Emotion Regulation: Definition and Relevance for Mental Health

  • Matthias Berking
  • Brian Whitley


In this chapter we define important concepts related to affect regulation including emotion, mood, feelings, stress, and affect. Then, we review the most significant findings on the relationships between emotion regulation and various mental disorders.


Emotion Regulation Eating Disorder Binge Eating Bulimia Nervosa Binge Eating Disorder 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Agras, W. S., & Telch, C. F. (1998). The effects of caloric deprivation and negative affect on binge eating in obese binge-eating disordered women. Behavior Therapy, 29(3), 491–503.Google Scholar
  2. Aldao, A., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2012). When are adaptive strategies most predictive of psychopathology? Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 121(1), 276–281.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Aldao, A., Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Schweizer, S. (2010). Emotion-regulation strategies across psychopathology: A meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 30(2), 217–237.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  5. Amstadter, A. (2008). Emotion regulation and anxiety disorders. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 22(2), 211–221.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Austin, M. A., Riniolo, T. C., & Porges, S. W. (2007). Borderline personality disorder and emotion regulation: Insights from the polyvagal theory. Brain and Cognition, 65(1), 69–76.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Backenstrass, M., Schwarz, T., Fiedler, P., Joest, K., Reck, C., Mundt, C., & Kronmueller, K. T. (2006). Negative mood regulation expectancies, self-efficacy beliefs, and locus of control orientation: Moderators or mediators of change in the treatment of depression? Psychotherapy Research, 16(2), 250–258.Google Scholar
  8. Baker, R., Holloway, J., Thomas, P. W., Thomas, S., & Owens, M. (2004). Emotional processing and panic. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 42(11), 1271–1287.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Baker, T. B., Piper, M. E., McCarthy, D. E., Majeskie, M. R., & Fiore, M. C. (2004). Addiction motivation reformulated: An affective processing model of negative reinforcement. Psychological Review, 111(1), 33–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Berking, M., Margraf, M., Ebert, D., Wupperman, P., Hofmann, S. G., & Junghanns, K. (2011). Deficits in emotion-regulation skills predict alcohol use during and after cognitive-behavioral therapy for alcohol dependence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 79(3), 307–318.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Berking, M., Neacsiu, A., Comtois, K. A., & Linehan, M. M. (2009). The impact of experiential avoidance on the reduction of depression in treatment for borderline personality disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 47(8), 663–670.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Berking, M., Orth, U., Wupperman, P., Meier, L., & Caspar, F. (2008). Prospective effects of emotion regulation on emotional adjustment. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 55(4), 485–494.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Berking, M., & Wupperman, P. (2012). Emotion regulation and mental health: Recent findings, current challenges, and future directions. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 25(2), 128–134.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Birch, C. D., Stewart, S. H., Wall, A. M., McKee, S. A., Eisnor, S. J., & Theakston, J. A. (2004). Mood-induced increases in alcohol expectancy strength in internally motivated drinkers. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 18(3), 231–238.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Bonanno, G., Papa, A., Lalande, K., Westphal, M., & Coifman, K. (2004). The importance of being flexible: The ability to both enhance and suppress emotional expression predicts long-term adjustment. Psychological Science, 15, 482–487.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Bradizza, C. M., Stasiewicz, P. R., & Paas, N. D. (2006). Relapse to alcohol and drug use among individuals diagnosed with co-occurring mental health and substance use disorders: A review. Clinical Psychology Review, 26(2), 162–178.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Brody, C. L., Haaga, D. A., Kirk, L., & Solomon, A. (1999). Experiences of anger in people who have recovered from depression and never-depressed people. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 187(7), 400–405.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Brown, R. A., Evans, D. M., Miller, I. W., Burgess, E. S., & Mueler, T. I. (1997). Cognitive-behavioral treatment for depression in alcoholism. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 65(5), 715–726.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Bydlowski, S., Corcos, M., Jeammet, P., Paterniti, S., Berthoz, S., Laurier, C., Chambry, J., et al. (2005). Emotion-processing deficits in eating disorders. The International Journal of Eating Disorders, 37(4), 321–329.Google Scholar
