Advertisement

Optical Radiation Hazards to the Skin

  • David Sliney
  • Myron Wolbarsht
Chapter

Abstract

Laser radiation injury to the skin is normally considered secondary to injury of the eye despite the fact that thresholds of injury to the skin and eye are comparable except in the retinal hazard region (400–1400 nm). In the far-infrared and the ultraviolet spectral regions where optical radiation is not focused on the retina, skin injury thresholds are approximately the same as corneal injury thresholds. The probability of exposure of the skin is greater than for the eye because of the skin’s greater surface area, and yet we still consider injury to the eye of greater significance. Threshold injuries resulting from short exposure to the skin from far-infrared (IR-C) and UV-C radiation are also very superficial and may only involve changes to the outer dead layer—the “horny layer”—of the skin cells. A temporary injury to the skin may be painful if sufficiently severe; but eventually it will heal, often without any sign of the injury. Injury to larger areas of skin are far more serious as they may lead to serious loss of body fluids, toxemia, and systemic infections.

Keywords

Heat Stress Human Skin Stratum Corneum Ultraviolet Radiation Action Spectrum 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bachern, A., 1929, The ultraviolet transparency of the various layers of human skin, Am. J. Physiol 91:58–64.Google Scholar
  2. Bachern, A., 1955, Time factors of erythema and pigmentation, produced by ultraviolet rays of different wavelengths, J. Invest Dermatol 25:215–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Berger, D., Urbach, F., and Davies, R. E., 1968, The action spectrum of erythema induced by ultraviolet radiation, preliminary report, “Proceedings, XIII, Congressus Internationalis Dermatologiae — München, 1967,” pp. 1112–1117, Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  4. Blum, H. F., and Terus, W. S., 1946, Inhibition of erythema of sunburn by large doses of ultraviolet radiation, and The erythemal threshold for sunburn, Am. J. Physiol 146:97–106, 107–117.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bode, H. G., and Witte, E., 1947, Uber den Zusammenhang zwischen absorierter Strahlenergie und biologischen Effeckt bei Bestrahlung mit Licht verschiedener Wellenlangen, Strahlentherapie 76:627–663.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Brownell, A. S., Parr, W. H., and Hysell, D. K., 1969, Skin and carbon dioxide laser radiation, Arch. Environ. Health 18:437–442.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Brownell, A. S., Hysell, D. K., and Parr, W. H., 1971, Millisecond exposure to simulated CO2 laser radiation, Report 953, USAMRL Ft. Knox, KY.Google Scholar
  8. Bücker, H., 1965, Zur Erythemwirkung optischer Strahlung, UV-Erythem—Wärmeerythem, Strahlenther. 115:136–142.Google Scholar
  9. Buettner, K., 1952, Effects of extreme heat and cold on human skin. Numerical analysis and pilot experiments on penetrating flash radiation effects, J. Appl Physiol 5:207.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Buettner, K., 1937, Thermal radiation and the reflection properties of human skin, Strahlenther. 58:345–360.Google Scholar
  11. Claesson, S., Juhlin, L., and Wettermark, G., 1958, The reciprocity law of UV-irradiation effects, Acta. Derm. Venereol. (Stockh.) 38:123–136.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Clark, C., Vinegar, R., and Hardy, J., 1953, Goniometer spectrometer for the measurement of diffuse reflectance and transmittance of skin in the infrared spectral region, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43:993–998.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Coblentz, W. W., and Stair, R., 1934, Data on the spectral erythemic reaction of the untanned human skin to ultraviolet radiation, Bur. Stand. J. Res. 12:13–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Coblentz, W. W., Stair, R., and Hogue, J. M., 1931, The spectral erythemic reaction of the human skin to ultraviolet radiation, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 17(6):401–405, July 1931.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Cripps, D. J., Ramsay, C. A., and Ruch, D. M., 1971, Xeroderma Pigmentosum, J. Invest. Derm. 56(4):281–286.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Daniels, F., Jr., Post, P. W., and Johnson, B. E., 1972, Theories of the role of pigment in the evolution of human races, in “Pigmentation: Its Genesis and Biologic Control,” (V. Riley, ed.), pp. 2–22, Appleton Century Crafts, New York.Google Scholar
