidity of anxiety and depression in children and adolescents. Psychological Bulletin, 111, 244–255.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Brunwasser, S. M., Gillham, J. E., & Kim, E. S. (2009). A meta-analytic review of the Penn Resiliency Program’s effect on depressive symptoms. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 77, 1042–1054.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Burns, B. J., Costello, E. J., Angold, A., Tweed, D., Stangl, D., Farmer, E. M. Z., et al. (1995). DataWatch: Children’s mental health service use across service sectors. Health Affairs, 14, 147–159.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chambless, D. L., & Hollon, S. D. (1998). Defining empirically supported therapies. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66, 7–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chavira, D. A., Stein, M. B., Bailey, K., & Stein, M. T. (2004). Child anxiety in primary care: Prevalent but untreated. Depression and Anxiety, 20, 155–164.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chorpita, B. F. (2003). The frontier of evidence-based practice. In A. E. Kazdin & J. R. Weisz (Eds.), Evidence-based psychotherapies for children and adolescents (pp. 42–59). New York, NY: Guildford.Google Scholar
  15. Chorpita, B. F., & Weisz, J. R. (2005). Modular approach to therapy for children with anxiety, depression, or conduct problems. Honolulu, HI/Boston, MA: University of Hawaii at Manoa/Judge Baker Children’s Center, Harvard Medical School.Google Scholar
  16. Collins, K. A., & Dozois, D. J. A. (2008). What are the active ingredients in preventative interventions for depression? Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 15, 313–330.Google Scholar
  17. Comer, J. S., & Kendall, P. C. (2007). Terrorism: The psychological impact on youth. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 14, 178–212.Google Scholar
  18. Compton, S. N., March, J. S., Brent, D., Albano, A. M., Weersing, V. R., & Curry, J. (2004). Cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy for anxiety and depressive disorders in children and adolescents: An evidence-based medicine review. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 43, 930–959.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Costello, J. E., Egger, H. L., & Angold, A. (2005). 10-year research update review: The epidemiology of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders: I. Methods and public health burden. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 44, 972–986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Council of Australian Governments (COAG). National action plan for mental health 2006-2011. Retrieved March 2013, from http://www.coag.gov.au/sites/default/files/NAP%20on%20Mental%20Health%20-%20Fourth%20Progress%20Report.pdf
  21. Crawley, S., Kendall, P. C., Benjamin, C., Brodman, D., Wei, C., Beidas, R., et al. (2013). Brief Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (BCBT) for anxious youth: Feasibility and initial outcomes. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 20, 123–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cukrowicz, K. C., White, B. A., Reitzel, L. R., Burns, A. B., Driscoll, K. A., Kemper, T. S., et al. (2005). Improved treatment outcome associated with the shift to empirically supported treatments in a graduate training clinic. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 36, 330–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Daley, D., & Birchwood, J. (2010). ADHD and academic performance: Why does ADHD impact on academic performance and what can be done to support ADHD children in the classroom? Child: Care, Health and Development, 36, 455–464.Google Scholar
  24. Dorling, D. (2009). The age of anxiety: Living in fear for our children’s mental health. Journal of Public Mental Health, 8, 4–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Earls, R., Robins, L. N., Stiffman, A. R., & Powell, J. (1989). Comprehensive healthcare for high-risk adolescents: An evaluation study. American Journal of Public Health, 79, 999–1005.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Evans, S. W., & Weist, M. D. (2004). Implementing empirically supported treatment in the schools: What are we asking? Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 7, 263–267.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Eyberg, S. M., Nelson, M. M., & Boggs, S. R. (2008). Evidence-based psychosocial treatments for children and adolescents with disruptive behavior. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 37, 215–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Farmer, E. M. Z., Burns, B. J., Phillips, S. D., Angold, A., & Costello, E. J. (2003). Pathways into and through mental health services for children and adolescents. Psychiatric Services, 54, 60–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Fergusson, D. M., Horwood, L. J., & Ridder, E. M. (2005). Show me the child at seven: The consequences of conduct problems in childhood for psychosocial functioning in adulthood. