Advertisement

Microbial Inoculums

  • Mohammad MiransariEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Use of soil microbes to inoculate plants is a favorite method of fertilization environmentally and economically. There are different microbial species used as inoculum including arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and plant growth promotin rhizobacteria (PGPR) including rhizobium. The microbial species are able to positively affect plant growth by increasing the uptake of water and nutrients, production of different products, controlling unfavorable microbes, interacting with other microbes, etc. It is hence important to prepare suitable inoculums, which are able to act favorably under different conditions including stress. The microbial inoculum must be tested under different conditions so that the most efficient and tolerant species be selected and used. If the microbial species are used under stress, preferably they must be isolated from stressed environments so that they can tolerate and handle the stress more efficiently. If the consortium of microbial species is used, the important factor is the interactions between the microbes, which must be determined and in case of favorite interactions they can be used as inoculum. Some of the most and recent findings are reviewed and analyzed.

Keywords

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Inoculum Microbial species Interactions Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) 

References

  1. Adesemoye A, Kloepper J (2009) Plant–microbes interactions in enhanced fertilizer use efficiency. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 85:1–12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Albareda M, Dardanelli M, Sousa C, Megıas M, Temprano F, Rodriguez-Navarro D (2006) Factors affecting the attachment of rhizospheric bacteria to bean and soybea roots. FEMS Microbiol Lett 259:67–73PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Auffan M, Rose J, Bottero J-Y, Lowry G, Jolivet J, Wiesner M (2009) Towards definition of inorganic nanoparticles from an environmental, health and safety perspective. Nat Nanotechnol 4:634–641PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bashan Y, Puente M, Rodriguez-Mendoza M, Toledo G, Holguin G, Ferrera-Cerrato R, Pedrin S (1995) Survival of Azospirillum brasilense in the bulk soil and rhizosphere o 23 soil types. Appl Environ Microbiol 61:1938–1945PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bashan Y, Hernandez J, Leyva L, Bacilio M (2002) Alginate microbeads as inoculan carriers for plant growthpromoting bacteria. Biol Fertil Soil 35:359–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bell T, Newman JA, Silverman BW, Turner SL, Lilley AK (2005) The contribution o species richness and composition to bacterial services. Nature 436:1157–1160PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brahmaprakash GP, Kumar P (2011) Biofertilizers for Sustainability. J Indian Inst Sci 92:37–62Google Scholar
  8. Cartieaux F et al (2003) Transcriptome analysis of Arabidopsis colonized by a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium reveals a general effect on disease resistance. Plant J 36:177–188PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Fraser C, Alm EJ, Polz MF, Spratt BG, Hanage WP (2009) The bacterial specie challenge: making sense of genetic and ecological diversity. Science 323:741–746PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gryndler M, Hrselova H, Sudova R, Gryndlerova H, Rezacova V, Merhautova V (2005) Hyphal growth and mycorrhiza formation by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomu claroideum BEG 23 is stimulated by humic substances. Mycorrhiza 15(7):483–488PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gryndler M, Hrselova H, Cajthaml T, Havrankova M, Rezacova V, Gryndlerova H, Larsen J (2009) Influence of soil organic matter decomposition on arbuscula mycorrhizal fungi in terms of asymbiotic hyphal growth and root colonizatio. Mycorrhiza 19:255–266PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Jansa J, Smith FA, Smith SA (2008) Are there benefits of simultaneous root colonizatio by different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi? New Phytol 177:779–789PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Johnson NC, Graham JH, Smith FA (1997) Functioning of mycorrhizal association along the mutualism-parasitism continuum. New Phytol 135:575–586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Khavazi K, Rejali F, Seguin P, Miransari M (2007) Effects of carrier, sterilizatio method, and incubation on survival of Bradyrhizobium japonicum in soybean (Glycin max L.) inoculants. Enzym Microb Technol 41:780–784CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kloepper JW (1996) Host specificity in microbe-microbe interactions. Bioscience 46:406–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lekberg Y, Koide RT, Rohr JR, Aldrich-Wolfe L, Morton JB (2007) Role of nich restrictions and dispersal in the composition of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities. J Ecol 95:95–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lempert RJ, Norling P, Pernin CG, Resetar SA, Mahnovski S (2003) Next generatio environmental technologies: benefits and barriers. Rand, New York, p 24Google Scholar
  18. Liu L, Liu Y, Shin H, Chen R, Li J, Du G, Chen J (2013) Microbial production o glucosamine and N-acetylglucosamine: advances and perspectives. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 97:6149–6158PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Malusa E, Sas-Paszt L, Ciesielska J (2012) Technologies for beneficial microorganism inocula used as biofertilizers. Sci World J Article ID 491206:12Google Scholar
  20. Manjula K, Podile A (2001) Chitin-supplemented formulations improve biocontrol an plant growth promoting efficiency of Bacillus subtilis AF 1. Can J Microbiol 47:618–625PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Marschner P, Rumberger A (2004) Rapid changes in the rhizosphere bacteria community structure during re-colonization of sterilized soil. Biol Fertil Soil 40:1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Megharaj M, Ramakrishnan B, Venkateswarlu K, Sethunathan N, Naidu R (2011) Bioremediation approaches for organic pollutants: a critical perspective. Environ Intern 37:1362–1375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Miransari M (2010) Contribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis to plant growth under different types of soil stresses. Plant Biol 12:563–569 (Review article)Google Scholar