  20. Calkins, S. D., & Howse, R. B. (2004). Individual differences in self-regulation: Implications for childhood adjustment. In R. Feldman & P. Philippot (Eds.), The regulation of emotion (pp. 307–332). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  21. Campbell-Sills, L., Barlow, D. H., Brown, T. A., & Hofmann, S. G. (2006). Effects of suppression and acceptance on emotional responses of individuals with anxiety and mood disorders. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 44, 1251–1263.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Campbell-Sills, L., Ellard, K., & Barlow, D. H. (2014). Emotion regulation in anxiety disorders. In J. J. Gross (Ed.), Handbook of emotion regulation (2nd ed., pp. 393–412). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  23. Carano, A., De Berardis, D., Gambi, F., Di Paolo, C., Campanella, D., Pelusi, L., … Ferro, F. M. (2006). Alexithymia and body image in adult outpatients with binge eating disorder. The International Journal of Eating Disorders, 39(4), 332–340.Google Scholar
  24. Catanzaro, S. J., Wasch, H. H., Kirsch, I., & Mearns, J. (2000). Coping related expectancies and dispositions as prospective predictors of coping responses and symptoms. Journal of Personality, 68(4), 757–788.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Chua, J. L., Touyz, S., & Hill, A. J. (2004). Negative mood-induced overeating in obese binge eaters: An experimental study. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, 28(4), 606–610.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Ciarrochi, J., & Scott, G. (2006). The link between emotional competence and well-being: A longitudinal study. British Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 34(2), 231–243.Google Scholar
  27. Cisler, J., Olatunji, B., Feldner, M., & Forsyth, J. (2010). Emotion regulation and the anxiety disorders: An integrative review. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 32, 68–82.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Cloitre, M., Miranda, R., Stovall-McClough, K. C., & Han, H. (2005). Beyond PTSD: Emotion regulation and inter-personal problems as predictors of functional impairment in survivors of childhood abuse. Behavior Therapy, 36(2), 119–124.Google Scholar
  29. Cohen, L. H., Gunthert, K. C., Butler, A. C., O’Neill, S. C., & Tolpin, L. H. (2005). Daily affective reactivity as a prospective predictor of depressive symptoms. Journal of Personality, 73(6), 1687–1714.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Conway, M., Csank, P. A. R., Holm, S. L., & Blake, C. K. (2000). On assessing individual differences in rumination on sadness. Journal of Personality Assessment, 75(3), 404–425.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Cooney, N. L., Litt, M. D., Morse, P. A., Bauer, L. O., & Gaupp, L. (1997). Alcohol cue reactivity, negative-mood reactivity, and relapse in treated alcoholic men. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 106(2), 243–250.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Cooper, M. L., Frone, M. R., Russell, M., & Mudar, P. (1995). Drinking to regulate positive and negative emotions: A motivational model of alcohol use. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69(5), 990–1005.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Corstorphine, E., Mountford, V., Tomlinson, S., Waller, G., & Meyer, C. (2007). Distress tolerance in the eating disorders. Eating Behaviors, 8(1), 91–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Craske, M. G., Miller, P. P., Rotunda, R., & Barlow, D. H. (1990). A descriptive report of features of initial unexpected panic attacks in minimal and extensive avoiders. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 28(5), 395–400.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Crosby, R. D., Wonderlich, S. A., Engel, S. G., Simonich, H., Smyth, J., & Mitchell, J. E. (2009). Daily mood patterns and bulimic behaviors in the natural environment. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 47(3), 181–188.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Davey, G. C., Burgess, I., & Rashes, R. (1995). Coping strategies and phobias: The relationship between fears, phobias and methods of coping with stressors. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 34(3), 423–434.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. De Gucht, V., & Heiser, W. (2003). Alexithymia and somatisation: A quantitative review of the literature. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 54(5), 425–434.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Dingemans, A. E., Martijn, C., Jansen, A., & van Furth, E. F. (2009). The effect of suppressing negative emotions on eating behavior in binge eating disorder. Appetite, 52(1), 51–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Ehring, T., Fischer, S., Schnülle, J., Bösterling, A., & Tuschen-Caffier, B. (2008). Characteristics of emotion regulation in recovered depressed versus never depressed individuals. Personality and Individual Differences, 44(7), 1574–1584.Google Scholar
