Size, Sexual Dimorphism, and Polygyny in Primates

  • T. H. Clutton-Brock
Part of the Advances in Primatology book series (AIPR)

Abstract

Among primates, the extent of sexual dimorphism in body size ranges from species where mature females are slightly larger than mature males, as in some of the marmosets and tamarins (Ralls, 1976), through species where males are slightly larger than females, like many of the diurnal lemurs and the arboreal colobines, to those where males are nearly twice as heavy as females, as in the larger cercopithecines, the gorilla and the orang (Clutton-Brock and Harvey, 1978). The tendency for polygynous mammals to show greater size dimorphism than monogamous ones was originally noticed by Darwin (1871), and quantitative studies have subsequently confirmed that in primates (Gautier-Hion, 1975; Clutton-Brock et al., 1977; Clutton-Brock and Harvey, 1978) (see Fig. 1), pinnipeds and ungulates (Alexander et al., 1979), as well as birds (Lack, 1968) and amphibians (Shine, 1979) monogamous species consistently show less dimorphism than polygynous ones.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alexander, R. D., Hoogland, J. L., Howard, R. D., Noonan, M., and Sherman, P. W. 1979. Sexual dimorphisms, and breeding systems in pinnipeds, ungulates, primates and humans, in: Evolutionary Biology and Human Social Behavior: An Anthropological Perspective (N. A. Chagnon and W. Irons, eds.), pp. 402–604, Duxbury Press, North Scituate, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  2. Bateman, A. J. 1948. Intrasexual selection in Drosophila. Heredity 2: 349–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Charles-Dominique, P. 1974. Aggression and territoriality in nocturnal prosimians, in: Primate Aggression, Territoriality and Xenophobia; A Comprehensive Perspective (R. L. Holloway, ed.), pp. 31–48, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  4. Clutton-Brock, T. H. 1983. Selection in relation to sex, in: Evolution from Molecules to Men (Proceedings of the Darwin Centennial Conference, Cambridge) (J. S. Bendall, ed.), pp. 457–482, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  5. Clutton-Brock, T. H., and Harvey, P. H. 1978. Mammals, resources and reproductive strategies. Nature 273: 191–195.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Clutton-Brock, T. H., Harvey, P. H., and Rudder, B. 1977. Sexual dimorphism, socionomic sex ratio and body weight in primates. Nature 269: 797–800.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Clutton-Brock, T. H., Albon, S. D., Gibson, R. M., and Guinness, F. E. 1979. The logical stag: Adaptive aspects of fighting in red deer (Cervus elaphus L.). Anim. Behav. 27: 211–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Clutton-Brock, T. H., Albon, S. D., and Harvey, P. H. 1980. Antlers, body size and breeding systems in the Cervidae. Nature 285: 565–567.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Clutton-Brock, T. H., Guinness, F. E., and Albon, S. D. 1982. Red Deer: Behavior and Ecology of Two Sexes, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  10. Darwin, C. 1871. The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex, Murray, London.Google Scholar
  11. Downhower, J. F. 1976. Darwin’s finches and the evolution of sexual dimorphism in body size. Nature 263: 558–563.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gautier-Hion, A. 1975. Dimorphisme sexuel et organisation sociale chez les cercopithécinés africains. Mammalia 39: 365–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gautier-Hion, A. 1980. Seasonal variations of diet related to species and sex in a community of Cercopithecus monkeys. J. Anim. Ecol. 49: 237–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Geist, V. 1966. The evolution of horn-like organs. Behaviour 27: 175–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Geist, V. 1971. Mountain Sheep: A Study in Behavior and Evolution, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  16. Grafen, A. 1982. How not to measure inclusive fitness. Nature 298: 419–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hrdy, S. B. 1977. The Langurs of Abu: Female and Male Strategies of Reproduction, Harvard University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  18. Huxley, J. S. 1932. Problems of Relative Growth, Methuen, London.Google Scholar
