Advertisement

Vitreous pp 347-373 | Cite as

III.H. Peripheral Vitreo–Retinal Pathologies

  • J. Sebag
  • Stephan Dunker
  • W. Richard Green
Chapter

Abstract

Vitreous occupies about four-fifths of the volume of the eye and weighs approximately 4 g. The vitreous body is somewhat spherical with slight flattening meridionally and has a cup-shaped depression anteriorly, known as the patellar fossa. The vitreous body is attached to all contiguous structures, but the firmness of the attachment varies with topography and age [1–3]. It is most firmly attached at the vitreous base, a 3-dimensional doughnutlike structure that is 3–6 mm wide and straddles the ora serrata. The vitreous base includes the posterior 2 mm of the pars plana and from 1 to 4 mm of the anterior retina posterior to the ora serrata. The posterior border of the vitreous base is located farther posteriorly in older individuals [4] and is more anterior nasally than temporally [5], which may underlie the greater frequency of retinal tears temporally than elsewhere in the peripheral retina [4]. The density of vitreous collagen is greatest within the vitreous base, and the collagen fibers are oriented perpendicular to the retinal plane, whereas elsewhere the orientation is tangential to this plane. The vitreous base contains remnants of the fetal hyaloid vasculature, and it has been suggested that fetal antigens in this region of the vitreous [6] or degenerative products of the vitreous [7] may be immunogenic and play a role in ocular inflammatory diseases, such as pars planitis.

Keywords

Vitreous Retina Anomalous PVD Peripheral fundus lesions Retinal lattice Retinal tears Retinal detachments Peripheral vascular disorders Pars planitis 

References

  1. 1.
    Fine BS, Tousimus AJ. The structure of the vitreous body and the suspensory ligaments of the lens. Arch Ophthalmol. 1961;65:95–110.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hogan MJ, Alvarado JA, Weddell JE. Histology of the human eye: an atlas and textbook. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1971.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sebag J. Age-related differences in the human vitreo-retinal interface. Arch Ophthalmol. 1991;109:966–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Teng CC, Chi HH. Vitreous changes and the mechanism of retinal detachment. Am J Ophthalmol. 1957;44:335–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Schepens CL. Personal communication. 1986.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hultsch E. Vitreous structure and ocular inflammation. In: Silverstein AM, O’Connor GR, editors. Immunology and immunopathology of the eye. New York: Masson; 1979.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gartner J. The fine structure of the vitreous base of the human eye and pathogenesis of pars planitis. Am J Ophthalmol. 1971;71:1317–27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sebag J, Balazs EA. Human vitreous fibres and vitreoretinal disease. Trans Ophthalmol Soc U K. 1984;104:123–8.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sebag J. The vitreous: structure, function, and pathobiology. New York: Springer; 1989.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sebag J. Age-related changes in human vitreous structure. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 1987;225:89–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sebag J, Balazs EA. Morphology and ultrastructure of human vitreous fibers. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1989;30:1867–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gartner J. Electron-microscopic study on the fibrillar network and fibrocyte–collagen interactions in the vitreous cortex at the ora serrata of human eyes with special regard to the role of disintegrating cells. Exp Eye Res. 1986;42:21–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sebag J. Surgical anatomy of vitreous and the vitreo-retinal interface. In: Tasman W, Jaeger EA, editors. Duane’s clinical ophthalmology, vol. 6. Philadelphia: JB Lippincott; 1992.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Foos RY. Vitreoretinal juncture: topographical variations. Invest Ophthalmol. 1972;11:801–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hogan MJ. The vitreous, its structure and relation to the ciliary body and retina. Invest Ophthalmol. 1963;2:418–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Foos RY, Allen RA. Retinal tears and lesser lesions of the peripheral retina. Am J Ophthalmol. 1967;64:643–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Foos RY, Simons KB. Vitreous in lattice degeneration of retina. Ophthalmology. 1984;91:452–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Spencer LM, Foos RY, Straatsma BR. Meridional complexes and associated abnormalities of the peripheral retina. Am J Ophthalmol. 