  40. Ehring, T., & Quack, D. (2010). Emotion regulation difficulties in trauma survivors: The role of trauma type and PTSD symptom severity. Behavior Therapy, 41(4), 587–598.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Ehring, T., Tuschen-Caffier, B., Schnülle, J., Fischer, S., & Gross, J. J. (2010). Emotion regulation and vulnerability to depression: Spontaneous versus instructed use of emotion suppression and reappraisal. Emotion, 10(4), 563–572.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Eifert, G. H., & Heffner, M. (2003). The effects of acceptance versus control contexts on avoidance of panic-related symptoms. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 34(3), 293–312.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Ellard, K. K., Fairholme, C. P., Boisseau, C. L., Farchione, T. J., & Barlow, D. H. (2010). Unified protocol for the transdiagnostic treatment of emotional disorders: Protocol development and initial outcome data. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 17(1), 88–101.Google Scholar
  44. ElSheikh, S. E. G., & Bashir, T. Z. (2004). High risk relapse situations and self-efficacy: Comparison between alcoholics and heroin addicts. Addictive Behaviors, 29(4), 753–758.Google Scholar
  45. Falk, D., Yi, H., & Hilton, M. (2008). Age of onset and temporal sequencing of lifetime DSM-IV alcohol use disorders relative to comorbid mood and anxiety disorders. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 94(1–3), 234–245.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Farach, F. J., Mennin, D. S., Smith, R. L., & Mandelbaum, M. (2008). The impact of pretrauma analogue GAD and posttraumatic emotional reactivity following exposure to the September 11 terrorist attacks: A longitudinal study. Behavior Therapy, 39(3), 262–276.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Feldner, M. T., Zvolensky, M. J., Eifert, G. H., & Spira, A. P. (2003). Emotional avoidance: An experimental test of individual differences and response suppression using biological challenge. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 41(4), 403–411.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Feldner, M. T., Zvolensky, M. J., Stickle, T. R., Bonn-Miller, M. O., & Leen-Feldner, E. (2006). Anxiety sensitivity—Physical concerns as moderator of the emotional consequences of emotion suppression during biological challenge: An experimental test using individual growth curve analysis. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 44(2), 249–272.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Fergus, T. A., Valentiner, D. P., McGrath, P. B., & Jencius, S. (2010). Shame-and guilt-proneness: Relationships with anxiety disorder symptoms in a clinical sample. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 24(8), 811–815.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Fox, H. C., Axelrod, S. R., Paliwal, P., Sleeper, J., & Sinha, R. (2007). Difficulties in emotion regulation and impulse control during cocaine abstinence. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 89(2–3), 298–301.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Gamble, S. A., Conner, K. R., Talbot, N. L., Yu, Q., Tu, X. M., & Connors, G. J. (2010). Effects of pretreatment and posttreatment depressive symptoms on alcohol consumption following treatment in project MATCH. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 71(1), 71–77.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Garnefski, N., & Kraaij, V. (2006). Relationships between cognitive emotion regulation strategies and depressive symptoms: A comparative study of five specific samples. Personality and Individual Differences, 40(8), 1659–1669.Google Scholar
  53. Gilbert, P., Baldwin, M. W., Irons, C., Baccus, J. R., & Palmer, M. (2006). Self-criticism and self-warmth: An imagery study exploring their relation to depression. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 20(2), 183–200.Google Scholar
  54. Gratz, K. L., & Roemer, L. (2004). Multidimensional assessment of emotion regulation and dysregulation: Development, factor structure, and initial validation of the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 26, 41–54.Google Scholar
  55. Gratz, K. L., Rosenthal, M. Z., Tull, M. T., Lejuez, C. W., & Gunderson, J. G. (2006). An experimental investigation of emotion dysregulation in borderline personality disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 115(4), 850–855.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Gross, J. J. (2014). Emotion regulation: Conceptual and empirical foundations. In J. J. Gross (Ed.), Handbook of emotion regulation (2nd ed., pp. 3–20). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  57. Gruber, J., Harvey, A. G., & Gross, J. J. (2012). When trying is not enough: Emotion regulation and the effort–success gap in bipolar disorder. Emotion, 12(5), 997–1003.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Harrison, A., Sullivan, S., Tchanturia, K., & Treasure, J. (2009). Emotion recognition and regulation in anorexia nervosa. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 16(4), 348–356.Google Scholar
  59. Hasin, D. S., Stinson, F. S., Ogburn, E., & Grant, B. F. (2007). Prevalence, correlates, disability, and comorbidity of DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence in the United States: Results from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions. Archives of General Psychiatry, 64(7), 830–842.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Hayes, S. C., Strosahl, K., Wilson, K. G., Bissett, R. T., Pistorello, J., Toarmino, D., … McCurry, S. M. (2004). Measuring experiential avoidance: A preliminary test of a working model. Psychological Record, 54(4), 553–578.Google Scholar
