Ultrasound and Autism: How Disrupted Redox Homeostasis and Transient Membrane Porosity Confer Risk

Chapter

Abstract

Autism is a group of heterogenetic conditions, comprised of syndromic and nonsyndromic phenotypes. Its heterogeneity has challenged scientists for decades in the attempt to delimit its etiological origins. In this search, focus has fallen heavily on genetics, although a growing body of research suggests a large portion of cases may have a more complex etiology than genetics can explain. Therefore, greater attention is being paid to epigenetic effectors which may play roles in the development of autism. One such teratogen is prenatal ultrasound. In this chapter, we review the current modes of use and recent deregulations surrounding ultrasound, the primary and secondary bioeffects following exposure, its relevance to the development of the brain as well as to autism, the plasticity of the biological organism and how two separate effectors can lead to a common phenotype, and our hopes for future research in this area.

Abbreviations

AP-1

Activator protein 1

APC

Activated protein C

ATP

Adenosine triphosphate

cAMP

Cyclic adenosine monophosphate

cGMP

Cyclic guanosine monophosphate

CRE

cAMP response element

CREB

cAMP response element binding protein

CSF

Cerebrospinal fluid

ERK

Extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase

FDA

United States Food and Drug Administration

FGF

Fibroblast growth factor

GMP

Guanosine monophosphate

GSK3β

Glycogen synthase kinase 3β

HAT

Histone acetyltransferases

HDAC

Histone deacetylase

iNOS

Irreducible nitric oxide synthase

JNK

c-Jun N-terminal kinase

LAMP-1

Lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein 1

LEF

Lymphoid enhancer factor

LRP

Lipoprotein receptor-related protein

LTP

Long-term potentiation

MAPK

Mitogen-activated protein kinase

mTOR

Mammalian target of rapamycin

NFκB

Nuclear factor κB

NMDA

N-methyl-D-aspartate

PIP2

Phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate

PIP3

Phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate

PKA

Protein kinase A

PKC

Protein kinase C

PTEN

Phosphatase and tensin homologue

redox

Reduction-oxidation

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

TCF

T cell factor

US

Ultrasound

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Anatomical Sciences and NeurobiologyUniversity of Louisville School of MedicineLouisvilleUSA
  2. 2.Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral SciencesUniversity of Louisville School of MedicineLouisvilleUSA

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