Advertisement

The Epidemiology of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Adulthood

  • Traolach S. BrughaEmail author
  • Freya Tyrer
  • Fiona Scott
  • M. John Bankart
  • Sally Anna Cooper
  • Sally McManus
Chapter

Abstract

The work described in this chapter shows that it is possible to study autism among the adult population using similar methods to those used to study other mental disorders. It is vital that others undertake similar work elsewhere. There is no previous literature with which to compare our findings. For many the most surprising and concerning finding is that there are so many adults with autism in the community without any recognition or diagnosis, even in a country like England with health care that is free when needed for everyone.

Keywords

Autism Spectrum Disorder Autism Spectrum Disorder Intellectual Disability Asperger Syndrome Autism Spectrum Quotient 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements 

Howard Meltzer (deceased), Jane Smith, study clinicians.

Funders: Department of Health, London via the NHS Information Centre, Leeds, UK.

References

  1. Baird, G., Simonoff, E., Pickles, A., Chandler, S., Loucas, T., Meldrum, D., et al. (2006). Prevalence of disorders of the autism spectrum in a population cohort of children in South Thames: The Special Needs and Autism Project (SNAP). Lancet, 368(9531), 210–215.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Balfe, M., & Tantam, D. (2010). A descriptive social and health profile of a community sample of adults and adolescents with Asperger syndrome. BMC Research Notes, 3, 300.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baron-Cohen, S., Lombardo, M. V., Auyeung, B., Ashwin, E., Chakrabarti, B., & Knickmeyer, R. (2011). Why are autism spectrum conditions more prevalent in males? PLoS Biology, 9(6), e1001081.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baron-Cohen, S., Scott, F. J., Allison, C., Williams, J., Bolton, P., Matthews, F. E., et al. (2009). Prevalence of autism-spectrum conditions: UK school-based population study. British Journal of Psychiatry, 194(6), 500–509.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S., Skinner, R., Martin, J., & Clubley, E. (2001). The autism-spectrum quotient (AQ): Evidence from Asperger syndrome/high-functioning autism, males and females, scientists and mathematicians. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 31(1), 5–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brugha, T., Cooper, S.A., McManus, S., Purdon, S., Scott, F.J., Spiers, N.A., & Tyrer, F., The NHS Information Centre, C.A.M.H.T. (Ed.). (2012). Estimating the prevalence of autism spectrum conditions in adults: Extending the 2007 adult psychiatric morbidity survey (p. 31). Leeds: The NHS Information Centre.Google Scholar
  7. Brugha, T. S., McManus, S., Bankart, J., Scott, F., Purdon, S., Smith, J., et al. (2011). Epidemiology of autism spectrum disorders in adults in the community in England. Archives of General Psychiatry, 68(5), 459–466.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brugha, T., McManus, S., Meltzer, H., Smith, J., Scott, F. J., Purdon, S., et al. (2009). Autism spectrum disorders in adults living in households throughout England—report from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2007 (p. 71). Leeds, England: NHS Information Centre.Google Scholar
  9. Brugha, T. S., McManus, S., Smith, J., Scott, F. J., Meltzer, H., Purdon, S., et al. (2012). Validating two survey methods for identifying cases of autism spectrum disorder among adults in the community. Psychological Medicine, 42(3), 647–656.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brugha, T. S., & Meltzer, H. (2008). measurement of psychiatric and psychological disorders and outcomes in populations. In K. Heggenhougen & S. Quah (Eds.), International encyclopedia of public health (pp. 261–272). San Diego, CA: Academic.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Ed.). (2012). Prevalence of autism spectrum disorders—Autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network, 14 sites, United States, 2008 (Vol. 61, No. 3, p. 19). Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.Google Scholar
  12. Cooper, S. A., Smiley, E., Morrison, J., Williamson, A., & Allan, L. (2007). Mental ill-health in adults with intellectual disabilities: Prevalence and associated factors. British Journal of Psychiatry, 190, 27–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Department of Health. (2010). Fulfilling and rewarding lives: The strategy for adults with autism in England. London: Department of Health.Google Scholar