  61. Hilbert, A., & Tuschen-Caffier, B. (2007). Maintenance of binge eating through negative mood: A naturalistic comparison of binge eating disorder and bulimia nervosa. The International Journal of Eating Disorders, 40(6), 521–530.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Hino, T., Takeuchi, T., & Yamanouchi, N. (2002). A 1-year follow-up study of coping in patients with panic disorder. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 43(4), 279–284.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Hodgins, D. C., El-Guebaly, N., & Armstrong, S. (1995). Prospective and retrospective reports of mood states before relapse to substance use. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 63(3), 400–407.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Hofmann, S. G., Grossman, P., & Hinton, D. E. (2011). Loving-kindness and compassion meditation: Potential for psychological interventions. Clinical Psychology Review, 31(7), 1126–1132.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Honkalampi, K., Saarinen, P., Hintikka, J., Virtanen, J., & Viinamaki, H. (1999). Factors associated with alexithymia in patients suffering from depression. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 68(5), 270–275.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Isenhart, C. E. (1991). Factor structure of the inventory of drinking situations. Journal of Substance Abuse, 3(1), 59–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Karekla, M., Forsyth, J. P., & Kelly, M. M. (2004). Emotional avoidance and panicogenic responding to a biological challenge procedure. Behavior Therapy, 35(4), 725–746.Google Scholar
  68. Kashdan, T. B., & Steger, M. F. (2006). Expanding the topography of social anxiety: An experience-sampling assessment of positive emotions, positive events, and emotion suppression. Psychological Science, 17(2), 120–128.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Kashdan, T. B., Zvolensky, M. J., & McLeish, A. C. (2008). Anxiety sensitivity and affect regulatory strategies: Individual and interactive risk factors for anxiety-related symptoms. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 22(3), 429–440.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Kassel, J. D., Bornovalova, M., & Mehta, N. (2007). Generalized expectancies for negative mood regulation predict change in anxiety and depression among college students. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45(5), 939–950.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Kim, J., & Cicchetti, D. (2010). Longitudinal pathways linking child maltreatment, emotion regulation, peer relations, and psychopathology. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 51(6), 706–716.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Kraaij, V., Garnefski, N., & Van Gerwen, L. (2003). Cognitive coping and anxiety symptoms among people who seek help for fear of flying. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, 74(3), 273–277.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Kraaij, V., Pruymboom, E., & Garnefski, N. (2002). Cognitive coping and depressive symptoms in the elderly: A longitudinal study. Aging and Mental Health, 6(3), 275–281.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Kun, B., & Demetrovics, Z. (2010). Emotional intelligence and addictions: A systematic review. Substance Use & Misuse, 45, 1131–1160.Google Scholar
  75. Kuo, J. R., & Linehan, M. M. (2009). Disentangling emotion processes in borderline personality disorder: Physiological and self-reported assessment of biological vulnerability, baseline intensity, and reactivity to emotionally evocative stimuli. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 118(3), 531–544.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Laessle, R. G., & Schulz, S. (2009). Stress‐induced laboratory eating behavior in obese women with binge eating disorder. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 42(6), 505–510.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Lazarus, R. S. (1993). From psychological stress to emotions. Annual Review of Psychology, 44, 1–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Leible, T. L., & Snell, W. E., Jr. (2004). Borderline personality disorder and multiple aspects of emotional intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences, 37(2), 393–404.Google Scholar
  79. Levitt, J. T., Brown, T. A., Orsillo, S. M., & Barlow, D. H. (2004). The effects of acceptance versus suppression of emotion on subjective and psychophysiological response to carbon dioxide challenge in patients with panic disorder. Behavior Therapy, 35(4), 747–766.Google Scholar
  80. Linehan, M. M. (1993). Cognitive-behavioral treatment of borderline personality disorder. New York, NY: Guilford.Google Scholar