  17. Davies, J. M., 1959, The Effect of Intense Thermal Radiation on Animal Skin. A Comparison of Calculated and Observed Burns. Report T-24, Army Quartermaster Research and Engineering Command, AD 456794, Natick, MA, (29 April 1959).Google Scholar
  18. Davis, T. P., 1963, The heating of skin by radiant energy, in “Temperature, its measurement, and control in Science and Industry,” (C. M. Herzfeld and J. D. Hardy, eds.) Vol. 3, pp. 149–169, Reinhold Publishing Corporation, New York.Google Scholar
  19. Edwards, E., Finkelstein, N., Duntley, S. Q., 1951, Spectrophotometry of living human skin, the ultraviolet range, J. Invest Dermatol. 16:311.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Epstein, J. H., and Winkelmann, R. K., 1967, Ultraviolet light-induced kinin formation in human skin Arch. Dermatol. 95:532–536.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Evans, E., Brooks, J., Schmidt, F., Williams, R., and Ham, W. T., Jr., 1955, Flash burn studies on human volunteers, Surgery 37:280.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Everett, M. A., Doran, C. K., Everett, H. D., and Anglin, J. H., Jr., 1963, Modification of sunburn by infrared rays, J. Am. Med. Assn. 186(8):778–779.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Everett, M. A., Olson, R. L., and Sayre, R. M., 1965, Ultraviolet erythema, Arch. Dermatol. 92: 713–719.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Everett, M. A., Waltermire, J. A., Olson, R., and Sayre, R., 1965, Modification of ultraviolet erythema by epidermal stripping, Nature 205:812–813.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Everett, M. A., Yeargers, E., Sayre, R. M., Olson, R. L., 1966, Penetration of epidermis by ultraviolet rays, Photochem. Photobiol. 5:533–542.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Findlay, G. H., 1967, An automatic fractionator for light dosage on the skin, its application to the polychromatic minimal erythema dose, Brit. J. Derm. 79(3): 148–152.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Fisher, E. and Solomon, S., 1959, “Ultraviolet Radiation,” E. Licht, New Haven, Conn.Google Scholar
  28. Fitzpatrick, T. B., Pathak, M. A., Harber, L. C., Seiji, M. and Kukita, A., 1974, “Sunlight and Man, Normal and Abnormal Photobiologic Responses,” University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo.Google Scholar
  29. Freeman, R. G., Owens, D. W., Knox, J. M., and Hudson, H. T., 1966, Relative energy requirements for an erythemal response of skin to monchromatic wavelengths of ultraviolet present in the solar spectrum,/. Invest. Derm. 64:586–592.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Freeman, R. G., Owens, D. W., Knox, J. M., and Hudson, H. T., 1966, Relative energy requirements for an erythemal response of skin to monchromatic wavelengths of ultraviolet resent in the solar spectrum, J. Invest. Dermat. 47(6):586–592.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Goldman, L., Rockwell, R. J., and Richfield, D., 1971, Long-term laser exposure of a senile freckle, Arch. Environ. Health 22:401–403.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Green, A. E. S., Findley, G. B., Klenk, K. F., Wilson, W. M., and Mo, T., 1976, The ultraviolet dose dependence on non-melanoma skin cancer incidence, Photochem. Photobiol. 24:353–362.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Hardy, J. D., 1968, Pain following step increase in skin temperature, in “The Skin Senses,” (D. R. Kenshalo, ed.), pp. 444–456, Charles C. Thomas, Springfiled, IL.Google Scholar
  34. Hardy, J. D., Hammell, H. T., Murgatroyd, D., 1957, Spectral transmittance and reflectance of excised human skin, J. Appl. Physiol. 9:257–264.Google Scholar
  35. Hasselbalch, K. A., 1911, Quantitative Untersuchengen über die Absorption der menschlichen Haut von ultravioletten Strahlen, Skandinav. Archs. Physiol. 25:55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hausser, L, 1939, Uber Einzel-und Kombinationswirkungen des kurzwelligen und langwelligen Ultravioletts bei Bestrahlung der menschlichen Haut, Naturwissenschaften 33:563–566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hausser, K. W., 1929, Einfluss der Wellenlänge in der Strahlenbiologie, Strahlenther. 28:25–44.Google Scholar
  38. Hausser, K. W., and Vahle, W., 1922, Uber die Abhängigkeit des Lichterythems und der Pigmentbildung von der Schwingungszahl (Wellenlänge) der erregenden Strahlung, Strahlenther. 13: 41–71.Google Scholar
  39. Hausser, K. W., and Gauer, O., 1933, Die absolute Empfindichkeit der Lichterythembildung, Strahlenther. 48:230.Google Scholar
  40. Hausser, K. W., and Vahle, W., 1969, Sonnenbrand und Sonnenbraünung, Wiss. Veröff Siemens 6:101–120, (Transi, in Urbach, 1969).Google Scholar