1970;70:697–713.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Byer NE. Cystic retinal tufts and their relationship to retinal detachment. Arch Ophthalmol. 1981;99:1788–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Foos RY. Zonular traction tufts of the peripheral retina in cadaver eyes. Arch Ophthalmol. 1969;82:620–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Spencer LM, Straatsma BR, Foos RY. Tractional degenerations of the peripheral retina.. 1969.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Spencer LM, Foos RY, Straatsma BR. Enclosed bays of the ora serrata: relationship to retinal tears. Arch Ophthalmol. 1970;83:421–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Rutnin U, Schepens CL. Fundus appearance in normal eyes. II. The standard peripheral fundus and developmental variations. Am J Ophthalmol. 1967;64:840–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Foos RY, Spencer LM, Straatsma BR. Trophic degenerations of the peripheral retina. In: Transactions of the New Orleans Academy of Ophthalmology: symposium on retina and retinal surgery. St Louis: Mosby; 1969.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Streeten BW, Bert M. The retinal surface in lattice degeneration of the retina. Am J Ophthalmol. 1972;74:1201–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Teng CC, Katzin KM. An anatomic study of the periphery of the retina. I. Nonpigmented epithelial cell proliferation and hole formation. Am J Ophthalmol. 1951;34:1237–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Okun E. Gross and microscopic pathology in autopsy eyes. III. Retinal breaks without detachment. Am J Ophthalmol. 1961;51:369–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Rutnin U, Schepens CL. Fundus appearance in normal eyes. III. Peripheral degenerations. Am J Ophthalmol. 1967;64:1040–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Cibis PA. Vitreoretinal pathology and surgery in retinal detachment. Mosby: St Louis; 1965.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Foos RY. Vitreous base, retinal tufts, and retinal tears: pathogenic relationships. In: Pruett RC, Regan CD, editors. Retina congress. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts; 1974.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Inomata H. Electron microscopic observations of cystoid degeneration in the peripheral retina. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 1966;10:26–40.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Green WR. Retina. In: Spencer WH, editor. Ophthalmic pathology: an atlas and text. 4th ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1996.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Bradford JD, Wilkinson CP, Fransen SR. Pseudophakic retinal detachment: the relationships between retinal tears and the time following cataract surgery at which they occur. Retina. 1989;9:181–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Byer NE. Lattice degeneration of the retina. Surv Ophthalmol. 1979;23:213–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Straatsma BR, Allen RA. Lattice degeneration of the retina. Trans Am Acad Ophthalmol Otolaryngol. 1962;66:600–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Straatsma BR, Foos RY, Feman SS. Degenerative diseases of the peripheral retina. In: Duane TD, editor. Clinical ophthalmology, vol. 3. Philadelphia: Harper & Row; 1986.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Straatsma BR, Zeegen PD, Foos RY, et al. Lattice degeneration of the retina. Trans Am Acad Ophthalmol Otolaryngol. 1974;78:87–113.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Burton TC. The influence of refractive error and lattice degeneration on the incidence of retinal detachment. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 1990;87:143–57.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Parelhoff ES, Wood WJ, Green WR, et al. Radial perivascular lattice degeneration of the retina. Ann Ophthalmol. 1980;12:25–32.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Schepens CL. Diagnostic and prognostic factors as found in preoperative examination. Trans Am Acad Ophthalmol Otolaryngol. 1952;56:398–418.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Schepens CL. Subclinical retinal detachments. Arch Ophthalmol. 1952;47:593–606.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Foos RY, Simons KB, Wheeler NC. Comparison of lesions predisposing to rhegmatogenous retinal detachment by race and subjects. Am J Ophthalmol. 1983;96:644–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Byer NE. Clinical study of lattice degeneration of the retina. Trans Am Acad Ophthalmol Otolaryngol. 1965;69:1064–77.