The Epidemiology of Non-AIDS-Defining Malignancies

Chapter

Abstract

AIDS-defining malignancies are those which are included in the case definition of AIDS, namely Kaposi Sarcoma, non-Hodgkin Lymphoma, and cervical cancer. Non-AIDS-defining malignancies are those other malignancies whose incidence is increased in individuals with HIV infection. In some instances, the term can also refer to any malignancy occurring in an individual with HIV infection. More recently, as the incidence of AIDS has declined in people with access to anti-retroviral therapy, the term “HIV-associated malignancy” has become more widely used to describe the same group of malignancies.

References

  1. Chaturvedi AK, Madeleine MM, Biggar RJ, Engels EA. Risk of human papillomavirus-associated cancers among persons with AIDS. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2009;101:1120–30.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Clifford GM, Rickenbach M, Polesel J, Dal Maso L, Steffen I, et al. Influence of HIV-related immunodeficiency on the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. AIDS (London, England). 2008;22:2135–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Clifford GM, Lise M, Franceschi S, Egger M, Bouchardy C, et al. Lung cancer in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study: role of smoking, immunodeficiency and pulmonary infection. Br J cancer. 2012;106:447–52.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Feng H, Shuda M, Chang Y, Moore PS. Clonal integration of a polyomavirus in human Merkel cell carcinoma. Science. 2008;319:1096–100.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Grulich AE, van Leeuwen MT, Falster MO, Vajdic CM. Incidence of cancers in people with HIV/AIDS compared with immunosuppressed transplant recipients: a meta-analysis. Lancet. 2007;370:59–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Guiguet M, Boue F, Cadranel J, Lang JM, Rosenthal E, Costagliola D. Effect of immunodeficiency, HIV viral load, and antiretroviral therapy on the risk of individual malignancies (FHDH-ANRS CO4): a prospective cohort study. Lancet Oncol. 2009;10:1152–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). A review of human carcinogens. Part B: Biological agents. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2009.Google Scholar
  8. Persson EC, Shiels MS, Dawsey SM, Bhatia K, Anderson LA, Engels EA. Increased risk of stomach and esophageal malignancies in people with AIDS. Gastroenterology. 2012;143:943–50, e2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Reekie J, Kosa C, Engsig F, Monforte AD, Wiercinska-Drapalo A, et al. Relationship between current level of immunodeficiency and non-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-defining malignancies. Cancer. 2010;116:5306–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Sahasrabuddhe VV, Shiels MS, McGlynn KA, Engels EA. The risk of hepatocellular carcinoma among individuals with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in the United States. Cancer. 2012;118:6226–33.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Shebl FM, Engels EA, Goedert JJ, Chaturvedi AK. Pulmonary infections and risk of lung cancer among persons with AIDS. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr (1999). 2010;55:375–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Silverberg MJ, Chao C, Leyden WA, Xu L, Horberg MA, et al. HIV infection, immunodeficiency, viral replication, and the risk of cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2011;20:2551–9.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Silverberg MJ, Lau B, Justice AC, Engels E, Gill MJ, et al. Risk of anal cancer in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected individuals in North America. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;54:1026–34.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Silverberg MJ, Leyden W, Warton EM, Quesenberry Jr CP, Engels EA, Asgari MM. HIV infection status, immunodeficiency, and the incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2013;105:350–60.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. van Leeuwen MT, Vajdic CM, Middleton MG, McDonald AM, Law M, et al. Continuing declines in some but not all HIV-associated cancers in Australia after widespread use of antiretroviral therapy. AIDS (London, England). 2009;23:2183–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.HIV Epidemiology and Prevention Program, The Kirby InstituteUniversity of New South WalesSydneyAustralia

Personalised recommendations