  81. Liverant, G. I., Brown, T. A., Barlow, D. H., & Roemer, L. (2008). Emotion regulation in unipolar depression: The effects of acceptance and suppression of subjective emotional experience on the intensity and duration of sadness and negative affect. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 46(11), 1201–1209.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Lumley, M. A., Stettner, L., & Wehmer, F. (1996). How are alexithymia and physical illness linked? A review and critique of pathways. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 41(6), 505–518.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. McClenny, B. D. (1998). Emotion regulation in bulimia nervosa: Neuro-physiological correlates of reactivity and self-regulation (Ph.D. dissertation, University of Maryland College Park, Maryland, United States). Retrieved December 1, 2011, from Dissertations & Theses: Full Text. (Publication No. AAT 9836444).Google Scholar
  84. McLaughlin, K. A., Hatzenbuehler, M. L., Mennin, D. S., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2011). Emotion dysregulation and adolescent psychopathology: A prospective study. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 49(9), 544–554.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. McLaughlin, K. A., Mennin, D. S., & Farach, F. J. (2007). The contributory role of worry in emotion generation and dysregulation in generalized anxiety disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45(8), 1735–1752.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Mennin, D. S., Heimberg, R. G., Turk, C. L., & Fresco, D. M. (2005). Preliminary evidence for an emotion regulation deficit model of generalized anxiety disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 43(10), 1281–1310.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Morrow, J., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (1990). Effects of responses to depression on the remediation of depressive affect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58(3), 519–527.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Moulds, M. L., Kandris, E., Starr, S., & Wong, A. (2007). The relationship between rumination, avoidance and depression in a non-clinical sample. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45(2), 251–261.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Naragon-Gainey, K. (2010). Meta-analysis of the relations of anxiety sensitivity to the depressive and anxiety disorders. Psychological Bulletin, 136(1), 128.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Nemiah, J. C., & Sifneos, P. E. (1970). Psychosomatic illness: A problem in communication. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 18(1–6), 154–160.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. O’Neill, S. C., Cohen, L. H., Tolpin, L. H., & Gunthert, K. C. (2004). Affective reactivity to daily interpersonal stressors as a prospective predictor of depressive symptoms. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 23(2), 172–194.Google Scholar
  92. Overton, A., Selway, S., Strongman, K., & Houston, M. (2005). Eating disorders—The regulation of positive as well as negative emotion experience. Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings, 12(1), 39–56.Google Scholar
  93. Parker, J. D. A., Taylor, G. J., Bagby, R. M., & Acklin, M. W. (1993). Alexithymia in panic disorder and simple phobia: A comparative study. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 150(7), 1105–1107.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Peeters, F., Nicolson, N. A., Berkhof, J., Delespaul, P., & deVries, M. (2003). Effects of daily events on mood states in major depressive disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 112(2), 203–211.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Raes, F., Smets, J., Nelis, S., & Schoofs, H. (2012). Dampening of positive affect prospectively predicts depressive symptoms in non-clinical samples. Cognition and Emotion, 26(1), 75–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Roemer, L., Litz, B. T., Orsillo, S. M., & Wagner, A. W. (2001). A preliminary investigation of the role of strategic withholding of emotions in PTSD. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 14(1), 149–156.Google Scholar
  97. Rude, S. S., & McCarthy, C. T. (2003). Emotional functioning in depressed and depression vulnerable college students. Cognition and Emotion, 17(5), 799–806.Google Scholar
  98. Salovey, P., & Mayer, J. D. (1990). Emotional intelligence. Imagination, Cognition, and Personality, 9(3), 185–211.Google Scholar
  99. Salters-Pedneault, K., Roemer, L., Tull, M. T., Rucker, L., & Mennin, D. S. (2006). Evidence of broad deficits in emotion regulation associated with chronic worry and generalized anxiety disorder. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 30(4), 469–480.Google Scholar
  100. Schulze, L., Domes, G., Krüger, A., Berger, C., Fleischer, M., Prehn, K., … Herpertz, S. C. (2011). Neuronal correlates of cognitive reappraisal in borderline patients with affective instability. Biological Psychiatry, 69(6), 564–573.Google Scholar