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Robinson MR, Streeten BW. The surface morphology of retinal breaks and lattice retinal degeneration: a scanning electron microscopic study. Ophthalmology. 1986;93:237–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Foos RY. Posterior peripheral retinal tears. Ann Ophthalmol. 1974;6:679–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Tillery WV, Lucier AC. Round atrophic holes in lattice degeneration: an important cause of phakic retinal detachment. Trans Am Acad Ophthalmol Otolaryngol. 1976;81:509–18.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Morse PH, Scheie HG. Prophylactic cryoretinopexy of retinal breaks. Arch Ophthalmol. 1974;92:204–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Byer NE. Changes in prognosis of lattice degeneration of the retina. Trans Am Acad Ophthalmol Otolaryngol. 1974;78:114–24.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Davis MD. Natural history of retinal breaks without detachment. Arch Ophthalmol. 1974;92:183–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Dobbie G. Discussion. New research on the aetiology and surgery of retinal detachment. Mod Probl Ophthalmol. 1975;15:113.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Tolentino FI, Schepens CL, Freeman HM. Vitreoretinal disorders: diagnosis and management. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1976. p. 107.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Freeman HM. Fellow eyes of giant retinal breaks. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 1978;76:343–82.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Byer NE. The peripheral retina in profile: a stereoscopic atlas. Torrence: Criterion Press; 1982.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Eisner G. White with pressure. In: Eisner G, editor. Biomicroscopy of the peripheral fundus: an atlas and textbook. New York: Springer; 1973.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Nagpal KC, Huamonte F, Constantaras A, et al. Migratory white-without-pressure retinal lesions. Arch Ophthalmol. 1976;94:576–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Watzke RC. The ophthalmoscopic sign, “white with pressure”: a clinicopathologic correlation. Arch Ophthalmol. 1961;66:812–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Daicker B. Sind die symptome “weiss mit druck” und weiss ohne druck durche die periphere netzshantsklerose bedingt? Mod Probl Ophthalmol. 1975;15:82–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Gartner J. Discussion. New research on the aetiology and surgery of retinal detachment. Mod Probl Ophthalmol. 1975;15:112.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Dunker S, Glinz J, Faulborn J. Morphologic studies of the peripheral vitreoretinal interface in humans reveal structures implicated in the pathogenesis of retinal tears. Retina. 1997;17:124–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Balazs EA. Physiology of the vitreous body. In: Schepens CL, editor. Proceedings of the Second Conference of the Retina Foundation. St Louis: Mosby; 1960.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Hilding AC. Normal vitreous, its attachments and dynamics during ocular movement. Arch Ophthalmol. 1954;52:497–514.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Hilding AC. Alterations in the form, movement, and structure of the vitreous body in aphakic eyes. Arch Ophthalmol. 1954;52:699–709.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Constable IJ, Horne R, Slatter DH, et al. Regeneration of retinal limiting membranes after chorioretinal biopsy in dogs. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1981;20:246–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Mittleman D, Green WR, Michels RG, et al. Clinicopathologic correlation of an eye after surgical removal of an epiretinal membrane. Retina. 1989;9:143–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Foos RY, Gloor BP. Vitreoretinal junction: healing of experimental wounds. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 1975;196:213–30.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Miller JW, Adamis AP, Shima DT, et al. Vascular endothelial growth factor/ vascular permeability factor is temporally and spatially corrected with ocular angiogenesis in a primate model. Am J Pathol. 1994;145:574–84.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Miller B, Miller H, Patterson R, et al. Effect of the vitreous on retinal wound-healing. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 1986;224:576–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Foos RY. Retinal holes. Am J Ophthalmol. 1978;86:354–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Adamis AP, Shima DT, Tolentino MJ, et al. Inhibition of VEGF prevents retinal ischemia associated iris neovascularization in a nonhuman primate. Arch Ophthalmol. 