  41. Henriques, F. C., Jr., 1947, Studies of thermal injuries, V. The predictability and the significance of thermally induced rate processes leading to irreversible epidermal injury, Am. J. Path. 23:489–502.Google Scholar
  42. Henriques, F. C., Jr. and Moritz, A. R., 1947, Studies of thermal injury, I. The conduction of heat to and through skin and the temperatures attained therein. A theoretical and an experimental investigation, Am. J. Path. 23:531–549.Google Scholar
  43. Jacquez, J. A., Huss, J., McKeenan, W., Dimitroff, J. M., and Kuppenheim, H. F., 1956, Spectral reflectance of human skin in the region 0.7–2.6 μm. Appl. Physiol. 8:297–299.Google Scholar
  44. Jacquez, J. A., Kuppenheim, H. F., Dimitroff, J. M., McKeenan, W., and Huss, J., 1955, Spectral reflectance of human skin in the region 235–700 Am. J. Appl. Physiol. 8:212–214.Google Scholar
  45. Jacquez, J. A., and Kuppenheim, H. F., 1956, Spectral reflectance of human skin in the region 235–1000 γm, J. Appl. Physiol. 8:212.Google Scholar
  46. Johnson, B. E., and Daniels, F., Jr., 1969, Lysosomes and the reactions of skin to ultraviolet radiation, J. Invest Dermatol. 53:85–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Johnson, B. E., Mandel, G., and Daniels, F., Jr., 1972, Melanin and cellular reactions to ultraviolet radiation, Nature & New Biol. 235:147–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kligman, A., 1969, Comments on the stratum corneum, in “The Biological Effects of Ultraviolet Radiation,” (F. Urbach, ed.), pp. 165–167, Pergamon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  49. Logan, G., and Wilhelm, D. L., 1966, The inflammatory reaction in ultraviolet injury, Br. J. Exp. Pathol. 47:286–299.Google Scholar
  50. Loomis, W. F., 1970, Rickets, Sci. Am. 223:77–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Lucas, N. S., 1930, The permeability of human epidermis to ultraviolet radiation, Biochem. J. 25:57–70.Google Scholar
  52. Luckiesh, M., Holladay, L. L., and Taylor, A. H., 1930, Reactions of untanned skin to ultraviolet radiation, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 20(8):423–432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Luckiesh, M., 1946, “Application of Germicidal, Erythemal and Infrared Energy,” Van Nostrand, New York.Google Scholar
  54. Magnus, I. A., 1976, “Dermatological Photobiology,” Blackwell Scientific, Oxford.Google Scholar
  55. Magnus, I. A., 1964, Studies with a monchromator in the common idiopathic photodermatoses, Brit. J. Dermat. 76:245–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Magnus, I. A., 1969, Biologic action spectra, introduction and general review, in “The Biologic Effects of Ultraviolet Radiation,” (F. Urbach, ed.) pp. 175–179, Pergamon Press, New York.Google Scholar
  57. Moritz, A. R., and Henriques, F. C., Jr., 1947, Studies of thermal injury, II. The relative importance of time and surface temperature in the causation of cutaneous burns, Am. J. Path. 23:695–710.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Ogura, R. M. and Knox, J. M., 1974, Biochemical changes in ultraviolet light-irradiated epidermis, in “Sunlight and Man,” (M. A. Pathak, L. C. Harber, M. Seiji, A. Kukita, eds.; T. B. Fitzpatrick, consulting ed.) pp. 147–156, University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo.Google Scholar
  59. Olson, R. L., Sayre, R. M., and Everett, M. A., 1966, Effect of anatomic location and time on ultraviolet erythema, Arch. Dermatol. 93:211–215.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Olson, R. L., Sayre, R. M., and Everett, M. A., 1965, Effect of field size on ultraviolet minimal erythema dose, J. Invest. Dermat. 45(6):516–519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Owens, D. W., Knox, J. M., Hudson, H. T., and Troll, D., 1975, Influence of humidity on ultraviolet injury, J. Invest Dermat 64:250–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Parr, W. H., 1969, Skin Lesion Threshold Values for Laser Radiation as Compared with Safety Standards. Report 813, US Army Medical Research Laboratory, Fort Knox, KY (AD688871) (24 February 1969).Google Scholar
  63. Parrish, J. A., Anderson, R. R., Urbach, F., and Pitts, D., 1978, “UV-A, Biological Effects of Ultraviolet Radiation with Emphasis on Human Responses to Longwave Ultraviolet,” Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  64. Parrish, J. A., Anderson, R. R., Ying, C. Y. and Pathak, M. A., 1976, Cutaneous effects of pulsed nitrogen gas laser irradiation, J. Invest. Dermatol. 67:603–608.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Parrish, J. A., Ying, C. Y., Pathak, M. A., and Fitzpatrick, T. B., 1974, Erythemogenic properties of long-wave ultraviolet light, in “Sunlight and Man,” (M. A. Pathak, L. C. Harber, M. Seiji, A. Kukita, eds.; T. B. Fitzpatrick, consulting ed.) pp. 131–141, University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo.Google Scholar