  24. Miransari M (2011a) Interactions between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and soil bacteria. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 89:917–930 (Review article)Google Scholar
  25. Miransari M (2011b) Soil microbes and plant fertilization. App Microbiol Biotechnol 92:875–885 (Review article)Google Scholar
  26. Miransari M (2013a). Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria. J Plant Nutr (in press)Google Scholar
  27. Miransari M (2013b). Soil microbes and the availability of soil nutrients. Act Physiologiae Plantarum 35:3075–3084Google Scholar
  28. Miransari M, Bahrami HA, Rejali F, Malakouti MJ, Torabi H (2007) Using arbuscula mycorrhiza to reduce the stressful effects of soil compaction on corn (Zea mays L.) growth. Soil Biol Biochem 39:2014–2026CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Miransari M, Bahrami HA, Rejali F, Malakouti MJ (2008) Using arbuscular mycorrhiz to reduce the stressful effects of soil compaction on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) growth. Soil Biol Biochem 40:1197–1206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Miransari M et al (2013a). Improving soybean (Glycine max L.) N2-fixation unde stress. J Plant Growth Regul 32:909–921 Google Scholar
  31. Miransari M et al. (2013b). Plant hormones as signals in arbuscular mycorrhiza symbiosis. Crit Rev Biotechnol. (In press)Google Scholar
  32. Muresu R, Sulas L, Caredda S (2003) Legume—Rhizobium symbiosis: characteristic and prospects of inoculation. Rivoluzione Agronomica 37:33–45Google Scholar
  33. Navrotsky A (2000) Technology and applications. Nanomaterials in the environment agriculture, and technology (NEAT). J Nanopart Res 2:321–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Rouissi T, John R, Brar S, Tyagi R, Prevost D (2010) Original research: centrifuga recovery of rhizobial cells from fermented starch industry wastewater and development of stable formulation. Ind Biotechnol 6:41–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Schenk P, Carvalhais L, Kazan K (2012) Unravelling plant-microbe interactions: ca multi-species transcriptomics help? Trend Biotechnol 30:177–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Schmidt FR (2005) Optimization and scale up of industrial fermentation processes. App Microbiol Biotechnol 68:425–435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Seneviratne G, Zavahir JS, Bandara W, Weerasekara M (2008) Fungal-bacteria biofilms: their development for novel biotechnological applications. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 24:739–743CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Shen Z, Wang J (2011) Biological denitrification using cross-linked starch/PCL blend as solid carbon source and biofilm carrier. Bioresour Technol 102:8835–8838PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Smidsrod O, Skjak-Braek G (1990) Alginate as immobilization matrix for cells. Trend Biotechnol 8:71–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Strullu D, Plenchette C (1991) The entrapment of Glomus sp. in alginate beads and their use as root inoculum. Mycol Res 95:1194–1196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Tavasolee A, Aliasgharzad N, SalehiJouzani G, Mardi M, Asgharzadeh A (2011) Interactive effects of Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobial strains on chickpe growth and nutrient content in plant. Afr J Biotechnol 10:7585–7591Google Scholar
  42. Trivedi P, Pandey A, Palni L (2005) Carrier-based preparations of plant growth promoting bacterial inoculants suitable for use in cooler regions. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 21:941–945CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. van der Heijden MGA, Bardgett RD, van Straalen NM (2008) The unseen majority: soil microbes as drivers of plant diversity and productivity in terrestrial ecosystems. Ecol Lett 11:296–310PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Vassilev N, Vassileva M, Azcon R, Medina A (2001) Preparation of gel-entrappe mycorrhizal inoculum in the presence or absence of Yarowia lipolytica. Biotechnol Lett 23:907–909CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Vassileva M, Serrano M, Bravo V et al (2010) Multifunctional properties of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms grown on agro-industrial wastes in fermentation and soil conditions. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 85:1287–1299PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Verhagen BWM et al (2004) The transcriptome of Rhizobacteria-induced systemic resistance in Arabidopis. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 17:895–908PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Vilchez S, Manzanera M (2011) Biotechnological uses of desiccation-toleran microorganisms for the rhizoremediation of soils subjected to seasonal drought. App Microbiol Biotechnol 91:1297–1304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Wagg C, Jansa J, Schmid B, van der Heijden G (2011) Belowground biodiversity effect of plant symbionts support aboveground productivity. Ecol Lett 14:1001–1009PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Yabur R, Bashan Y, Hernandez-Carmona G (2007) Alginate from the macroalga Sargassum sinicola as a novel source for microbial immobilization material i wastewater treatment and plant growth promotion. J Appl Phycol 19(1):43–53Google Scholar
  50. Zabihi HR, Savaghebi GR, Khavazi K, Ganjali A, Miransari M (2010) Pseudomona bacteria and phosphorous fertilization, affecting wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) yield and uptake under greenhouse and field conditions. Acta Physiol Plant 33:145–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Zhao ZX et al (2010) ABA-regulated G protein signaling in arabidopsis guard cells: 381 proteomic perspective. J Proteome Res 9:1637–1647PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Book and ArticleAbtinBerkeh Limited CoIsfahanIran

Personalised recommendations