1996;114:66–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Boniuk M, Butler FC. An autopsy study of lattice degeneration, retinal breaks, and retinal pits. In: McPherson A, editor. New and controversial aspects of retinal detachment. New York: Hoeber; 1968.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Spencer LM, Foos RY. Paravascular vitreoretinal attachments: role in retinal tears. Arch Ophthalmol. 1970;84:557–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Barishak YR, Stein R. Retinal breaks without retinal detachment in autopsy eyes. Acta Ophthalmol. 1972;50:147–59.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Foos RY. Tears of the peripheral retina: pathogenesis, incidence, and classification in autopsy eyes. Mod Probl Ophthalmol. 1975;15:68–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Boldrey EE. Risk of retinal tears in patients with vitreous floaters. Am J Ophthalmol. 1983;96:783–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Butner RW, McPherson AR. Spontaneous vitreous hemorrhage. Ann Ophthalmol. 1982;14:268–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Morse PH, Aminlari A, Scheie HG. Spontaneous vitreous hemorrhage. Arch Ophthalmol. 1974;92:297–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Winslow RL, Taylor BC. Spontaneous vitreous hemorrhage: etiology and management. South Med J. 1980;73:1450–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    DiBernardo C, Blodi B, Byrne SF. Echographic evaluation of retinal tears in patients with spontaneous vitreous hemorrhage. Arch Ophthalmol. 1992;110:511–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Tabotabo MM, Karp LA, Benson WE. Posterior vitreous detachment. Ann Ophthalmol. 1980;12:59–61.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Murakami K, Jalkh AE, Avila MP, et al. Vitreous floaters. Ophthalmology. 1983;90:1271–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Novak MA, Welch RB. Complications of acute symptomatic posterior vitreous detachment. Am J Ophthalmol. 1984;97:308–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Wolter JR. Circular fixed fold of the retina. Am J Ophthalmol. 1965;60:805–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Foos RY. Vitreoretinal juncture over retinal vessels. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 1977;204:223–34.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Meyer E, Kurz GH. Retinal pits: a study of pathologic findings in two cases. Arch Ophthalmol. 1963;70:640–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Szirmai JA, Balazs EA. Studies on the structure of the vitreous body. III. Cells in the cortical layer. Arch Ophthalmol. 1958;59:34–48.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Friedman Z, Neumann E, Hyams S. Vitreous and peripheral retina in aphakia: a study of 200 nonmyopic aphakic eyes. Br J Ophthalmol. 1973;57:52–7.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Machemer R. The importance of fluid absorption, traction, intraocular currents, and chorioretinal scars in the therapy of rhegmatogenous retinal detachments. Am J Ophthalmol. 1984;98:681–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Benson WE, Tasman W. Rhegmatogenous retinal detachments caused by paravascular vitreoretinal traction. Arch Ophthalmol. 1984;102:669–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Tasman WS. Posterior vitreous detachment and peripheral retinal breaks. Trans Am Acad Ophthalmol Otolaryngol. 1968;72:217–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Sigelman J. Vitreous base classification of retinal tears: clinical application. Surv Ophthalmol. 1980;25:59–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Halpern JI. Routine screening of the retinal periphery. Am J Ophthalmol. 1966;62:99–102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Byer NE. Clinical study of retinal breaks. Trans Am Acad Ophthalmol Otolaryngol. 1967;71:461–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Rutnin U, Schepens CL. Fundus appearance in normal eyes. IV. Retinal breaks and other findings. Am J Ophthalmol. 1967;64:1063–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Smith RE, Ganley JP. Ophthalmic survey of a community. I. Abnormalities of the ocular fundus. Am J Ophthalmol. 1972;74:1126–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Colyear BH, Pischel DK. Clinical tears in the retina without detachment. Am J Ophthalmol. 1956;41:773–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Byer NE. Prognosis of asymptomatic retinal breaks. Arch Ophthalmol. 1974;92:208–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Byer NE. The natural history of asymptomatic retinal breaks. Ophthalmology. 1982;89:1033–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Haimann MH, Burton TC, Brown CK. Epidemiology of retinal detachment. Arch Ophthalmol. 