Advertisement

Hip, Knee, and Ankle Joint Forces in Healthy Weight, Overweight, and Obese Individuals During Walking

  • Brooke A. Sanford
  • John L. Williams
  • Audrey R. Zucker-Levin
  • William M. Mihalko
Conference paper

Abstract

Worldwide in 2008, more than 1.4 billion adults, age 20 and older, were overweight. Overweight and obesity are defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health. The World Health Organization defines overweight as having a body mass index (BMI) greater than or equal to 25 kg/m2 and obese as a BMI greater than or equal to 30 kg/m2. The aim of this study was to compare peak hip, knee, and ankle joint compressive loads during gait at self-selected speed between overweight and healthy weight individuals and to examine the functional relationship between body mass and peak joint forces. Twelve subjects, six high BMI subjects and six normal BMI control subjects, participated in this investigation. Absolute peak hip, knee, and ankle joint forces were 40 %, 43 %, and 48 % greater, respectively, for the high-BMI versus normal group. Joint loads were found to increase approximately linearly with body mass. Body mass accounted for 70–80 % of the variation in the peak compressive load at the hip, knee, and ankle during gait. These findings support the link that increased body mass leads to increased biomechanical loading of the joints and could be a factor linking obesity to osteoarthritis.

Keywords

Ground Reaction Force Stance Phase Joint Moment Increase Body Mass Joint Load 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Aaobe J, Bliddal H, Messier SP, Alkjaer T, Henriksen M (2011) Effects of an intensive weight loss program on knee joint loading in obese adults with knee osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 19:822–828CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Browning RC, Kram R (2007) Effects of obesity on the biomechanics of walking at different speeds. Med Sci Sports Exerc 39:1632–1641CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Damsgaard M, Rasmussen J, Christensen ST, Surma E, de Zee M (2006) Analysis of musculoskeletal systems in the AnyBodyModeling System. Simul Model Pract Th 14: 1100–1111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Felson DT, Anderson JJ, Nalmark A, Walker AM, Meenan RF (1988) Obesity and knee osteoarthritis. The Framingham Study. Ann Intern Med 109:18–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Klein Horsman MD, Koopman HFJM, van der Helm FCT, Prose LP, Veeger HEJ (2007) Morphological muscle and joint parameters for musculoskeletal modeling of the lower extremity. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) 22:239–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lai PPK, Leung AKL, Li ANM, Zhang M (2008) Three-dimensional gait analysis of obese adults. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) 23:S2–S6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lund M, Anderson MS, de Zee M, Rasmussen J (2011) Functional scaling of musculoskeletal models. Proceedings of the XXIII international society of biomechanics, Brussels, BelgiumGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Messier SP, Gutekunst DJ, Davis C, DeVita P (2005) Weight loss reduces knee-joint loads in overweight and obese older adults with knee osteoarthritis. Arthritis Rheum 52:2026–2032CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Raikova RT, Prilutsky BI (2001) Sensitivity of predicted muscle forces to parameters of the optimization-based human leg model revealed by analytical and numerical analyses. J Biomech 34:1243–1255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Rasmussen J, de Zee M, Damsgaard M, Christensen ST, Marek C, Siebertz K (2005) A general method for scaling musculo-skeletal models. Proceedings of the international symposium on computer simulation in biomechanics, Cleveland, OH, USAGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sheehan KJ, Gormley J (2013) The influence of excess body mass on adult gait. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) 28(3):337–343, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2013.01.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Shelbourne KB, Pandy MG, Andersen FC, Torry MR (2004) Pattern of anterior cruciate ligament force in normal walking. J Biomech 37:797–805CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Wilson JLA, Wilson DAJ, Dunbar MJ, Deluzio KJ (2010) Preoperative gait patterns and BMI are associated with tibial component migration. Acta Orthop 81:478–486Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    World Health Organisation (2008) Obesity and overweight. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs311/en/. Accessed 28 Mar 2013

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Brooke A. Sanford
    • 1
  • John L. Williams
    • 1
  • Audrey R. Zucker-Levin
    • 2
  • William M. Mihalko
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Biomedical EngineeringUniversity of MemphisMemphisUSA
  2. 2.Department of Physical TherapyUniversity of Tennessee Health Science CenterMemphisUSA
  3. 3.Campbell Clinic Department of Orthopaedics and Biomedical EngineeringUniversity of Tennessee Health Science CenterMemphisUSA

Personalised recommendations