  19. Janis, C. 1982. Evolution of horns in ungulates: Ecology and paleoecology. Biol. Rev. 57: 261–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kleiman, D. G. 1977. Monogamy in mammals. Q. Rev. Biol. 52: 39–69.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Klingel, H. 1972. Social behaviour of African equidae. Zool. Africana 7: 175–185.Google Scholar
  22. Kruuk, H. 1972. The Spotted Hyena: A Study of Predation and Social Behavior, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  23. Lack, D. 1968. Ecological Adaptations for Breeding in Birds, Methuen, London.Google Scholar
  24. Leutenegger, W. 1978. Scaling of sexual dimorphism in body size and breeding system in primates. Nature 272: 610–611.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Leutenegger, W. 1982. Scaling of sexual dimorphism in body weight and canine size in primates. Folia Primatol 37: 163–176.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Leutenegger, W., and Kelly, J. T. 1977. Relationship of sexual dimorphism in canine size and body size to social behavioral and ecological correlates in anthropoid primates. Primates 18: 117–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lowther, P. 1975. Geographic and ecological variation in the family Icteridae. Wilson Bull. 87: 481–495.Google Scholar
  28. McGregor, P. K., Krebs, J. R., and Perrins, C. M. 1981. Song repertoires and lifetime reproductive success in the great tit, Parus major. Am. Nat. 118: 149–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Moreno-Black, G., and Maples, W. R. 1977. Differential habitat utilization of four Cercopithecidae in a Kenyan forest. Folia Primatol. 27: 85–107.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Nagel, U., and Kummer, H. 1974. Variation in cercopithecoid aggressive behavior, in: Primate Aggression, Territoriality and Xenophobia; A Comprehensive Perspective (R. L. Holloway, ed.), pp. 159–184, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  31. Packer, C. 1979a. Inter-troop trnsfer and inbreeding avoidance in Papio anubis. Anim. Behav. 27: 1–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Packer, C. 1979b. Male dominance and reproductive activity in Papio anubis. Anim. Behav. 27: 37–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ralls, K. 1976. Mammals in which the female is larger than the male. Q. Rev. Biol. 51: 245–272.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ralls, K. 1977. Sexual dimorphism in mammals: Avian models and unanswered questions. Am. Nat. 111: 917–938.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Rensch, B. 1959. Evolution above the Species Level, Methuen, London.Google Scholar
  36. Selander, R. K. 1972. Sexual selection and dimorphism in birds, in: Sexual Selection and the Descent of Man, 1871–1971 (B. Campbell, ed.), pp. 180–230, Aldine, Chicago.Google Scholar
  37. Shine, R. 1979. Sexual selection and sexual dimorphism in the Amphibia. Copeia 2: 297–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Smith, J. M. 1958. The Theory of Evolution, Penguin, Hardmondsworth.Google Scholar
  39. Smith, J. M. 1978. The Evolution of Sex, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  40. Sorenson, M. W. 1974. A review of aggressive behavior in the tree shrews, in: Primate Aggression, Territoriality and Xenophobia; A Comprehensive Perspective (R. L. Holloway, ed.), pp. 13–30, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  41. Sussman, R. W., and Richard, A. 1974. The role of aggression among diurnal prosimians, in: Primate Aggression, Territoriality and Xenophobia; A Comprehensive Perspective (R. L. Holloway, ed.), pp. 49–76, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  42. Trivers, R. L. 1972. Parental investment and sexual selection, in: Sexual Selection and the Descent of Man, 1871–1971 (B. Campbell, ed.), pp. 136–179, Aldine, Chicago.Google Scholar
  43. Wade, M.J. 1979. Sexual selection and variance in reproductive success. Am. Nat. 114: 742–746.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Wade, M. J., and Arnold, S. J. 1980. The intensity of sexual selection in relation to male sexual behavior, female choice, and sperm precedence. Anim. Behav. 28: 446–461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Zuckerman, S. 1932. The Social Life of Monkeys and Apes, Routledge, Kegan & Paul, London.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. H. Clutton-Brock
    • 1
  1. 1.Large Animal Research Group, Department of ZoologyUniversity of CambridgeCambridgeEngland

Personalised recommendations