1982;100:289–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Michaelson IC, Stein R, Barkai S. A study in the prevention of retinal detachment. Ann Ophthalmol. 1969;1:49–55.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Michels RG. Vitreous surgery for macular pucker. Am J Ophthalmol. 1981;92:628–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Neumann E, Hyams S, Brakai S. Natural history of retinal holes with specific reference to the development of retinal detachment and time factor involved. In: Michaelson IC, Berman ER, editors. Causes and prevention of blindness. New York: Academic Press; 1972.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Bohringer HR. Statistiches zu Haufigkeit and Risiko der Netz-hautablosung. Ophthalmologica. 1956;131:331–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Benson WE. Prophylactic therapy of retinal breaks. Surv Ophthalmol. 1977;22:41–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Combs JL, Welch RB. Retinal breaks without detachment: natural history, management, and long-term follow-up. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 1982;80:64–97.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Robertson DM, Norton EWD. Long-term follow-up of treated retinal breaks. Am J Ophthalmol. 1973;75:395–404.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Smiddy WE, Flynn HW, Nicholson DH, et al. Results and complications in treated retinal breaks. Am J Ophthalmol. 1991;112:623–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Brockhurst RJ, Schepens CL. Vitreous hemorrhages: surgical treatment. Arch Ophthalmol. 1961;66:327–35.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Clark G. The use of the photocoagulator in conditions associated with retinal detachment. Trans Am Acad Ophthalmol Otolaryngol. 1962;66:59–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Robertson DM, Curtin VT, Norton EWD. Avulsed retinal vessels with retinal breaks: a cause of recurrent vitreous hemorrhage. Arch Ophthalmol. 1971;85:669–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Theodossiadis GP, Velissatopoulos P, Magouritsas N, et al. Behandlung und Nachuntersuchung von Netzhautrissen ohne Netz-hautablosung mit den Riss uberlagerndem abgehobenem Netzhautgefass. Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd. 1977;170:411–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    de Bustros S, Welch RB. The avulsed retinal vessel syndrome and its variants. Ophthalmology. 1984;91:86–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Lincoff H, Kreissig I, Richard G. Treating avulsed vessels with a temporary balloon buckle. Am J Ophthalmol. 1986;101:90–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Theodossiadis GP, Koutsandrea CN. Types of avulsed retinal vessels associated with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment: treatment and results. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 1987;225:185–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Chatzoulis D, Theodossiadis GP, Apostolopoulos M, et al. Rezidivierende Glaskorperblutungen infolge cines in die Glaskorperhohle hereingezogenen Netzhautgefalles. Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd. 1983;183:256–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Hersh PS, Green WR, Thomas JV. Tractional venous loops in diabetic retinopathy. Am J Ophthalmol. 1981;92:661–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Theodossiadis GP, Koutsandrea CN. Avulsed retinal vessels with and without retinal breaks: treatment and extended follow-up. Trans Ophthalmol Soc U K. 1985;104:887–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Vine AK. Avulsed retinal veins without retinal breaks. Am J Ophthalmol. 1984;98:723–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Steinberg MH. Sickle cell anemia, the first molecular disease: overview of molecular etiology, pathophysiology, and therapeutic approaches. Scientific World Journal. 2008;8:1295–324.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Steinberg MH. Genetic etiologies for phenotypic diversity in sickle cell anemia. Scientific World Journal. 2009;9:46–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Ballas SK, Lieff S, Benjamin LJ, et al. Definitions of the phenotypic manifestations of sickle cell disease. Am J Hematol. 2010;85(1):6–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Emerson GG, Harlan JB, Fekrat S, et al. Hemoglobinopathies. In: Ryan SJ, editor. Retina. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier; 2006. p. 1429–45.Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Clarkson JG. The ocular manifestations of sickle-cell disease: a prevalence and natural history study. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 1992;90:481–504.