  101. Schweinhardt, P., Kalk, N., Wartolowska, K., Chessell, I., Wordsworth, P., & Tracey, I. (2008). Investigation into the neural correlates of emotional augmentation of clinical pain. NeuroImage, 40(2), 759–766.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Shear, M. K., Cooper, A. M., Lerman, G. L., Busch, F. N., & Shapiro, T. (1993). A psychodynamic model of panic disorder. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 150(6), 859–866.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Sifneos, P. E. (1973). The prevalence of ‘alexithymic’ characteristics in psychosomatic patients. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 22(2–6), 255–262.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Sim, L. A. (2002). Emotion regulation in adolescent females with bulimia nervosa: An information processing perspective (Ph.D. dissertation, The University of Maine, Main, United States). Retrieved December 1, 2011, from Dissertations & Theses: Full Text. (Publication No. AAT 3057876).Google Scholar
  105. Sim, L., & Zeman, J. (2004). Emotion awareness and identification skills in adolescent girls with bulimia nervosa. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 33(4), 760–771.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Sinha, R., Fox, H. C., Hong, K. A., Bergquist, K., Bhagwagar, Z., & Siedlarz, K. M. (2009). Enhanced negative emotion and alcohol craving, and altered physiological responses following stress and cue exposure in alcohol dependent individuals. Neuropsychopharmacology, 34(5), 1198–1208.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Smyth, J. M., Wonderlich, S. A., Heron, K. E., Sliwinski, M. J., Crosby, R. D., Mitchell, J. E., & Engel, S. G. (2007). Daily and momentary mood and stress are associated with binge eating and vomiting in bulimia nervosa patients in the natural environment. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 75(4), 629–638.Google Scholar
  108. Smyth, J. M., Wonderlich, S. A., Sliwinski, M. J., Crosby, R. D., Engel, S. G., & Mitchell, J. E. (2009). Ecological momentary assessment of affect, stress, and binge-purge behaviors: Day of week and time of day effects in the natural environment. The International Journal of Eating Disorders, 42(5), 429–436.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Spira, A. P., Zvolensky, M. J., Eifert, G. H., & Feldner, M. T. (2004). Avoidance-oriented coping as a predictor of panic-related distress: A test using biological challenge. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 18(3), 309–323.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Staiger, P. K., Melville, F., Hides, L., Kambouropoulos, N., & Lubman, D. I. (2009). Can emotion-focused coping help explain the link between posttraumatic stress disorder severity and triggers for substance use in young adults? Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 36(2), 220–226.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Stein, R. I., Kenardy, J., Wiseman, C. V., Dounchis, J. Z., Arnow, B. A., & Wilfley, D. E. (2007). What’s driving the binge in binge eating disorder? A prospective examination of precursors and consequences. The International Journal of Eating Disorders, 40(3), 195–203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Subic-Wrana, C., Beutel, M. E., Knebel, A., & Lane, R. D. (2010). Theory of mind and emotional awareness deficits in patients with somatoform disorders. Psychosomatic Medicine, 72(4), 404–411.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Subic-Wrana, C., Bruder, S., Thomas, W., Gaus, E., Merkle, W., & Kohle, K. (2002). Distribution of alexithymia as a personality-trait in psychosomatically ill in-patients: Measured with TAS-20 and LEAS. Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie, 52(11), 454–460.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Subic-Wrana, C., Bruder, S., Thomas, W., Lane, R. D., & Köhle, K. (2005). Emotional awareness deficits in inpatients of a psychosomatic ward: A comparison of two different measures of alexithymia. Psychosomatic Medicine, 67(3), 483–489.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Suveg, C., Morelen, D., Brewer, G. A., & Thomassin, K. (2010). The emotion dysregulation model of anxiety: A preliminary path analytic examination. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 24(8), 924–930.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Svaldi, J., Caffier, D., & Tuschen-Caffier, B. (2010). Emotion suppression but not reappraisal increases desire to binge in women with binge eating disorder. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 79(3), 188–190.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Svaldi, J., Griepenstroh, J., Tuschen-Caffier, B., & Ehring, T. (2012). Emotion regulation deficits in eating disorders: A marker of eating pathology or general psychopathology? Psychiatry Research, 197(1), 103–111.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Swendsen, J. D., Tennen, H., Carney, M. A., Affleck, G., Willard, A., & Hromi, A. (2000). Mood and alcohol consumption: An experience sampling test of the self-medication hypothesis. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109(2), 198–204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Thompson, R. A. (1994). Emotion regulation: A theme in search of a definition. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 59(2/3), 25–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Tragesser, S. L., Solhan, M., Schwartz-Mette, R., & Trull, T. J. (2007). The role of affective instability and impulsivity in predicting future BPD features. Journal of Personality Disorders, 21(6), 603–614.