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46, 837–849.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Fernell, E., & Gillberg, C. (2010). ASD diagnoses in Stockholm preschoolers. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 31, 680–685.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Flaherty, L. T., Weist, M. D., & Warner, B. S. (1996). School-based mental health services in the United States: History, current models and needs. Community Mental Health Journal, 32, 341–352.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Forman, S., Olin, S., Hoagwood, K., Crowe, M., & Saka, N. (2009). Evidence-based intervention in schools: Developers’ views of implementation barriers and facilitators. School Mental Health, 1, 26–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Georgiades, K., Lewinsohn, P. M., Monroe, S. M., & Seeley, J. R. (2006). Major depressive disorder in adolescence: The role of subthreshold symptoms. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 45, 936–944.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ginsburg, G. S., Becker, K. D., Kingery, J. N., & Nichols, T. (2008). Transporting CBT for childhood anxiety disorders into inner-city school-based mental health clinics. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 15, 148–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Glisson, C., & Green, P. (2011). Organizational climate, services, and outcomes in child welfare systems. Child Abuse and Neglect, 35, 582–591.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Glisson, C., & James, L. R. (2002). The cross-level effects of culture and climate in human service teams. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23, 767–794.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Glisson, C., Schoenwald, S. K., Hemmelgarn, A., Green, P., Dukes, D., Armstrong, K. S., et al. (2010). Randomized trial of MST and ARC in a two-level evidence-based treatment implementation strategy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 78, 537–550.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gotlib, I. H., Lewinsohn, P. M., & Seeley, J. R. (1995). Symptoms versus a diagnosis of depression: Differences in psychosocial functioning. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 63, 90–100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Greist, J. H. (1998). Treatment for all: The computer as a patient assistant. Psychiatric Services, 49, 887–889.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Hammen, C., & Rudolph, R. D. (2003). Childhood mood disorders. In E. J. Mash & R. A. Barkley (Eds.), Child psychopathology (2nd ed., pp. 233–278). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  41. Heckel, L., Clarke, A., Barry, R., McCarthy, R., & Selikowitz, M. (2009). The relationship between divorce and the psychological well-being of children with ADHD: Differences in age, gender, and subtype. Emotional & Behavioural Difficulties, 14, 49–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Henggeler, S. W., Melton, G. B., Brondino, M. J., Scherer, D. G., & Hanley, J. H. (1997). Multisystemic therapy with violent and chronic juvenile offenders and their families: The role of treatment fidelity in successful dissemination. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 65, 821–833.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Henggeler, S. W., Sheidow, A. J., Cunningham, P. B., Donohue, B. C., & Ford, J. D. (2008). Promoting the implementation of an evidence-based intervention for adolescent marijuana abuse in community settings: Testing the use of intensive quality assurance. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 37, 682–689.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Henry, W. P., Schacht, T. E., Strupp, H. H., Butler, S. F., & Binder, J. L. (1993). Effects of training in time-limited dynamic psychotherapy: Mediators of therapists’ responses to training. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 61, 441–447.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hoagwood, K., Hibbs, E., Brent, D., & Jensen, P. (1995). Introduction to the special section: Efficacy and effectiveness in studies of child and adolescent psychotherapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 63, 683–687.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Horowitz, J. L., & Garber, J. G. (2006). The prevention of depressive symptoms in children and adolescents: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74, 401–415.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kendall, P. C., & Beidas, R. S. (2007). Smoothing the trail for dissemination of evidence-based practices for youth: Flexibility within fidelity. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 38, 13–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kendall, P. C., Safford, S., Flannery-Schroeder, E., & Webb, A. (2004). Child anxiety treatment: Outcomes in adolescence and impact on substance abuse and depression at 7.4 year follow-up. