Toxicology of Hydroxychloroquine and Chloroquine and the Pathology of the Retinopathy They Cause

  • David J. Browning


The 4-aminoquinolines are predictably toxic at high enough concentrations. Toxicity in all tissues derives from derangement of lysosomal function and is dose dependent. Chloroquine is more toxic than hydroxychloroquine. The sensitivity of different cell types varies, but all cells exhibiting toxic effects accumulate myelin bodies.


Ganglion Cell Retinal Pigment Epithelium Retinal Pigment Epithelium Cell Ideal Body Weight Autophagic Vacuole 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Actual body weight


4-Aminoquinolines (chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine)


4-Aminoquinoline retinopathy






Curvilinear tubules




Effective dose 50






Ganglion cell layer






Ideal body weight




Inner nuclear layer




Inner plexiform layer








Lethal dose 50




Membranous cytoplasmic body


Multifocal electroretinography








Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug




Rheumatoid arthritis


Retinal pigment epithelium


Toxic dose 50


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • David J. Browning
    • 1
  1. 1.Charlotte Eye Ear Nose & Throat AssociatesCharlotteUSA

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