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Tull, M. T., Barrett, H. M., McMillan, E. S., & Roemer, L. (2007). A preliminary investigation of the relationship between emotion regulation difficulties and posttraumatic stress symptoms. Behavior Therapy, 38(3), 303–313.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Tull, M. T., & Roemer, L. (2007). Emotion regulation difficulties associated with the experience of uncued panic attacks: Evidence of experiential avoidance, emotional nonacceptance, and decreased emotional clarity. Behavior Therapy, 38(4), 378–391.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Turk, C. L., Heimberg, R. G., Luterek, J. A., Mennin, D. S., & Fresco, D. M. (2005). Emotion dysregulation in generalized anxiety disorder: A comparison with social anxiety disorder. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 29(1), 89–106.Google Scholar
  124. Walcott, C. M., & Landau, S. (2004). The relation between disinhibition and emotion regulation in boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 33(4), 772–782.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Waller, E., & Scheidt, C. E. (2004). Somatoform disorders as disorders of affect regulation: A study comparing the TAS-20 with non-self-report measures of alexithymia. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 57(3), 239–247.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Waller, E., & Scheidt, C. E. (2006). Somatoform disorders as disorders of affect regulation: A development perspective. International Review of Psychiatry, 18(1), 13–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Watt, M., Stewart, S., Birch, C., & Bernier, D. (2006). Brief CBT for high anxiety sensitivity decreases drinking problems, relief alcohol outcome expectancies, and conformity drinking motives: Evidence from a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Mental Health, 15(6), 683–695.Google Scholar
  128. Weems, C. F., Silverman, W. K., Rapee, R. M., & Pina, A. A. (2003). The role of control in childhood anxiety disorders. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 27(5), 557–568.Google Scholar
  129. Weinberg, A., Klonsky, E. D., & Hajcak, G. (2009). Autonomic impairment in borderline personality disorder: A laboratory investigation. Brain and Cognition, 71(3), 279–286.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Weiss, R. D., Griffin, M. L., & Mirin, S. M. (1992). Drug abuse as self-medication for depression: An empirical study. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 18(2), 121–129.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Weiss, N. H., Tull, M. T., Davis, L. T., Dehon, E. E., Fulton, J. J., & Gratz, K. L. (2012). Examining the association between emotion regulation difficulties and probable posttraumatic stress disorder within a sample of African Americans. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 41(1), 5–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Whiteside, U., Chen, E., Neighbors, C., Hunter, D., Lo, T., & Larimer, M. (2007). Difficulties regulating emotions: Do binge eaters have fewer strategies to modulate and tolerate negative affect? Eating Behaviors, 8(2), 162–169.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Wild, B., Eichler, M., Feiler, S., Friederich, H. C., Hartmann, M., Herzog, W., & Zipfel, S. (2007). Dynamic analysis of electronic diary data of obese patients with and without binge eating disorder. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 76(4), 250–252.Google Scholar
  134. Willinger, U., Lenzinger, E., Hornik, K., Fischer, G., Schönbeck, G., Aschauer, H. N., … European Fluvoxamine in Alcoholism Study Group. (2002). Anxiety as a predictor of relapse in detoxified alcohol-dependent clients. Alcohol and Alcoholism, 37(6), 609–612.Google Scholar
  135. Wirtz, C. M., Hofmann, S. G., Riper, H., & Berking, M. (2013). Emotion regulation predicts anxiety over a five-year interval: A cross-lagged panel analysis. Depression and Anxiety, 30(11), 1–9.Google Scholar
  136. Wolff, S., Stiglmayr, C., Bretz, H. J., Lammers, C. H., & Auckenthaler, A. (2007). Emotion identification and tension in female patients with borderline personality disorder. The British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 46(Pt 3), 347–360.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Wupperman, P., Marlatt, G. A., Cunningham, A., Bown, S., Berking, M., Mulvihill-Rivera, N., & Easton, C. (2012). Mindfulness and modification therapy for behavior dysregulation: Results from a pilot study targeting alcohol use and aggression in women. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 68(1), 50–66.Google Scholar
  138. Wupperman, P., Neumann, C. S., Whitman, J. B., & Axelrod, S. R. (2009). The role of mindfulness in borderline personality disorder features. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 197(10), 766–771.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Matthias Berking
    • 1
  • Brian Whitley
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Clinical Psychology and PsychotherapyFriedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-NurembergErlangenGermany
  2. 2.Private PracticeIrvineUSA

Personalised recommendations