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 72, 276–287.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kočovská, E., Biskupstø, R., Gillberg, I. C., Ellefsen, A., Kampmann, H., Stórá, T., et al. (2012). The rising prevalence of autism: A prospective longitudinal study in the Faroe Islands. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42, 1959–1966.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kuriyan, A. B., Pelham, W. E., Jr., Molina, B. S. G., Waschbusch, D. A., Gnagy, E. M., Sibley, M. H., et al. (2013). Young adult educational and vocational outcomes of children diagnosed with ADHD. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 41, 27–41.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Logan, D. E., & King, C. A. (2002). Parental identification of depression and mental health service use among depressed adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 41, 296–304.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lomas, J. (1993). Diffusion, dissemination, and implementation: Who should do what? Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 703, 226–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. C. Lonigan, & J. Elbert (Eds.). (1998). Special issue on empirically supported psychosocial interventions for children [special issue]. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 27(2), 138–145.Google Scholar
  54. Lyon, A., Charlesworth-Attie, S., Vander Stoep, A., & McCauley, E. (2011). Modular psychotherapy for youth with internalizing problems: Implementation with therapists in school-based health centers. School Psychology Review, 40, 569–581.Google Scholar
  55. Masia, C. L., Klein, R. G., Storch, E. A., & Corda, B. (2001). School-based behavioral treatment for social anxiety disorder in adolescents: Results of a pilot study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40, 780–786.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Masia-Warner, C., Klein, R. G., Dent, H. C., Fisher, P. H., Alvir, J., Albano, A. M., et al. (2005). School-based intervention for adolescents with social anxiety disorder: Results of a controlled study. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 33, 707–722.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Masia-Warner, C. M., Fisher, P. H., Shrout, P. E., Rathor, S., & Klein, R. G. (2007). Treating adolescents with social anxiety disorder in school: An attention control trial. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 48, 676–686.Google Scholar
  58. McCabe, O. L. (2004). Cross the quality chasm in behavioral health care: The role of evidence-based practice. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 35, 571–579.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. McLoone, J., Hudson, J. L., & Rapee, R. M. (2006). Treating anxiety disorders in a school setting. Education and Treatment of Children, 29, 219–242.Google Scholar
  60. Miller, W. R., Yahne, C. E., Moyers, T. B., Martinez, J., & Pirritano, M. (2004). A randomized trial of methods to help clinicians learn motivational interviewing. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 72, 1050–1062.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Mufson, L. H., Dorta, K. P., Olfson, M., Weissman, M. M., & Hoagwood, K. (2004). Effectiveness research: Transporting interpersonal psychotherapy for depressed adolescents (IPT-A) from the lab to school-based health clinics. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 7, 251–261.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Mychailyszyn, M. P., Beidas, R. S., Benjamin, C. L., Edmunds, J. L., Podell, J. L., Cohen, J. S., et al. (2011). Assessing and treating child anxiety in schools. Psychology in the Schools, 48, 223–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Mychailyszyn, M. P., Mendez, J. L., & Kendall, P. C. (2010). Anxiety disorders and school functioning in youth: Comparisons by diagnosis and comorbidity. School Psychology Review, 39, 106–121.Google Scholar
  64. New Freedom Commission on Mental Health. (2003). Achieving the promise: Transforming mental health care in America. Final Report. DHHS Pub. No. SMA-03-3832. Rockville, MD.Google Scholar
  65. Ollendick, T. H., King, N. J., & Chorpita, B. F. (2006). Empirically supported treatments for children and adolescents. In P. C. Kendall (Ed.), Child and adolescent therapy: Cognitive-behavioral procedures (3rd ed., pp. 492–520). New York, NY: Guildford Press.Google Scholar
  66. Owens, J. S., & Murphy, C. E. (2004). Effectiveness research in the context of school-based mental health. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 7, 195–209.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Pincus, D. B., & Friedman, A. G. (2004). Improving children’s coping with everyday stress: Transporting treatment interventions to the school setting. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 7, 223–240.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Pomerantz, J. M. (2005). ADHD: More prevalent or better recognized? Drug Benefit Trends, 17, 220–221.Google Scholar