  14. Fombonne, E. (2005). Epidemiology of autistic disorder and other pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 66(Suppl 10), 3–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Gill, B., Meltzer, H., Hinds, K., & Petticrew, M., Office for National Statistics Social Survey Division (Ed.). (1996). OPCS surveys of psychiatric morbidity in Great Britain. Report 7: Psychiatric morbidity among homeless people (p. 238). London: HMSO.Google Scholar
  16. Green, H., McGinnity, A., Meltzer, H., Ford, T., & Goodman, R. (2005). Mental health of children and young people in Great Britain, 2004. Hampshire, England: Palgrave McMillan.Google Scholar
  17. Howlin, P., Goode, S., Hutton, J., & Rutter, M. (2004). Adult outcome for children with autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45(2), 212–229.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lai, M. C., Lombardo, M. V., Pasco, G., Ruigrok, A. N., Wheelwright, S. J., Sadek, S. A., et al. (2011). A behavioral comparison of male and female adults with high functioning autism spectrum conditions. PLoS One, 6(6), e20835.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lord, C., Rutter, M., DiLavore, P. C., & Risi, S. (2002). Autism diagnostic observation schedule. ADOS manual. Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
  20. Lord, C., Rutter, M., & Le Couteur, A. (1994). Autism diagnostic interview-revised: A revised version of a diagnostic interview for caregivers of individuals with possible pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 24, 659–685.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. McManus, S., Meltzer, H., Brugha, T., Bebbington, P., & Jenkins, R. (2009). Adult Psychiatric Morbidity in England, 2007. Results of a household survey. London: The NHS Information Centre for Health and Social Care.Google Scholar
  22. National Audit Office (Ed.). (2009). Supporting people with autism through adulthood. London: NAO.Google Scholar
  23. National Autistic Society. (2008). I exist. The message from adults with autism. London: National Autistic Society.Google Scholar
  24. New, A. S., Triebwasser, J., & Charney, D. S. (2008). The case for shifting borderline personality disorder to Axis I. Biological Psychiatry, 64(8), 653–659.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Pickett, J. A., Paculdo, D. R., Shavelle, R. M., & Strauss, D. J. (2006). 1998–2002 Update on “causes of death in autism”. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36(2), 287–288.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Rai, D., Kerr, M. P., McManus, S., Jordanova, V., Lewis, G., & Brugha, T. S. (2012). Epilepsy and psychiatric comorbidity: A nationally representative population-based study. Epilepsia, 53, 1095–1103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Rastam, M., Gillberg, C., & Wentz, E. (2003). Outcome of teenage-onset anorexia nervosa in a Swedish community-based sample. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 12(Suppl 1), I78–I90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Shattuck, P. T., Wagner, M., Narendorf, S., Sterzing, P., & Hensley, M. (2011). Post-high school service use among young adults with an autism spectrum disorder. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 165(2), 141–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Wing, L., Leekam, S. R., Libby, S. J., Gould, J., & Larcombe, M. (2002). The Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders: background, inter-rater reliability and clinical use. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 43(3), 307–325.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Yeargin-Allsopp, M., Rice, C., Karapurkar, T., Doernberg, N., Boyle, C., & Murphy, C. (2003). Prevalence of autism in a US metropolitan area. JAMA, 289(1), 49–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Traolach S. Brugha
    • 1
    Email author
  • Freya Tyrer
    • 1
  • Fiona Scott
    • 2
  • M. John Bankart
    • 1
  • Sally Anna Cooper
    • 3
  • Sally McManus
    • 4
  1. 1.University of LeicesterLeicesterUK
  2. 2.University of CambridgeCambridgeUK
  3. 3.University of GlasgowGlasgowUK
  4. 4.NatCen Social ResearchLondonUK

Personalised recommendations