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Emerson GG, Lutty GA. Effects of sickle cell disease on the eye: clinical features and treatment. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 2005;19(5):957–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Gagliano DA, Goldberg MF. The evolution of salmon-patch hemorrhages in sickle cell retinopathy. Arch Ophthalmol. 1989;107(12):1814–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Liang JC, Jampol LM. Spontaneous peripheral chorioretinal neovascularisation in association with sickle cell anaemia. Br J Ophthalmol. 1983;67(2):107–10.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    McLeod DS, Goldberg MF, Lutty GA. Dual-perspective analysis of vascular formations in sickle cell retinopathy. Arch Ophthalmol. 1993;111(9):1234–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Goldberg MF. Classification and pathogenesis of proliferative sickle retinopathy. Am J Ophthalmol. 1971;71(3):649–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Moriarty BJ, Acheson RW, Condon PI, Serjeant GR. Patterns of visual loss in untreated sickle cell retinopathy. Eye. 1988;2(Pt 3):330–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Downes SM, Hambleton IR, Chuang EL, et al. Incidence and natural history of proliferative sickle cell retinopathy: observations from a cohort study. Ophthalmology. 2005;112(11):1869–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Murthy RK, Grover S, Chalam KV. Temporal macular thinning on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in proliferative sickle cell retinopathy. Arch Ophthalmol. 2011;129(2):247–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Raichand M, Dizon RV, Nagpal KC. Macular holes associated with proliferative sickle cell retinopathy. Arch Ophthalmol. 1978;96(9):1592–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Schubert HD. Schisis in sickle cell retinopathy. Arch Ophthalmol. 2005;123(11):1607–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Hoang QV, Chau FY, Shahidi M, Lim JI. Central macular splaying and outer retinal thinning in asymptomatic sickle cell patients by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Am J Ophthalmol. 2011;151:990–4.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Chow CC, Genead MA, Anastasakis A, Chau FY, Fishman GA, Lim JI. Structural and functional correlation in sickle cell retinopathy using spectral domain optical coherence tomography and scanning laser ophthalmoscope microperimetry. Am J Ophthalmol. 2011;152:704–11.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Emerson GE, Harlan JB, Fekrat S, Lutty GA, Goldberg MF. Hemoglobinopathies. Retina. 2006;2:1429–45.Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Coats G. Forms of retinal disease with massive exudation. R Lond Ophthalmol Hosp Rep. 1908;17:440–525.Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Leber T. Über eine durch Vorkommen multipler Miliaraneurysmen charakterisierte Form von Retinaldegeneration. Albrecht von Grafes Archiv für Ophthalmologie. 1912;81:1–14.Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Reese AB. Telangiectasias of the retina and Coats’ disease. Am J Ophthalmol. 1956;42:1–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Wessing A, Spitznas M. Morbus Coats und die Leber‘sche Miliaraneurysmenretitinitis. Ber dtsch ophthal Ges. 1977;74:199.Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Hiller H. Morbus Coats – Miliaraneurysmenretinitis Leber. Klin Mbl Augenheilk. 1971;158:225.Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Gass JD, Blodi BA. Idiopathic juxtafoveolar retinal telangiectasis. Update of classification and follow-up study. Ophthalmology. 1993;100:1536–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Shields JA, Shields CL, Honavar SG, Demirci H. Clinical variations and complications of Coats disease in 150 cases: the 2000 Sanford Gifford Memorial Lecture. Am J Ophthalmol. 2001;131:561–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Shields JA, Shields CL, Honavar SG, Demirci H, Cater J. Classification and management of Coats disease: the 2000 Procter Lecture. Am J Ophthalmol. 2001;131:572–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Tarkkanen A, Laatikainen L. Coat‘s disease: clinical, angiographic, histopathological findings and clinical management. Br J Ophthalmol. 1983;76:766–76.Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    de Graaf P, Göricke S, Rodjan F, Galluzi P, Maeder P, Castelijns JA, Brisse HJ, European Retinoblastoma Imaging Collaboration (ERIC). Guidelines for imaging retinoblastoma: imaging principle and MRI standardization. Pediatr Radiol. 2012;42:2–14.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Kessner R, Barak A, Neudorfer M. Intraretinal exudates in Coats disease as demonstrated by spectral-domain OCT. Case Rep Ophthalmol. 2012;3:11–5.