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Food Allergens pp 175-192 | Cite as

Predicting Potential Allergenicity of New proteins Introduced by Biotechnology

  • Tanja Ćirković Veličković
  • Marija Gavrović-Jankulović
Chapter
Part of the Food Microbiology and Food Safety book series (FMFS)

Abstract

The potential allergenicity of newly introduced proteins in genetically engineered foods has become an important safety evaluation issue. Food allergy is an important and common health issue, and therefore there is a need to characterize the sensitizing potential of novel food proteins. Approaches currently used include consideration of structural similarity to, or amino acid sequence homology with, known allergens using bioinformatics tools; immunologic cross-reactivity with known allergens; and the measurement of resistance to proteolytic digestion by pepsin in a simulated gastric fluid. Although these methods provide information that contributes to safety assessment, they do not provide a direct evaluation of the ability of a novel protein to cause allergic sensitization. For this reason, considerable interest exists in the design and evaluation of suitable animal models that may provide a more holistic assessment of allergenic potential. An appropriate animal model should produce sensitization and/or elicitation of allergic symptoms at a physiologically relevant dose, via the relevant route of exposure in a standard mouse strain. So far, developed mouse models of food allergy mostly use adjuvants (such as cholera toxin and staphylococcal enterotoxin B) and the oral route of exposure. None of the currently studied models has been widely accepted and validated. More work is needed on identification of appropriate end points, particularly those that reflect anaphylactic activity. Before validation can be considered, decisions have to be made regarding which mouse strains and adjuvants to include, as well as the doses of test materials. Appropriate test substances that represent a range from highly allergenic to poorly allergenic need to be selected. The data also indicate that the food matrix can influence responses to individual proteins and, therefore, the food matrix should be taken into account when developing models for predicting the allergenic potential of new proteins introduced by biotechnology.

Keywords

Genetically Modify Food Allergy Food Allergen Genetically Modify Crop Oral Tolerance 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations

ARP

Allergen-representative peptides

BLAST

Basic local alignment search tool

DASARP

Detection based on automated selection of allergen-representative peptides

DDBJ

DNA Data Bank of Japan

EMBL

European molecular biology laboratory

ELISA

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

FAO

Food and agriculture organization

GM

Genetically modified

HMM

Hidden Markov model

MEME

Motif-based sequence analysis

NCBI

National center for biotechnology information

PAGE

Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

PD

Propensity distance

QSAR

Quantitative structure-activity relationship

SDS

Sodium dodecyl sulfate

SGF

Simulated gastric fluid

SEB

Staphylococcal enterotoxin B

SDAP

Structural database of allergenic proteins

WHO

World Health Organization

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tanja Ćirković Veličković
    • 1
  • Marija Gavrović-Jankulović
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biochemistry Faculty of ChemistryUniversity of BelgradeBelgradeSerbia

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