  69. Quayle, D., Dziurawiec, S., Roberts, C., Kane, R., & Ebsworthy, G. (2001). The effect of an optimism and lifeskills program on depressive symptoms in preadolescence. Behaviour Change, 18, 194–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Rakovshik, S. G., & McManus, F. (2010). Establishing evidence-based training in cognitive behavioral therapy: A review of current empirical findings and theoretical guidance. Clinical Psychology Review, 30, 496–516.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Roberts, R. E., Attkisson, C. C., & Rosenblatt, A. (1998). Prevalence of psychopathology among children and adolescents. American Journal of Psychiatry, 155, 715–725.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Schoenwald, S. K., Chapman, J. E., Kelleher, K., Hoagwood, K. E., Landsverk, J., Stevens, J., et al. (2008). A survey of the infrastructure for children’s mental health services: Implications for the implementation of empirically supported treatments (ESTs). Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 35, 84–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Schoenwald, S. K., & Hoagwood, K. (2001). Effectiveness, transportability, and dissemination of interventions: What matters when? Psychiatric Services, 52, 1190–1197.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Scott, S., Knapp, M., Henderson, J., & Maughan, B. (2001). Financial cost of social exclusion: Follow up study of anti-social children into adulthood. British Medical Journal, 323, 191–194.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Selmi, P. M., Klein, M. H., Greist, J. H., Sorrell, S. P., & Erdman, H. P. (1990). Computer-administered cognitive-behavioral therapy for depression. American Journal of Psychiatry, 147, 51–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Shepard, L. A., & Smith, M. L. (1988). Escalating academic demand in kindergarten: Counterproductive policies. The Elementary School Journal, 89, 135–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Storch, E. A., & Crisp, H. L. (2004). Taking it to the schools―Transporting empirically supported treatments for childhood psychopathology to the school setting. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 7, 191–193.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. U.S. Public Health Service. (2000). Report on the surgeon general’s conference on children’s mental health: A national action agenda. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  79. United States Congress, Office of Technology Assessment. (1986). Children’s mental health: Problems and services. (OTA-H-33). Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  80. United States Congress, Office of Technology Assessment. (1991). Adolescent health (OTA-H-33). Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  81. Van Bokhoven, I., Matthys, W., van Goozen, S. H. M., & van Engeland, H. (2005). Prediction of adolescent outcome in children with disruptive behaviour disorders: A study of neurological, psychological, and family factors. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 14, 153–163.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Weiner, B. J., Lewis, M. A., & Linnan, L. A. (2009). Using organization theory to understand the determinants of effective implementation of worksite health promotion programs. Health Education and Research, 24, 292–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Weist, M. D., Evans, S. W., & Lever, N. A. (2003). Introduction: Advancing mental health practice and research in schools. In M. D. Weist, S. W. Evans, & N. A. Lever (Eds.), Handbook of school mental health: Advancing practice and research (pp. 1–7). New York, NY: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.Google Scholar
  84. Weisz, J. R., Chorpita, B. F., Palinkas, L. A., Schoenwald, S. K., Mirand, J., Bearman, S. K., et al. (2012). Testing standard and modular designs for psychotherapy treating depression, anxiety, and conduct problems in youth: A randomized effectiveness trial. Archives of General Psychiatry, 69, 274–282.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Weisz, J. R., Donenberg, G. R., Han, S. S., & Weiss, B. (1995). Bridging the gap between laboratory and clinic in child and adolescent psychotherapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 63, 688–701.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Wicks-Nelson, R., & Israel, A. (2009). Abnormal child and adolescent psychology (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.Google Scholar
  87. Woodward, L. J., & Fergusson, D. M. (2001). Life course outcomes of young people with anxiety disorders in adolescence. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40, 1086–1093.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyTowson UniversityTowsonUSA
  2. 2.Division of Psychology and NeuropsychologyMt. Washington Pediatric HospitalBaltimoreUSA

Personalised recommendations