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Mulvihill A, Morris B. A population-based study of Coats disease in the United Kingdom. II. Investigation, treatment, and outcomes. Eye. 2010;24:1802–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Bergstrom CS, Hubbard 3rd GB. Combination intravitreal triamcinolone injection and cryotherapy for exudative retinal detachments in severe Coats disease. Retina. 2008;28:33–7.Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Kranias G, Krebs TP. Advanced Coats’ disease successfully managed with vitreo-retinal surgery. Eye. 2002;16:500–1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Böhm MR, Uhlig CE. Use of intravitreal tramcinolone and bevacizumab in Coats’ disease with central macular edema. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2011;249:1099–101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Entezari M, Ramezani A, Safavizadeh L, Bassirnia N. Resolution of macular edema in Coats’ disease with intravitreal bevacizumab. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2010;58:80–2.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Ramasubramanian A, Shields CL. Bevacizumab for Coats’ disease with exudative retinal detachment and risk of vitreoretrinal traction. Br J Ophthalmol. 2012;96:356–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Schepens CL. Examination of the Ora serrata region: its clinical significance. ACTA 16 Concilium Ophthalmologicum Britannia. London Br Med Assoc. 1950;2:1384–93.Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    Brockhurst RJ, Schepens CL, Okamura ID, Uveitis II. Peripheral uveitis: clinical description and differential diagnoses. Am J Ophthalmol. 1960;49:1257–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Kimura SJ, Hogan MJ. Chronic cyclitis. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 1963;61:397–413.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Welch RB, Maumenee AE, Wahleu HE. Peripheral posterior segment inflammation, vitreous opacities, and edema of the posterior pole. Pars planitis. Arch Ophthalmol. 1960;64:540–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Jabs DA, Nussenblatt RB, Rosenbaum JT, Standardization of Uveitis Nomenclature (SUN) Working Group. Standardization of uveitis nomenclature for reporting clinical data. Results of the First International Workshop. Am J Ophthalmol. 2005;140:509–16.Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    Trusko B, et al. The standardization of Uveitis nomenclature (SUN) project. Development of a clinical base utilizing informatics tools and techniques. Methods Inf Med. 2013;51:259–65.Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    Boyd SR, Young S, Lightman S. Immunopathology of noninfectious posterior and intermediate uveitis. Surv Ophthalmol. 2001;46:209–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Pederson JE, Kenyon KR, Green WR, Maumenee AE. Pathology of pars planitis. Am J Ophthalmol. 1978;86:762–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Pedroza-Seres M, Linares M, Jimenez-Martinez MC. Pars planitis is associated with an increased frequency of effector-memory CD57+T cell. Br J Ophthalmol. 2007;91:1393–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Donaldson MJ, Pulido JS, Herman DC, et al. Pars planitis: a 20-year study of incidence, clinical features, and outcomes. Am J Ophthalmol. 2007;144:812–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Petro JF, Dios E, Gutierres JM, et al. Pars planitis: epidemiology, treatment, and association with multiple sclerosis. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2001;9:93–102.Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    Althaus C, Sundmacher R. Intermediate uveitis: epidemiology, age and sex distribution. Dev Ophthalmol. 1992;23:9–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Romero R, Peralta J, Sendagorta E, Abeleiras J. Pars planitis in children: epidemiolgic, clinical, and therapeutic characteristics. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2007;44:288–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Nikkah H, Ramezani A, Ahmadieh H, et al. Childhood pars planitis; clinical features and outcome. J Ophthalmol Vis Res. 2011;6:249–54.Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    Smith JA, Mackensen F, et al. Epidemiology and course of disease in childhood uveitis. Ophthalmology. 2009;118:1544–51.Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    Kump L, Cervantes-Castaneda R, Androudi S, Foster CS. Analysis of pediatric uveitis cases at a tertiary referral center. Ophthalmology. 2005;112:1287–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Homayoon N, Alireza R, et al. Childhood pars planitis; clinical features and outcome. J Ophthalmic Vis Res. 2011;6:249–54.Google Scholar
  170. 170.