  66. Pathak, M. A., Hori, Y., Szabo, G., and Fitzpatrick, T. B., 1971, The photobiology of melanin pigmentation in human skin, in “Biology of Normal and Abnormal Melanocytes,” (T. Kawamura, T. B. Fitzpatrick, M. Seiji, eds.) pp. 149–167, University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo.Google Scholar
  67. Pathak, M. A., and Stratton, K., 1968, Free radicals in human skin before and after exposure to light, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 123:468–476.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Rockwell, R. J., Jr., and Goldman, L., 1974, Research on Human Skin Laser Damage Threshold. Final Report, Conract F41609–72-C-0007, USAF School of Aerospace Medicine, Brooks Air Force Base, TX, prepared by Department of Dermatology and Laser Lab Med. Center, University of Cincinnati (June 1974).Google Scholar
  69. Rottier, P. B., and van der Leun, J. C., 1960, Hyperaemic of the deeper cutaneous vessels after irradiation of human skin with large doses of ultraviolet light and visible light, Brit. J. Derm. 72:256.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Rusch, H. P., Kline, B. E., and Baumann, C. A., 1941, Carcinogenesis by ultraviolet rays with reference to wavelength and energy, AMA Arch. Path. 31:135–146.Google Scholar
  71. Sans, W. M., Jr., 1974, Inflammatory mediators in ultraviolet erythema, in “Sunlight and Man,” (M. A. Pathak, L. C. Harber, M. Seiji, A. Kukita, eds.; T. B. Fitzpatrick, consulting ed.) pp. 143–146, University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo.Google Scholar
  72. Sayre, R. M., Olson, R. L., and Everett, M. A., 1966, Quantitative studies on erythema, J. Invest. Derm. 46(3): 240–244.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Schmidt, K., 1963, Vergleich intermittierender und kontinuierlicher UV-Bestrahlung bei der Hauterythembildung, Strahlenther. 121:383–391.Google Scholar
  74. Schmidt, K., 1964, Zur Hauterythemwirkung von UV-Blitzen, Strahlenther. 124:127–136.Google Scholar
  75. Schmidt, R. H., Williams, R. C., Harn, W. R., Brooks, J. W., and Evans, E. I., 1954, Experimental production of flash burns, Surg. 36:1163.Google Scholar
  76. Seidly, E., 1963, Uber Erythem— und Pigmentwirksamkeit berschiedener UV-Strahler, Strahlenther. 121:450–463.Google Scholar
  77. Snyder, D. S., 1975, Cutaneous effects of topical indomethacin, an inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis, on UV-damaged skin, J. Invest Dermatol. 64:322–325.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Stern, W. K., 1972, Anatomic localization of the response to ultraviolet radiation in human skin, Dermatologica 145:361–370.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Thomson, M. L., 1955, The relative efficiency of pigment and horny layer thickness in protecting the skin of Europeans and Africans against solar ultraviolet radiation, J. Physiol. 127:236–246.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Treagar, R. T., 1966, “Physical Functions of the Skin,” Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  81. Urbach, F. (ed.), 1969, “The Biologic Effects of Ultraviolet Radiation,” Pergamon Press, New York.Google Scholar
  82. Valtonen, E. J., 1965, Studies of the mechanism of ultraviolet erythema formation, the role of histamine and histadine, Acta Derm. Venereol. 45:199–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. van der Luen, J. C., 1966, “Ultraviolet erythema: a study on diffusion processes in human skin,” Thesis, Utrecht.Google Scholar
  84. van der Leun, J. C., 1965, Observations on ultraviolet erythema, Photochem. Photobiol. 4:447–451.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. van der Leun, J. C., 1965, Theory of ultraviolet erythema, Photochem. Photobiol. 4:453–458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Willis, I. and Cylus, L., 1977, UV-A erythema in skin: is it a sunburn? J. Invest. Derm. 68:128–129.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Willis, I., Kligman, A., and Epstein, J., 1972, Effects of long ultraviolet rays on human skin: photoprotective or photoaugmentative? J. Invest. Derm. 59:416–420.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Ying, C. Y., Parrish, J. A., and Pathak, M. A., 1974, Additive erythemogenic effects of middle—(280–320 nm) and (320–400 nm) long-wave ultraviolet light, J. Invest. Derm. 63:273–278.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • David Sliney
    • 1
  • Myron Wolbarsht
    • 2
  1. 1.U.S. Army Environmental Hygiene AgencyAberdeen Proving GroundUSA
  2. 2.Duke University Medical CenterDurhamUSA

Personalised recommendations