    Babu BM, Rathinam SR. Intermediate uveitis. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2010;58:21–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Nusenblatt RB, Palestine AG. Uveitis: fundamentals and clinical practice. In: Intermediate uveitis. Chicago: Yearbook Medical; 1989. p. 279–88.Google Scholar
  172. 172.
    Felder KS, Brockhurst RJ. Neovascular fundus abnormalities and peripheral uveitis. Arch Ophthalmol. 1982;100:750–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Pruett RC, Brockhurst J, Letts NF. Fluorescein angiography of peripheral uveitis. Am J Ophthalmol. 1974;77:448–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Herbert HM, Viswanathan A, Jackson H, Lightman SL. Risk factors for elevated intraocular pressure in uveitis. J Glaucoma. 2004;13:96–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Vitale AT, Zierhut M, Foster CS. Intermediate uveitis. In: Foster CS, Vitale AT, editors. Diagnosis and treatment of uveitis. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders and Company; 2002. p. 844–57.Google Scholar
  176. 176.
    Malinowski SM, Pulido JS, Folk JC. Long term visual outcome and complication a associated with pars planitis. Ophthalmology. 1993;100:818–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Smith RE, Godfrey WA, Kimura SJ. Complications of chronic cyclitis. Am J Ophthalmol. 1976;82:277–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Prieto JF, Dios E, Gutierrez JM, Mayo A, Calonge M, Herreras JM. Pars planitis: epidemiology, treatment, and association with multiple sclerosis. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2001;9:93–102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Foster CS: Treatment algorithm for pars planitis. www.uveitis.org/docs/dm/algorithmPars-Planitis.pdf. 2012.
  180. 180.
    Karim R, Sykakis E, Lightman S, et al. Interventions for the treatment of uveitic macular edema: a systemic review and meta-analysis. Clin Ophthalmol. 2013;7:1109–44.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Sebag J, Balazs EA. Pathogenesis of cystoid macular edema: an anatomic consideration of vitreoretinal adhesions. Surv Ophthalmol. 1984;28(Suppl):493–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Green WR. Pathology of the retina. In: Frayer WC, editor. Lancaster course in ophthalmic histopathology, unit 9. Philadelphia: FA Davis; 1981.Google Scholar
  183. 183.
    Green WR. Retina. In: Spencer WH, editor. Ophthalmic pathology: an atlas and textbook, vol. 2. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1985.Google Scholar
  184. 184.
    Okun E. Mechanism of retinal tear formation with posterior vitreous detachment. JAMA. 1960;174:2218–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Green WR. Pathology of the vitreous. In: Frayer WC, editor. Lancaster course in ophthalmic histopathology, unit 8. Philadelphia: FA Davis; 1981.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.VMR Institute for Vitreous Macula RetinaHuntington BeachUSA
  2. 2.Doheny Eye InstituteLos AngelesUSA
  3. 3.Troisdorf-SieglarGermany
  4. 4.Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins UniversityBaltimoreUSA

Personalised recommendations